Chinese strategies

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  • 1. The Chinese Strategies:The Chinese Strategies:Some SamplesSome Samples
  • 2. DDECEIVINGECEIVING THETHE HHEAVENSEAVENS TOTOCCROSSROSS THETHE SSEAEA It is a literal translation of the strategy.It is a literal translation of the strategy. It means to create a false impression toIt means to create a false impression todistract the target and so achieve onesdistract the target and so achieve onesgoal without his knowledge.goal without his knowledge. This strategy works on the assumption thatThis strategy works on the assumption thatpeople take extra precautions when facedpeople take extra precautions when facedwith new or difficult situations, but tend towith new or difficult situations, but tend tolet their guards down in more familiarlet their guards down in more familiarsituations.situations.
  • 3. BBESEIGINGESEIGING WWEI TOEI TO SSAVEAVE ZZHAOHAO Instead of attacking a cohort of strongInstead of attacking a cohort of strongenemies, one should try to diffuse theenemies, one should try to diffuse theconcentration and to attack each enemyconcentration and to attack each enemyseparately.separately. Instead of head – on attack, one shouldInstead of head – on attack, one shouldwait for the best opportunity when thewait for the best opportunity when theenemy is at his weakest point to launch anenemy is at his weakest point to launch anambush.ambush.
  • 4. KKILLINGILLING WITHWITH AA BBORROWEDORROWED KKNIFENIFE This strategy works on the premise thatThis strategy works on the premise thatwhile the enemy has clarified its stand, thewhile the enemy has clarified its stand, theposition of the alliance is still equivocal.position of the alliance is still equivocal. In this situation, the best way is to enticeIn this situation, the best way is to enticethe alliance to destroy the enemy on one’sthe alliance to destroy the enemy on one’sbehalf.behalf. This is an adaptation of logic in Yi Jing’sThis is an adaptation of logic in Yi Jing’s“Harm Theory” – “ Harm the bottom to“Harm Theory” – “ Harm the bottom tobenefit the top”benefit the top”
  • 5. CCONSERVINGONSERVING EENERGYNERGY WWHILEHILE THETHEEENEMYNEMY TTIRESIRES HHIMSELFIMSELF OUTOUT One does not need to always make aOne does not need to always make adirect attack to subdue the enemy.direct attack to subdue the enemy. Sometimes, one can use the theory ofSometimes, one can use the theory of“using the mild (or weak) to control the“using the mild (or weak) to control thestrong”strong” to delay and exhaust the enemyto delay and exhaust the enemyand strengthen one’s position.and strengthen one’s position.
  • 6. LLOOTINGOOTING AA HHOUSEOUSE ONON FFIREIRE When the enemy is in a big crisis, that isWhen the enemy is in a big crisis, that isthe time to destroy him.the time to destroy him. This will enable the strong to conquerThis will enable the strong to conquerthe weak.the weak.
  • 7. MMAKINGAKING AA FFEINTEINT TO THETO THE EEASTASTBUTBUT HHITTINGITTING OOUTUT IN THEIN THE WWESTEST When the enemy is in a state of confusion,When the enemy is in a state of confusion,like grass growing wild, he will not be ablelike grass growing wild, he will not be ableto clearly assess a situation.to clearly assess a situation. Neither will he able to cope with sudden andNeither will he able to cope with sudden andunexpected changes in circumstances, thisunexpected changes in circumstances, thisis the confusion.is the confusion. A good strategist defeats the enemy byA good strategist defeats the enemy bytaking advantage of him when he has losttaking advantage of him when he has lostcontrol.control.
  • 8. CCREATINGREATING SSOMETHINGOMETHING OUTOUT OFOFNNOTHINGOTHING The strategy advocates using a falseThe strategy advocates using a falsefront, not to deceive the enemy totally,front, not to deceive the enemy totally,but to make what is false seems real.but to make what is false seems real. If one can use false fronts to conceal theIf one can use false fronts to conceal thetruth, the enemy will have atruth, the enemy will have amisconception about a situation. That ismisconception about a situation. That isthe time to launch an attack.the time to launch an attack.
