Change the message or change the people?
Integral Theory Conference 2010
Dr Chris Riedy 30th July 2010
THINK.
CHANGE.
DO
 Research Director at the Institute for
Sustainable Futures, UTS (Sydney, Australia)
 Change agent, researcher and consu...
 Mission
To create change towards sustainable futures
“I don’t know of any intelligent
person who, after studying and
grasping the integral overview,
chooses a narrower alterna...
 The Eye of the Storm – research agenda
“Further exploration of the factors that influence subjective
development, partic...
 Introduction
 Integral theory and behavior change
 AQAL scan of household behavior change
 Translation strategies
 T...
 Introduction
 Integral theory and behavior change
 AQAL scan of household behavior change
 Translation strategies
 T...
Observe practice Identify domains or perspectives that are currently
neglected in theorising, designing and
implementing b...
Stage 1 AQAL scan on household behaviour change for climate change response
Stage 2 Further development and comparison of ...
 Introduction
 Integral theory and behavior change
 AQAL scan of household behavior change
 Translation strategies
 T...
 Introduction
 Integral theory and behavior change
 AQAL scan of household behavior change
 Translation strategies
 T...
 JITP article
To establish a desired set of
behaviors (UR), a behavior
change initiative must
sufficiently elevate and
ma...
Experiential
Values, beliefs, attitudes, mental models,
frames
 Need to make climate change a tangible
experience
 Need...
Relevant fields
 Howard Gardner
 Linguistic
 Logical-mathematical
 Musical
 Bodily-kinesthetic
 Spatial
 Interpersonal
 Intraperso...
 Are there states in which individuals are more or less
receptive to change?
 Emotional states – hope vs despair
 Weath...
 Some survey evidence (Australian) for gender
differences in concern about climate change and
likelihood to act
 Some be...
1. Observe current behaviours and identify target behaviours
2. Identify and remove systemic barriers to the target behavi...
 Introduction
 Integral theory and behavior change
 AQAL scan of household behavior change
 Translation strategies
 T...
 Introduction
 Integral theory and behavior change
 AQAL scan of household behavior change
 Translation strategies
 T...
 Designing or tailoring messages to:
connect with people just as they are,
motivating and informing them in a way that
is...
 Common in climate action groups /
grassroots
 Inciting direct action and civil
disobedience
 War, conflict, emergency,...
 Common within faith communities
 Stewardship or care for the Earth
Christ has given the church the task of caring for p...
 Failure to act on climate change is a sin
when we exploit God’s creation to breaking point, we
break the most fundamenta...
 Dominates government
messaging
 Financial gains
 Reduce energy bills
 Increase the value of your
home
 ‘Smart’ actio...
 Dominates large NGO
messaging
 Focus on participation,
teamwork and support
 Action for a better
world
 Community foc...
 How to successfully blend messages
 Crompton (2008)
 Simple and painless steps that do not challenge values
will not d...
 The critique is primarily of appeals to Orange
values
 Perhaps we just need to get smarter with our
messaging
 Plenty ...
 Introduction
 Integral theory and behavior change
 AQAL scan of household behavior change
 Translation strategies
 T...
 Introduction
 Integral theory and behavior change
 AQAL scan of household behavior change
 Translation strategies
 T...
 A change in the way a person sees
the world
 Transformative approaches seek to
trigger personal development of
particip...
 To truly understand and care about climate change requires
a worldcentric perspective
“climate change is a cognitively c...
“the process by which people examine problematic
frames of reference to make them more inclusive,
discriminating, open, re...
 Individual experience
 Prior life experience – source of dilemmas
 “Classroom” experiences – value-laden content, inte...
 Holistic orientation to teaching that encourages
engagement with other ways of knowing,
including the affective and rela...
 Creating disequilibrium or dissonance, which
can be uncomfortable or even painful
What right do I have to encourage you ...
 Participation in transformative approaches needs to
be voluntary
 This limits the scope of transformation as a basis fo...
 Introduction
 Integral theory and behavior change
 AQAL scan of household behavior change
 Translation strategies
 T...
 Introduction
 Integral theory and behavior change
 AQAL scan of household behavior change
 Translation strategies
 T...
 Translation is clearly the only practical strategy for
reaching large numbers of people
 Need rapid assessment tools to...
