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Research Methods
 

Research Methods

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Research Methods

Research Methods

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    Research Methods Research Methods Presentation Transcript

    • RESEARCH METHODS http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
    • KINDS OF RESEARCH
      • A. Basic Research
          • subjects are either healthy humans or experimental animals
          • aims to develop understanding of normal events in the human body
    • KINDS OF RESEARCH
      • B. Epidemiological Research
        • uses populations or groups of healthy and or diseased subjects
        • primarily used for the identification of risk factors and causes of disease
        • basis for development of preventive measures
    • KINDS OF RESEARCH
      • C. Clinical Research
        • done on patients
        • understanding of disease process
        • identification of determinants of outcome of disease
        • for development of technology for diagnosis and treatment
    • BASIC STEPS OF RESEARCH
      • A. Technical
      • 1. Identification and definition of the
      • problem
          • analysis of needs
          • review of literature
          • determination of significance of the problem
          • formulation of hypothesis and categorization of variables
    • BASIC STEPS OF RESEARCH
      • A. Technical
      • 2. Planning the Research
          • statement of objectives
          • selection of study population and subjects
          • choosing research design
          • method of data collection
          • plan of data processing and analysis
    • BASIC STEPS OF RESEARCH
      • A. Technical
      • 3. Implementation of Plan
          • data collection
          • data processing
          • data analysis
      • 4. Interpretation and conclusion
      • 5. Reporting of the study results
    • BASIC STEPS OF RESEARCH
      • B. Administrative
      • 1. General preparations
          • secure resources for implementation
          • hiring and training of personnel
          • scheduling of activities
          • preparation of study area
          • sampling of study group
    • BASIC STEPS OF RESEARCH
      • B. Administrative
      • 2. Feasibility study
          • pre-testing of questionnaires
      • 3. Termination of study
    • PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
      • A. Research problem - question to be answered or resolved
      • B. Sources of Research Problems
        • intellectual curiosity
        • serendipity
        • analysis of needs and practice
        • organized and systematic determination of research needs
    • PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
      • C. Criteria for a Good Research Problem
        • 1. researchability
          • can be resolved through research
          • does not require value judgment
        • 2. significance
          • problem:
            • affects a large population
            • has serious morbidity consequences
            • is related to on-going projects
    • PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
      • C. Criteria for a Good Research Problem
      • 2. significance
          • answer:
            • fills a gap in knowledge
            • has practical application
            • will improve the practice of profession
    • PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
      • C. Criteria for a Good Research Problem
      • 3. feasibility
          • Adequate number of subjects can be gathered.
          • Procedures are technically possible.
          • Information needed can be collected.
          • Resources are available.
          • Study can be completed within a reasonable period.
    • PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
      • C. Criteria for a Good Research Problem
      • 4. critical mass
          • broad in scope
      • 5. interest
          • within national or institutional mission
    • PROBLEM CLARIFICATION
      • dissection of broad problems into its facets or sub-problems
      • aided by literature review
      • Each sub-problem should be researchable.
      • Answers to sub-problems should adequately answer the main problem.
    • FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
      • A. Hypothesis
        • tentative answer to the research problem
      • B. Uses of a hypothesis
        • provides basis for testing statistical significance of findings
        • for sample size determination
    • FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
      • C. Types of Hypotheses
        • Null
        • Alternative
          • One-tailed
          • Two-tailed
    • FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
      • D. Uses of Null Hypothesis
        • to test safety of drugs and other interventions
        • for “proving” that a health belief is a myth or is erroneous
      • E. Uses of Alternative Hypothesis
        • for testing risk and prognostic factors
        • for testing intervention
    • FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
      • F. Methods of Formulating Hypothesis
      • 1. method of difference
          • If two different populations give rise to marked differences in frequency of disease and a particular factor can be identified in one population but not in the other, then the presence of this factor may be a cause of the disease.