  • 9. SSECRETECRET EESCAPE THROUGHSCAPE THROUGH CCHENHENCCANGANG The gist of this strategy is to hit the enemy at the pointThe gist of this strategy is to hit the enemy at the pointwhere he is least prepared, that is, his back.where he is least prepared, that is, his back. In battle, one should pretend to expose one’sIn battle, one should pretend to expose one’smovement, then launch a surprise attack at themovement, then launch a surprise attack at theenemy’s weakest point, when he is ill-prepared toenemy’s weakest point, when he is ill-prepared todefend himself.defend himself. Which advocate that one should be alert in warfare,Which advocate that one should be alert in warfare,and if possible, turn around to make ambush theand if possible, turn around to make ambush theenemy from the back in what appears to be a head-onenemy from the back in what appears to be a head-onbattle.battle. Thus he will able to penetrate all situations like theThus he will able to penetrate all situations like the
  • 10. OOBSERVINGBSERVING THETHE FFIRE FROM THEIRE FROM THEOOTHERTHER SSIDEIDE OF THEOF THE RRIVERIVER When there are disorder and internal strugglesWhen there are disorder and internal strugglesamongst the enemy’s forces, one should wait tillamongst the enemy’s forces, one should wait tillthe enemy’s situation turn bad before attacking.the enemy’s situation turn bad before attacking. Arguments and unhappiness in the enemy’sArguments and unhappiness in the enemy’scamp, weaken the enemy’s strength.camp, weaken the enemy’s strength. This is when one should seize the opportunity andThis is when one should seize the opportunity andreap the benefits with minimal effort.reap the benefits with minimal effort. The whole concept can be summarised by theThe whole concept can be summarised by thephrasephrase “PLEASED”“PLEASED”
  • 11. A DA DAGGERAGGER SSHEATHEDHEATHED IN AIN ASSMILEMILE One should win the trust of one’s enemy so asOne should win the trust of one’s enemy so asto disarm him while preparing to launch anto disarm him while preparing to launch anambush.ambush. The enemy must not be alerted to the changesThe enemy must not be alerted to the changesthat have taken and the ambush must only bethat have taken and the ambush must only bemade when one is well prepared.made when one is well prepared. This fulfils the saying,This fulfils the saying, “WHAT APPEARS TO BE“WHAT APPEARS TO BEWEAK (or soft) ON THE OUTSIDE MAYWEAK (or soft) ON THE OUTSIDE MAYACTUALLY BE STRONG (or hard) ON THEACTUALLY BE STRONG (or hard) ON THEINSIDE.”INSIDE.”
  • 12. TTHEHE PPLUMLUM DDIESIES ININ PPLACELACE OFOFTHETHE PPEACHEACH Where losses are inevitable, one should beWhere losses are inevitable, one should bewilling to make sacrifices to gain victory.willing to make sacrifices to gain victory. In warfare to strategy is applied when theIn warfare to strategy is applied when theenemy has the upper hand.enemy has the upper hand. To turn the tables around and achieve victory,To turn the tables around and achieve victory,one needs to make sacrifices.one needs to make sacrifices. It may be necessary to sacrifice a few battles toIt may be necessary to sacrifice a few battles toachieve the ultimate objective of winning theachieve the ultimate objective of winning thewarwar
  • 13. SSTEALINGTEALING AA GGOATOAT AALONGLONG THETHEWWAYAY No matter how small a hole may be, oneNo matter how small a hole may be, oneshould use it to one’s advantage.should use it to one’s advantage. No matter how small the advantage is, oneNo matter how small the advantage is, oneshould obtain it for his benefit.should obtain it for his benefit. One should take advantage of the enemy’sOne should take advantage of the enemy’ssmall weaknesses for one’s small gain.small weaknesses for one’s small gain. This is similar to the analogy that byThis is similar to the analogy that bygathering crumbs of bread, one can still get agathering crumbs of bread, one can still get afull meal.full meal.