 Dilemma:Translation may not deliver sufficiently
deep changes, whereas transformation is too slow
and limited in scope
...
 Do you know of good examples of translation messaging?
 Level-specific
 Blending
 Are you aware of other transformati...
 Brown, BC & Riedy, C 2006, "Use of the Integral Framework to Design Developmentally-
Appropriate Sustainability Communic...
Change the message or change the people
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  • It’s important to say a bit about myself and where I’m coming from so that you understand the experiences and practices that inform my perspective.I come to integral theory from a sustainability perspective, and as a practitioner more than a theorist.I want to take you on a little journey of how I discovered integral theory and how I’ve been using it, before getting into the detail of this presentation.
  • Established in 1997Long history of working to create changeTrying to use Integral Theory to make our theories of change more explicitSustainability lens / change creation lens
  • Tell the whole story of how I shifted direction
  • I welcome interaction along the way, so feel free to raise questions or comments as they arise. I’ll pause a couple of times along the way and try and leave plenty of time for discussion at the end as well.
  • I welcome interaction along the way, so feel free to raise questions or comments as they arise. I’ll pause a couple of times along the way and try and leave plenty of time for discussion at the end as well.
  • Today, I am focusing on Stages 1 and 2. Stage 3 is about to commence.
  • I welcome interaction along the way, so feel free to raise questions or comments as they arise. I’ll pause a couple of times along the way and try and leave plenty of time for discussion at the end as well.
  • I welcome interaction along the way, so feel free to raise questions or comments as they arise. I’ll pause a couple of times along the way and try and leave plenty of time for discussion at the end as well.
  • This is a quadrant scan from a change agent perspective.Signing petitionsInfluencing your organisationLets pause for a couple of minutes to ask whether anything is missing from this scan – what have I left out?Note the translation vs transformation distinction last and promise to come back to it
  • The previous slide has a lot going on, so here’s a simplified version I used with the Queensland Government. It focuses a bit more on the opportunities for policy intervention to bring about behaviour change.
  • Here is a representative sample of disciplines adopting each of the quadrant perspectives on behaviour change.
  • Opens up creative strategies for making climate change tangible for different peopleEngage multiple intelligences to increase effectiveness of behavior change initiatives
  • More research needed. New area for me, little research, therefore speculative.
  • More research needed. New area for me, little research, therefore speculative.
  • Many behaviour change initiatives only consider the first two principles.I want to focus today on the 4th and 5th principles. You will see here that the primary focus is on translation but there is room for experimentation with transformative approaches.
  • I welcome interaction along the way, so feel free to raise questions or comments as they arise. I’ll pause a couple of times along the way and try and leave plenty of time for discussion at the end as well.
  • I welcome interaction along the way, so feel free to raise questions or comments as they arise. I’ll pause a couple of times along the way and try and leave plenty of time for discussion at the end as well.
  • Note that I’ve only looked at red to green. Any examples of teal from audience?These messages do work with the relevant audience, but there are limits.
  • Translation works – these messages do appeal to target audiences.
  • Nevertheless, there is still an open question about the balance between translation and transformation. So what is the alternative?
  • I welcome interaction along the way, so feel free to raise questions or comments as they arise. I’ll pause a couple of times along the way and try and leave plenty of time for discussion at the end as well.
  • I welcome interaction along the way, so feel free to raise questions or comments as they arise. I’ll pause a couple of times along the way and try and leave plenty of time for discussion at the end as well.
  • This understanding of transformative learning resonates with integral theory and developmental pyschology, but there are differences.
  • So we have some ideas about how to foster transformation. We also have the idea of integral transformative practice. But should be seek to foster transformation?
  • There are both ethical and practical reasons – important not to coerce, but also requires people to come to the process with an open mind.
  • I welcome interaction along the way, so feel free to raise questions or comments as they arise. I’ll pause a couple of times along the way and try and leave plenty of time for discussion at the end as well.
  • I welcome interaction along the way, so feel free to raise questions or comments as they arise. I’ll pause a couple of times along the way and try and leave plenty of time for discussion at the end as well.
  • State of the World: Lacks a TL focus but has begun process of identifying climate leaders. TL could be a next step.Climate Project: No TL focus but is training people to go out and spread the word on climate change. A TL and leadership focus could be a next step.
