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Cervical Cancer
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Cervical Cancer

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Cancer of the cervix occurs when the cells of the cervix change in a way that leads to abnormal growth and invasion of other tissues or organs of the body.

Cancer of the cervix occurs when the cells of the cervix change in a way that leads to abnormal growth and invasion of other tissues or organs of the body.

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  • There are two types of cells on the cervix's surface: squamous and columnar.
  • There are many different types of HPV. Some strains lead to cervical cancer.
  • Special tests and tools are needed to spot such conditions.
  • If the woman is diagnosed with cervical cancer, the health care provider will order more tests to determine how far the cancer has spread. This is called staging.
  • Generally treated with surgery or radiotherapy 1B2 chemotx and radiotx
  • Chemo and radio
  • There are various surgical ways to do this without removing the uterus or damaging the cervix, so that a woman can still have children in the future
  • It may be done in women who have repeated LEEP procedures
  • Rad hyst - which removes the uterus and much of the surrounding tissues, including internal lymph nodes and upper part of the vagina. Pelvic exenteration, an extreme type of surgery in which all of the organs of the pelvis, including the bladder and rectum, are removed Radiation may be used to treat cancer that has spread beyond the pelvis, or cancer that has returned. Radiation therapy is either external or internal.
  • Women who have treatment to save the uterus have a high risk of the cancer coming back (recurrence). 
  • In June 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the vaccine called Gardasil, which prevents infection against the two types of HPV responsible for the majority of cervical cancer cases.
  • Transcript