  • 14. HHITTINGITTING THETHE GGRASSRASS TOTO SSTARTLETARTLETHETHE SSNAKENAKE An attempt should be made to clarifyAn attempt should be made to clarifysuspicious circumstances before makingsuspicious circumstances before makingthe next move.the next move. To repeatedly probe and investigate aTo repeatedly probe and investigate asuspicious matter is the best way tosuspicious matter is the best way todiscover the enemy’s plot.discover the enemy’s plot. This is in accordance with meaningThis is in accordance with meaning“REPEAT”“REPEAT”
  • 15. BBORROWINGORROWING AA CCORPSEORPSE TOTORRESURRECTESURRECT AA SSOULOUL A person that is of use may be more difficult to takeA person that is of use may be more difficult to takeadvantage of.advantage of. A less useful (or weaker) person may request ourA less useful (or weaker) person may request ourassistance.assistance. When I am able to use the weak one to myWhen I am able to use the weak one to myadvantage, I am giving him my strength at hisadvantage, I am giving him my strength at hisrequest.request. This phrase says the theory which says that a childThis phrase says the theory which says that a childis week and ignorant and needs the assistance of ais week and ignorant and needs the assistance of ateacher to become strong.teacher to become strong.
  • 16. LURING A TIGER FROM ITSLURING A TIGER FROM ITSLAIR IN THE MOUNTAINLAIR IN THE MOUNTAIN Trap the enemy when the naturalTrap the enemy when the naturalelements are to his disadvantage.elements are to his disadvantage. Then create false impressions to lureThen create false impressions to lurehim out.him out. A direct attack may prove dangerous.A direct attack may prove dangerous. It is far better to lure the enemy out ofIt is far better to lure the enemy out ofhis comfort and destroy him.his comfort and destroy him.
  • 17. RRELEASINGELEASING THETHE EENEMYNEMY TOTORRECAPTUREECAPTURE HHIMIM It is not advisable to drive the enemy into a corner as he mayIt is not advisable to drive the enemy into a corner as he mayretaliate.retaliate. The objective is not to destroy him completely as there mayThe objective is not to destroy him completely as there maybe good reason to keep him alive.be good reason to keep him alive. It is better to let the enemy escape and tire himself out whileIt is better to let the enemy escape and tire himself out whilepursuing closely behind.pursuing closely behind. The enemy will soon be exhausted and will lose his fightingThe enemy will soon be exhausted and will lose his fightingspirit.spirit. The best time to capture him is when he fallen withoutThe best time to capture him is when he fallen withoutbloodshed.bloodshed. In war, sheer physical dominance does not ensure victory.In war, sheer physical dominance does not ensure victory. More important is the need to win the enemy’s heartsMore important is the need to win the enemy’s hearts In this way, one can secure total surrender and loyaltyIn this way, one can secure total surrender and loyalty
  • 18. TTOSSINGOSSING OOUTUT AA BBRICKRICK TOTO GGETETAA JJADEADE Use a decoy to entice theUse a decoy to entice theenemy, get him muddled and heenemy, get him muddled and hewill fall into the trap.will fall into the trap.
  • 19. DDISBANDISBAND THETHE BBANDITSANDITS BYBYCCAPTURINGAPTURING TTHEIRHEIR LLEADEREADER If the enemy’s power-base isIf the enemy’s power-base isdestroyed in an attack and its leader isdestroyed in an attack and its leader iscapture, the whole organisation willcapture, the whole organisation willbreak down.break down. Just like a dragon from the seaJust like a dragon from the seawanting to stage a war on land, it willwanting to stage a war on land, it willface severe difficulties.face severe difficulties.
  • 20. PPULLINGULLING OOUTUT THETHE FFIREWOODIREWOODFROMFROM BBENEATHENEATH THETHE CCAULDRONAULDRON When faced with a strong opponent,When faced with a strong opponent,direct confrontation may not bedirect confrontation may not beadvisable.advisable. It may be better to use tactics to destroyIt may be better to use tactics to destroyhis morale.his morale. This is in accordance with – the weakThis is in accordance with – the weakcan conquer the strong.can conquer the strong.