  • Change the message or change the people

    1. 1. Change the message or change the people? Integral Theory Conference 2010 Dr Chris Riedy 30th July 2010 THINK. CHANGE. DO
    2. 2.  Research Director at the Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS (Sydney, Australia)  Change agent, researcher and consultant  Sustainability  Futures studies / foresight  Climate change response  Social and cultural change  More at http://chrisriedy.com
    3. 3.  Mission To create change towards sustainable futures
    4. 4. “I don’t know of any intelligent person who, after studying and grasping the integral overview, chooses a narrower alternative” (Wilber 2004)  How could an integral approach improve Australia’s response to climate change?
    5. 5.  The Eye of the Storm – research agenda “Further exploration of the factors that influence subjective development, particularly the conditions under which public participation, constructivist education, community cultural development and integral transformative practice are more likely to promote positive subjective development”  Deliberative democracy and civic participation  Strategies for motivating pro-environmental behavior  Action research project to map, review and connect change creation practices for reducing energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in Australia
    6. 6.  Introduction  Integral theory and behavior change  AQAL scan of household behavior change  Translation strategies  Transformation strategies  Discussion: balancing translation and transformation
    7. 7.  Introduction  Integral theory and behavior change  AQAL scan of household behavior change  Translation strategies  Transformation strategies  Discussion: balancing translation and transformation
    8. 8. Observe practice Identify domains or perspectives that are currently neglected in theorising, designing and implementing behaviour change initiatives Integrate Use the Integral model to suggest ways to connect and integrate complementary behavior change initiatives that could be more effective in combination Develop Draw on the Integral framework to develop, adapt, or design more effective behavior change strategies
    9. 9. Stage 1 AQAL scan on household behaviour change for climate change response Stage 2 Further development and comparison of translation vs transformation strategies Stage 3 Interviews with change agents in Australia Stage 4 Testing AQAL insights through new behaviour change initiatives Possible future stages • Interview change agents outside Australia • Extend the focus beyond energy use to other behaviours that are relevant to climate change
    10. 10.  Introduction  Integral theory and behavior change  AQAL scan of household behavior change  Translation strategies  Transformation strategies  Discussion: balancing translation and transformation
    11. 11.  Introduction  Integral theory and behavior change  AQAL scan of household behavior change  Translation strategies  Transformation strategies  Discussion: balancing translation and transformation
    12. 12.  JITP article To establish a desired set of behaviors (UR), a behavior change initiative must sufficiently elevate and maintain the individual motivation to carry out those behaviors (UL) while providing supportive systems and institutions (LR) and cultural validation, support and respect (LL)
    13. 13. Experiential Values, beliefs, attitudes, mental models, frames  Need to make climate change a tangible experience  Need representations of climate change that engage multiple audiences  Focus on positive messages  Motivate using existing interior structures (translation)  Motivate by facilitating interior development (transformation) Behavioral  Observe current behaviors • Carbon footprinting • Direct and indirect emissions  Identify desired (target) behaviors • Potential to bring about desired change • Feasibility Behavior categories (e.g. environmental activism, non-activist public sphere, private- sphere environmentalism, other – Stern, 2000) Cultural  Need validation from identity groups  Supportive groups help individuals to initiate and maintain new behaviors (e.g. EcoTeams, TransitionTowns, CRAGs)  Social movements and activist cultures (e.g. Climate Action Groups, Climate Camps)  Cultural change – symbols, media, discourse  Supportive change agent cultures  Cultural barriers – custom, myths  Dialogue with participants Systemic  Systems help or hinder target behaviors  Hierarchy of preferential behaviors  Diffusion of innovations – different strategies for early adopters vs mainstream  Feedback systems to support learning  Persuasive technology and choice architecture  Information is important but not sufficient  Financial incentives and penalties  Supportive legal, political and social context
    14. 14. Relevant fields
    15. 15.  Howard Gardner  Linguistic  Logical-mathematical  Musical  Bodily-kinesthetic  Spatial  Interpersonal  Intrapersonal  Natural
    16. 16.  Are there states in which individuals are more or less receptive to change?  Emotional states – hope vs despair  Weather states – droughts and disasters  Economic states – financial crisis  Be prepared for emergent change opportunities