          • ex.: socio-economic factor and disease frequency
    • FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
      • F. Methods of Formulating Hypothesis
      • 2. method of agreement
          • If a factor is similarly distributed among different events or circumstances associated with the disease, then the factor may be a cause of the disease.
          • ex.: blood and other body fluids are common to the different modes of transmission associated with HIV
    • FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
      • F. Methods of Formulating Hypothesis
      • 3. method of concomitant variation
          • If the frequency or strength of a factor correspondingly varies with the frequency of disease, the factor may be causally related to the disease.
          • ex.: amount of alcohol consumption and frequency of primary liver cancer
    • FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
      • F. Methods of Formulating Hypothesis
      • 4. method of analogy
        • How a disease is distributed in the population may have a similar pattern to that of some other disease, whose causation has already been more or less established. This suggests that certain causes may be common to both diseases.
        • ex.: malaria and Burkitt’s lymphoma insect vector
    • SETTING OF OBJECTIVES
      • Research Objectives
        • what the researcher expects to achieve; solution to the research problem
      • B. Importance of Setting Objectives :
        • give an indication of the variables to be studied
        • guide in choice of research design
        • indicate the data to be collected
        • aid in planning analysis of results
        • bases for interpretation of results
    • SETTING OF OBJECTIVES
      • C. Types of Objectives
      • 1. General
        • overall purpose of the research
        • derived from the statement of the main problem and the hypothesis
      • 2. Specific
        • statements of the specific outcome expected
        • based on statements of the sub-problems
        • requirements – SMART: S pecific, M easurable, A ttainable, R ealistic, T ime-bound
    • SETTING OF OBJECTIVES
      • D. Variables
        • Classification of Variables in an Association
          • independent variable – variable which is assumed to be the factor or the cause
          • dependent variable – variable that is assumed to be the effect or outcome
          • confounding variable – variable other than the exposure variable under investigation that is a risk factor of the disease and is associated with but not a consequence of the exposure and is likewise associated with the dependent variable
    • CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE RESEARCH DESIGN
      • Summary of Requirements of Each Type of Research Design
      • Requirements Study Design
      • Descriptive Cross- Case- Cohort Sectional Control
      • Adequate Sample Size √ √ √ √
      • Sample representative
      • of target population √ √ - -
      • Controls - - √ √
      • Similarity of
      • comparison groups - - √ √
    • CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE RESEARCH DESIGN
      • B. Sources of Error in Observational Study Designs
      •   Cross-sectional Case- control Cohort
      • Probability of :
      • selection bias medium high low
      • recall bias high high low
      • loss to ff-up NA low high
      • confounding medium medium low
      • Data Collection (Note: see section on measurement of Health and Disease)
      • Data Processing
      • A. Data processing
          • process of converting data into a form that will facilitate
      • statistical analysis
    • DATA PROCESSING
      • B. Steps
      • 1. editing – checking for completeness, consistency and accuracy of data
      • 2. coding - conversion of data into numbers or symbols which can be more easily
      • tabulated and counted
      • 3. creation of data file - storing data for future processing
      • 4. summarization – creation of master tables, frequency tables, etc.
      • Data Analysis (Note: see section on Statistical Inference and Hypothesis Testing and relevant sections in Epidemiology)
    • RESEARCH PROPOSAL WRITING
      • A. Research Proposal/Protocol
        • written plan of the research process
        • guides investigator in executing project
        • basis for evaluation of merit and feasibility of the project
    • RESEARCH PROPOSAL WRITING
      • B. Stages in Preparation
      • 1. Step 1
          • Technical procedure
            • Problem ID, Hypothesis formulation, Objectives, Research design, Data collection planning, Development of data processing, Choosing statistical analysis method
    • RESEARCH PROPOSAL WRITING
      • B. Stages in Preparation
      • 2. Step 2
          • Administrative procedures
            • Scheduling of various phases, Determining personnel requirement, List needed facilities, Budget preparation
      • 3. Step 3
          • Writing of proposal
    • RESEARCH PROPOSAL WRITING
      • C. Parts of Research Protocol
        • Title
        • Significance
        • Background
        • Research Question
        • Objectives
        • Statement of Hypothesis
        • Methods
        • Time table
        • Personnel and Facilities
        • Budget
        • References
        • Proponents’ Biodata
        • Appendix