  • 21. CCATCHINGATCHING AA FFISH INISH IN TTROUBLEDROUBLEDWWATERATER The literal meaning of the strategy is to takeThe literal meaning of the strategy is to takeadvantage of the “troubled” or muddy situationadvantage of the “troubled” or muddy situationin which the fish is unable to see clearly andin which the fish is unable to see clearly andhas restricted movement.has restricted movement. If the water is clear, putting one’s hand inIf the water is clear, putting one’s hand inwould frighten the fish away.would frighten the fish away. Conversely, the muddy situation also providesConversely, the muddy situation also providesopportunities for more than one predator toopportunities for more than one predator toexploit the situation without being detected.exploit the situation without being detected.
  • 22. …… When the enemy is in a state ofWhen the enemy is in a state ofconfusion, one should take advantageconfusion, one should take advantageand gain control when he is week andand gain control when he is week andwithout proper direction.without proper direction. The best way to control the enemy is toThe best way to control the enemy is tolet nature take its course, as all menlet nature take its course, as all menhave to eat and rest.have to eat and rest.
  • 23. MMAKINGAKING ANAN UUNNOTICEDNNOTICED EESCAPESCAPELIKELIKE AA GGOLDENOLDEN CICADACICADASSHEDDINGHEDDING ITSITS SSKINKIN By preserving the original formation ofBy preserving the original formation ofan army and the strength of its force,an army and the strength of its force,one will not arouse the suspicion of theone will not arouse the suspicion of theallies.allies. The enemy will not be roused to actionThe enemy will not be roused to action In actual fact, one is secretly divertingIn actual fact, one is secretly divertinghis main strength to attack the enemyhis main strength to attack the enemyfrom another direction.from another direction.
  • 24. SSHUTTINGHUTTING THETHE DDOORSOORS TOTO CCATCHATCHTHETHE TTHIEFHIEF The best way to destroy a week enemyThe best way to destroy a week enemyis to first have him surrounded.is to first have him surrounded. It is not advisable to pursue a weak butIt is not advisable to pursue a weak butagile enemy.agile enemy. This will only exhaust one’s strength,This will only exhaust one’s strength,and make one vulnerable to theand make one vulnerable to theenemy’s ambush.enemy’s ambush.
  • 25. BBEFRIENDEFRIEND THETHE FFARAR ANDAND AATTACKTTACKTHETHE NNEAREAR Sometimes, because of geographicalSometimes, because of geographicalconstraints, it is more beneficial to attack aconstraints, it is more beneficial to attack anearby enemy than to attack another far away.nearby enemy than to attack another far away. If the situation permits form a temporaryIf the situation permits form a temporaryalliance with a distant enemy to destroy thealliance with a distant enemy to destroy theenemy.enemy. Uses this analogy: though flames burn upwardUses this analogy: though flames burn upwardand water flows downward, one can still forgeand water flows downward, one can still forgean alliance between them despite their differentan alliance between them despite their differentaims.aims.
  • 26. BBORROWORROW AA PPASSAGEASSAGE TOTO AATTACKTTACKGGUOUO A smaller state situated between theA smaller state situated between theenemy and oneself should be givenenemy and oneself should be givenimmediate support if the enemy threatensimmediate support if the enemy threatensto control.to control. In this way, one will earn the trust of theIn this way, one will earn the trust of thesmaller state and may eventually exertsmaller state and may eventually exertone’s influence over the latter.one’s influence over the latter. Mere words without action will not win theMere words without action will not win thetrust of a small force in a precarioustrust of a small force in a precarious
  • 27. RREPLACEEPLACE SSUPERIORUPERIOR BBEAMSEAMS ANDANDPPILLARSILLARS WITHWITH IINFERIORNFERIOR OONESNES Pillars and beams are importantPillars and beams are importantstructures in a building.structures in a building. The quality of the pillars and beamsThe quality of the pillars and beamsdetermine the stability of the building.determine the stability of the building. The arrangement of an army troop hasThe arrangement of an army troop hasparallel significance .parallel significance .