    17. 17.  Some survey evidence (Australian) for gender differences in concern about climate change and likelihood to act  Some behavior change initiatives focusing on women  1 Million Women  OxfamAustralia’s Sisters on the Planet
    18. 18. 1. Observe current behaviours and identify target behaviours 2. Identify and remove systemic barriers to the target behaviours (technological, economic, informational, institutional etc) 3. Build in processes for group support and cultural validation for participants (large or small scale) 4. Identify audience segments and translate messages to resonate with these segments (informed by developmental psychology) 5. Experiment with transformative learning processes to help people to develop more inclusive interior structures 6. Use diverse techniques to engage different types of people in different ways (multiple intelligences, multiple types) 7. Be opportunistic and flexible – take advantage of states that arise
    19. 19.  Introduction  Integral theory and behavior change  AQAL scan of household behavior change  Translation strategies  Transformation strategies  Discussion: balancing translation and transformation
    20. 20.  Introduction  Integral theory and behavior change  AQAL scan of household behavior change  Translation strategies  Transformation strategies  Discussion: balancing translation and transformation
    21. 21.  Designing or tailoring messages to: connect with people just as they are, motivating and informing them in a way that is in alignment with how they already see the world.These communications resonate with a person’s existing worldview without requiring them to be a different person in order to take action (Brown and Riedy)  Rapid deployment, immediate benefits  Social marketing approach
    22. 22.  Common in climate action groups / grassroots  Inciting direct action and civil disobedience  War, conflict, emergency, mobilisation  Coal is the enemy!  Fight against climate-related disasters  Heroic status  Mastery of nature  Endorsement by popular hip-hop acts
    23. 23.  Common within faith communities  Stewardship or care for the Earth Christ has given the church the task of caring for people and the creation. In regard to large-scale environmental issues, God’s call to love our neighbours means taking a global focus...It means genuinely loving our global neighbours through just, loving and sacrificial action (Matt. 22: 34-40) – Australian Evangelical Alliance
    24. 24.  Failure to act on climate change is a sin when we exploit God’s creation to breaking point, we break the most fundamental commandment known to us: out of our greed and selfishness, we knowingly cause the degradation of the world’s ecosystems instead of protecting the design that issues from the Creator’s generosity.Wilfully causing environmental degradation is a sin – Anglican Bishop of Canberra  Weekly meat-free day
    25. 25.  Dominates government messaging  Financial gains  Reduce energy bills  Increase the value of your home  ‘Smart’ action  People that act on climate change are smarter – they are getting ahead
    26. 26.  Dominates large NGO messaging  Focus on participation, teamwork and support  Action for a better world  Community focus  Workshops  Support teams
    27. 27.  How to successfully blend messages  Crompton (2008)  Simple and painless steps that do not challenge values will not deliver the scale of change required  Little or no evidence of spillover effect  Additional pro-environmental behavior is more likely if the initial behavior is motivated by environmental values  Translation may deliver short-term wins but will entrench counter-productive worldviews in the longer term
    28. 28.  The critique is primarily of appeals to Orange values  Perhaps we just need to get smarter with our messaging  Plenty of scope to be more ambitious and creative with appeals to particular values ▪ e.g. Climate Prosperity for Orange  Individual behaviour change occurs within a shifting context that opens up new behaviours  e.g. carbon pricing shifts financial incentives for Orange, opening up new actions that are value- consistent
    29. 29.  Introduction  Integral theory and behavior change  AQAL scan of household behavior change  Translation strategies  Transformation strategies  Discussion: balancing translation and transformation
    30. 30.  Introduction  Integral theory and behavior change  AQAL scan of household behavior change  Translation strategies  Transformation strategies  Discussion: balancing translation and transformation
    31. 31.  A change in the way a person sees the world  Transformative approaches seek to trigger personal development of participants along one or more developmental lines towards more inclusive structures  Builds the developmental capacity to take more perspectives
    32. 32.  To truly understand and care about climate change requires a worldcentric perspective “climate change is a cognitively complex issue: it is a “big picture” problem, and to understand its full implications a worldcentric perspective is required as well as an ability to handle both complexity and paradox [and]...a well-developed capacity to be self-reflexive (O’Brien, in press)”  Can (and should) Integral change agents help more people to develop worldcentric perspectives?  Interior development is slow, inconsistent, unpredictable and personally challenging  Transformative learning, ITP, coaching, psychotherapy