    • 1. http://crisbertcualteros.page.tl
    • 2. Causes:
      • 3rd most common type of cancer in women.
      • start in the cells on the surface of the cervix.
      • majority of cervical cancers are from squamous cells
      • starts as a precancerous condition called dysplasia.
    • 3.
      • Undetected, precancerous changes can develop into cervical cancer and spread to the bladder, intestines, lungs, and liver.
      • It can take years for precancerous changes to turn into cervical cancer.
      • do not usually have problems until the cancer is advanced and has spread.
    • 4.
      • Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV
      • HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual intercourse.
      • Other strains may cause genital warts while others do not cause any problems at all.
    • 5.
        • Having sex at an early age
        • Multiple sexual partners
        • Sexual partners who have multiple partners or who participate in high-risk sexual activities
        • Women whose mothers took the drug DES during pregnancy in the early 1960s to prevent miscarriage
        • Weakened immune system
        • Poor economic status
      Other risk factors for cervical cancer include :
    • 6. Symptoms
      • Most of the time, early cervical cancer has no symptoms. Symptoms that may occur can include:
      • Continuous vaginal discharge, which may be pale, watery, pink, brown, bloody, or foul-smelling
      • Abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods, after intercourse, or after menopause
      • Periods become heavier and last longer than usual
      • Any bleeding after menopause
    • 7.
        • Loss of appetite
        • Weight loss
        • Fatigue
        • Pelvic pain
      Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may include :
    • 8.
        • Back pain
        • Leg pain
        • Single swollen leg
        • Heavy bleeding from the vagina
        • Leaking of urine or feces from the vagina
        • Bone fractures
    • 9. Signs and Tests
      • Precancerous changes of the cervix and cervical cancer can not be seen with the naked eye.
      • Pap smears screen for precancers and cancer, but do not offer the final diagnosis.
      • If abnormal changes are found, the cervix is usually examined under magnification.
    • 10.
      • This is called colposcopy. Pieces of tissue are biopsied during this procedure for examination.
      • Other tests may include:
      • Endocervical curettage (ECC) to examine the opening of the cervix
      • Cone biopsy
    • 11.
        • CT scan
        • Cystoscopy
        • MRI
        • Chest x-ray
        • Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
      Other Tests:
    • 12.  
    • 13.  
    • 14.  
    • 15.  
    • 16.  
    • 17.  
    • 18. Treatment
      • Depends on the stage of the cancer, the size and shape of the tumor, the age and general health of the woman, and her desire to have children in the future.
        • Early cervical cancer can be cured by removing or destroying the precancerous or cancerous tissue.
    • 19. Types of Surgery for early cervical cancer:
        • LEEP (loop electrosurgical excision procedure) –
        • uses electricity to remove abnormal tissue
        • Cryotherapy – freezes abnormal cells
        • Laser therapy – uses light to burn abnormal
        • A hysterectomy (removal of the uterus but not the ovaries) is not often performed for cervical cancer that has not spread..
    • 20. Treatment for more advanced cervical cancer :
        • Radical hysterectomy
        • Pelvic exenteration
        • Radiation
        • Internal radiation therapy uses a device filled with radioactive material, which is placed inside the woman's vagina next to the cervical cancer. The device is removed when she goes home.
        • External radiation therapy beams radiation from a large machine onto the body where the cancer is located. It is similar to an x-ray.
    • 21. .
        • Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer. Some of the drugs used for chemotherapy for cervical cancer include 5-FU, cisplatin, carboplatin, ifosfamide, paclitaxel and cyclophosphamide.
        • Sometimes radiation and chemotherapy are used before or after surgery.
    • 22.
          • The type of cancer
          • The stage of the disease
          • The age and general physical condition of the woman
          • Pre-cancer conditions are completely curable when followed up and treated properly. 
          • The 5-year survival rate falls steadily as the cancer spreads into other areas.
      Factors that influence the outcome :
    • 23.
        • do not respond well to treatment.
        • recur after treatment.
        • Surgery and radiation can cause problems with sexual, bowel, and bladder function.
      Complications
    • 24.
          • Sexually active woman who has not had a Pap smear in the past year
          • At least 20 years old and have never had a pelvic examination and Pap smear
          • Mother who have taken DES when she was pregnant
          • Have not had regular Pap smears
      Consult:
    • 25.
        • Availability of vaccine
          • Gardasil- prevents infection against the two types of HPV responsible for the majority of cervical cancer cases.
          • Studies have shown that the vaccine appears to prevent early-stage cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.
      Prevention
    • 26.
        • Practicing safe sex (using condoms) also reduces your risk of HPV and other sexually transmitted diseases.
        • HPV infection causes genital warts. These may be barely visible or several inches wide.
        • If a woman sees warts on her partner's genitals, she should avoid intercourse with that person.
    • 27.
      • limit their number of sexual partners and avoid partners who participate in high-risk sexual activities.
      • Regular Pap smears can help detect precancerous changes
      • Pap smears must be done regularly.
    • 28.
      • Pap smear should start when a woman becomes sexually active, or by the age of 20 in a nonsexually active woman
      • If abnormal changes are seen, a colposcopy with biopsy should be performed.
    • 29. PAP TEST
      • examining a cellular sample scraped from the uterine cervix and properly prepared and stained, the presence of cancer and its precursors could be identified.
      • Incidence of cervical cancer has been reduced by approximately 70%
    • 30.  
    • 31.
      • ACOG has recommended Pap testing for all women within 3 years of the onset of sexual activity or at age 21
        • Invasive cervical cancer is virtually never found in women younger than the age of 21 as the disease takes many years to develop after an initial HPV infection .
    • 32.
      • Nonsexually active women should be tested at age 21 as there is some evidence that HPV infections might occur from fomite transmission
      • childhood sexual abuse might also transmit HPV.
    • 33.
      • Frequency of Pap testing:
        • annual testing until age 30
        • After age 30, if there has been no evidence of HSIL and the most recent previous tests have been negative, the interval can be extended to every 2 or 3 years
          • Pap test + HPV DNA
    • 34.
      • If both of these tests are negative, the risk of HSIL during the next 3 years is extremely small.
      • If one test is positive and one negative, the clinician can either perform colposcopy or repeat both tests in 6-12 months.
    • 35.
      • current recommendation is that women cease to have Pap testing after a total hysterectomy
        • The only exceptions are women who have:
          • history of an HSIL,
          • immunocompromised, or
          • were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol.
    • 36.
      • Testing may also be discontinued in women who have:
        • no history of HSIL
        • no new sexual partner
        • have reached an advanced age (65 to 70)

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