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  • 1. Generally used research methods <br />
  • 2. 1. Quantitative Methods<br />Quantitative methods as they are commonly conceived derive from experimental and statistical methods in natural science. <br />The main focus is on measuring 'how much is happening to how many people'.<br />The main tools are large scale surveys analyzed using statistical techniques. <br />
  • 3. Questionnaires are then conducted for a random sample or stratified random sample of individuals, often including a control group.<br />Causality is assessed through comparison of the incidence of the variables under consideration between main sample and control group and/or the degree to which they co-occur.<br />in large-scale research projects teams are composed of a number of skilled research designers and analysts assisted by teams of local enumerators.<br />
  • 4. Examples of Quantitative Researches<br />Descriptive Survey Research <br />Experimental Research<br />Single - Subject Research<br />Causal - Comparative Research <br />Correlational Research <br />Meta-analysis <br />
  • 5. 2.Qualitative Methods<br />Qualitative research uses data which is descriptive in nature. Tools that educational researchers use in collecting qualitative data include: observations, conducting interviews, conducting document analysis, and analyzing participant products such as journals, diaries, images or blogs.<br />
  • 6. Different sampling methods are combined: different purposive sampling techniques, identification of key informants and also 'random encounters.<br /><ul><li>questions are broad and open-ended and change and develop over time to fill in a 'jigsaw' of differing accounts of 'reality', unraveling which may be said to be generally 'true' and which are specific and subjective and why.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li> Causality and attribution are directly investigated through questioning as well as qualitative analysis of data. Computer programmes are used to deal systematically with large amounts of data.
  • 7. Typically requires long-term immersion of a skilled researcher in the field who engages in a reflexive process of data collection and analysis.</li></li></ul><li>Examples of Qualitative research<br />Case study<br />Ethnography<br />Phenomenological Research <br />Narrative Research <br />Historical Research<br />
  • 8. 3. Participatory Methods<br />Participatory methods have their origins in development activism: NGOs and social movements. <br />The participatory process may involve small focus groups, larger participatory workshops or individual diaries and diagrams which are then collated into a plenary discussion.<br />
  • 9. <ul><li>Participatory research typically uses and adapts diagram tools from farmer-led research, systems analysis and also oral and visual tools from anthropology, though many commonly used tools have also been developed by NGOs and participants in the field. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Examples of participatory methods
  • 10. Action Research
  • 11. Program Evaluation</li></li></ul><li>The phases of a research<br />
  • 12. Idea-generating phase<br />Problem-definition phase<br />Procedures-design phase<br />Observation phase<br />Data-analysis phase<br />Interpretation phase<br />Communication phase<br />
  • 13. Idea-generating phase<br />In this phase the researcher(s) starts by brainstorming of topics that maybe presented based upon the goals of the researcher.<br />
  • 14. Problem-definition phase<br />This phase is where a certain problem will be presented. The problem will determine the hypotheses of the research.<br />
  • 15. Procedures-design phase<br />This phase would tell what kind of methodologies are to be used in the research to be conducted.<br />
  • 16. Observation phase<br /><ul><li>Data-analysis phase</li></ul>This is the actual conduction or the so called data gathering phase of the study.<br />As how its name implies , it is where the given data are analyzed or further studied by the researcher(s).<br />Data-analysis phase<br />
  • 17. Interpretation phase<br />Also known as conclusion phase. It is when the results of the research are formulated and when conclusions are given.<br />
  • 18. Communication phase<br />The phase wherein the results and conclusions on the research are presented into a panel or to a certain agent that will provide the researcher his primary goal in the research.<br />
  • 19. Prepared by:<br />Christian L. Chua<br />

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