    33. 33. “the process by which people examine problematic frames of reference to make them more inclusive, discriminating, open, reflective, and emotionally able to change. It can be provoked by a single event – a disorienting dilemma – or it can take place gradually and cumulatively over time. Discourse is central to the process.We need to engage in conversation with others in order to better consider alternative perspectives and determine their validity” (Cranton 2006)
    34. 34.  Individual experience  Prior life experience – source of dilemmas  “Classroom” experiences – value-laden content, intense experiential activities  Promotion of critical reflection  Engagement in dialogue with the self and others  Build trust and empathy  Equal opportunities for participation  Identify ‘edge of meaning’
    35. 35.  Holistic orientation to teaching that encourages engagement with other ways of knowing, including the affective and relational  Awareness of context  Personal, sociocultural factors  Physical surroundings  Prior experience  Time  Establishing authentic relationships built on trust and openness
    36. 36.  Creating disequilibrium or dissonance, which can be uncomfortable or even painful What right do I have to encourage you to question what you believe?When is it a responsibility, and when is it an imposition?When is it empowering, and when is it destructive? At what point do I need to leave aside my ego and thirst for learners to do as I do? (Cranton 2006)
    37. 37.  Participation in transformative approaches needs to be voluntary  This limits the scope of transformation as a basis for behavior change initiatives  Duty of care to provide support and resources to help participants work through difficulties  Form relationships with participants and understand where they are at in their transformative process
    38. 38.  Introduction  Integral theory and behavior change  AQAL scan of household behavior change  Translation strategies  Transformation strategies  Discussion: balancing translation and transformation
    39. 39.  Introduction  Integral theory and behavior change  AQAL scan of household behavior change  Translation strategies  Transformation strategies  Discussion: balancing translation and transformation
    40. 40.  Translation is clearly the only practical strategy for reaching large numbers of people  Need rapid assessment tools to identify values and worldviews in target audiences  Further development and testing of creative messages for different levels  Experimentation with blending of messages  Reflection on how to integrate translation strategies with broader systemic change strategies
    41. 41.  Dilemma:Translation may not deliver sufficiently deep changes, whereas transformation is too slow and limited in scope  Possible response: Employ both strategies simultaneously, playing to their strengths  Focus time and resource-intensive transformative approaches on potential climate leaders – a climate leadership elite  Climate leaders use translation to reach out to everyone else
    42. 42.  Do you know of good examples of translation messaging?  Level-specific  Blending  Are you aware of other transformative strategies that could be effective?  What is your position on the ethics of transformation?  Can the approach to balancing translation and transformation proposed here succeed?What are the openings for pursuing this?  Are there opportunities to collaborate to build this kind of approach?
    43. 43.  Brown, BC & Riedy, C 2006, "Use of the Integral Framework to Design Developmentally- Appropriate Sustainability Communications," inW Filho, Innovation, Education and Communication for Sustainable Development, Peter Lang Scientific Publishers, Frankfurt, pp. 661- 688.  Cranton, P 2006, Understanding and PromotingTransformative Learning: A Guide for Educators of Adults, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.  Crompton,T 2008, "Weathercocks and signposts: the environment movement at a crossroads." Retrieved from http://assets.wwf.org.uk/downloads/weathercocks_report2.pdf  Gunnlaugson, O 2005, "Toward Integrally InformedTheories ofTransformative Learning." Journal ofTransformative Education, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 331-353.  Kegan, R 1982, The Evolving Self: Problem and Process in Human Development, Harvard University Press, Harvard.  O'Brien, K, in press, "Responding to Climate Change:The Need for an Integral Approach," in S Esbjörn-Hargens, IntegralTheory in Action: Applied,Theoretical, and Critical Perspectives on the AQAL Model, SUNY Press, NewYork. Retrieved from http://integrallife.com/files/Integral Climate Change Karen OBrien.pdf  Riedy, C 2009, "Household Behavior Change for Climate Change Response: An Integral Scan." Journal of IntegralTheory and Practice, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 103-120.  Taylor, EW 2009, "FosteringTransformative Learning," in J Mezirow & EWTaylor, Transformative Learning in Practice : Insights from Community, Workplace, and Higher Education, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, pp. 3-17.  Wilber, K 2004, 'Foreword', in R Slaughter (ed.), Futures Beyond Dystopia: Creating Social Foresight, RoutledgeFalmer, London and NewYork, pp. xi-xiii.

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