Author’s Purpose- his or her reason for creating a work. The purpose may be to explain or inform, entertain, persuade, or reveal an important truth.
Characters-a person, an animal, or an imaginary creature that takes the part in the action of the story.Characterization - the techniques an author uses to develop the personality of a character in a literary work. An author can give information about a character by describing several aspects of the character:
Characters, continued physical appearance and personality speech, behavior , and actions thoughts and feelings interactions with other characters
Characters, continuedCharacter Types- Protagonist- the main character of the story that is most central to the action of the story. Antagonist- the person or thing working against the protagonist, or hero, in the story.
Static Characters- characters that stay the same throughout the story.
Dynamic Characters-characters that change andlearn something during thestory.
Flat – very few personality traits, do not change throughout the story, sometimes can be symbols or stereotypes
Round –convincing and true to life, many different personality traits, usually undergo a change during the story.
Setting-the time and place in which the action occurs. Look for clues in the opening paragraphs of the story or novel.
Point of View-the perspective or vantage point from which an author presents a story. 1st person- the story is told by one of the characters in the story. The character uses the pronouns I and we. 3rd person- the story is told by the narrator who stands outside of the story and observes the events as they unfold. The narrator uses the pronouns she, he, and they.
Plot-the action or sequence of events in a story. It is based on a key conflict.There are five basic parts of plot-
Plot, continued Exposition- the first part of the story. The author establishes the setting, introduces characters, gives additional background information. Rising Action/Complications- the series of conflicts or struggles that build a story toward its climax. Tension rises.
Climax- the high point, or turning point, of a story. It is the most intense point. A decision is made that will decide the outcome of the conflict.Falling Action- the action that works out the decision arrived at during the climax. The conflict is – or begins to be –settled.
Resolution- the ending. Itties up loose ends and bringsthe story to a close.
Theme-the statement about life that the author wants to share with the reader. Often times, the reader will have to make inferences or reasonable guesses as to the theme of the story.Helpful hint- Ask yourself what lesson the main character learned in the story?
Symbolism -An image/object in a story that is used repeatedly and carries a deeper meaning. Universal Symbols: water = purity black clouds = evil approaching
CONFLICTWithout conflict, there is no plot!The plot mountain is created around the conflict…Introduced in rising action…Is faced head-on during climax…Begins to work itself out during falling action…Is resolved during resolution.
EXTERNAL CONFLICTAn external conflict is between a character and an outside force. Man vs. Man Man vs. Nature Man vs. Society
INTERNAL CONFLICTAn internal conflict is between a character and his/her self.Man vs. Self
OTHER TYPES OF CONFLICTMan vs. Supernatural Gods, ghosts, monsters, spirits, aliens, etc.Man vs. Fate Fight for choice; fight against destinyMan vs. Technology Computers, machines, etc.