Whois Whoin Diapers
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Whois Whoin Diapers



Who is who in diapers.

Who is who in diapers.

Insight Conference Paper, October 2009, presented by Carlos Richer



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    Whois Whoin Diapers Whois Whoin Diapers Presentation Transcript

    • Who is who in baby diapers?
      By Carlos Richer
      Richer Investment SA de CV
      Diaper Consulting Services, Diaper Testing Lab, Diaper Factory Audits, Benchmarking, Appraisals, R&D, Expert Witness, New Diaper Factories.
    • Who is who in baby Diapers?
      • No simple answer (none that I know).
      • I will attempt to provide a step by step guideline.
      • The objective is not to give you an answer but to help you find your own.
      • We may not agree on which is the very best but at least we are going to be very close.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Different Perspectives
      • The point of view of the end user.
      • The point of view of the large trader.
      • The point of view of the manufacturer.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • USA 2009
      Guatemala 2009
    • Pampers Cruiser USA 2009
      Pom Pom Guatemala 2009
    • Brazil Summer 2009
    • Argentina Summer 2009
    • African Diapers Summer 2009
    • Different Segments
      • Depending on market maturity you can sub divide the market in 3 to 5 segments, I prefer to use only 4:
      • Tier 1 Economy
      • Tier 2 Value.
      • Tier 3 Premium.
      • Tier 4 Supreme.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Choosing the brands to test
      • Tiers and Profits. Lower profits lower Tiers.
      • To select brands according to specific Tiers, always use the point of view of the consumer.
      • Compare prices from the same kind of store.
      • Select the brands according to your perspective.
      • Consumers: based on avaiability
      • Traders: based on competitive price and importation.
      • Manufacturers: based on local and international competitors, even if they are not head to head today.
    • Mexican Baby Diaper Brands(arranged by tier segment)
      Tier 2
      Tier 3
      Tier 4
    • Mexican diapers Tier 3, July2009
      Kiddies 2009
      BB Tips 2009
      Suavelastic Max 2009
      Total Dry 2009
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • How many samples you need to test?
      • You need only 25 diapers per brand to perform all tests.
      • You need to make sure the samples represent the market.
      • How can you make sure? Why is this important?
      • National brands .vs. Small manufacturers.
      • Good enough: Buy 5 bags (from 5 differnt stores).
      • Best but too expensive: Select one diaper from 25 bags.
      What size to choose?
      • Unfortunately not all brands are consitent along all sizes.
      • If you can accept the assumption that they are consistent, then you should test the size with the highest volume of sales, usually Medium or Large.
    • What needs to be tested?
      1- Diaper Construction Craftsmanship (all 25).
      2- The absorbent pad system (10 of 25).
      3- The fastening system (5 of 25).
      4- The containment system (5 of 25).
      5- Comfort and Luxury (5 but none is damaged).
      6- Cost of manufacturing (only for traders and manufacturerers).
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • 1- Diaper Craftsmanship.
      • This is one of the most important categories to test and amazingly you do not even need a lab to do it.
      • The idea is to perform a visual audit on all samples.
      • My proposal is to classify the diapers in 4 groups:
      • No defects. The samples look perfect to the naked eye.
      • Minor Defects. Only a manufacturer can detect.
      • Major Defects. The consumer will detect it.
      • Critical Defects. Impossible or too risky to use the diaper.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • 1- Diaper Craftsmanship.
      • Use a formula to convert all defects into a number that represents the quality of craftsmanship of the diapers.
      • Suggested formula:
      • 1 Critial Defect = 10 Major Defects
      • 1 Major Defect = 10 Minor Defects.
      • 1 Minor Defect = 1 point in the scale of 100.
      • Craftsmanship= 100 - Minor Defects – Major Defects * 10
      • If a Critical Defect is found then the result is Zero.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • 1- Diaper Craftsmanship (examples)
      • You inspect your 25 diapers that represent the whole market and find the following: all diapers have No Defects. Then in this case the result is 100
      • You inspect another brand with 25 diapers and you find 15 Minor Defects, 1 Major Defect, and 9 diapers with No Defects. The result is (100- 15 – 10)= 75
      • After inspecting another brand you find 1 critical defect and 10 minor defects. The result is Zero.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Examples of Minor Defects:
      • Tape folding angle (for example: less than 25 degrees)
      • Backsheet folded edges (less than 20 mm in total).
      • ADL is out of position but still inside absorbent pad.
      • 3D pad knife cut is out of registration.
      • Leg cuff height (less than 15 mm).
      • C Folding or Bi fold out of position (less than 30 mm)
      • Top sheet does not match backsheet with an excess of more than 15 mm.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Guatemala 2009
    • KC, Brazil
    • Morocco Aug, 2009
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Pad Knife Registration
      Mexico, June 2009
      ADL Patch
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Venezuela May 2009
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • KC, Huggies Pure and Natural USA Sep 2009
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Examples of Major Defects:
      • Tape folding angle (for example more than 25 degrees)
      • Leg cuffs stay down and wont open.
      • A missing leg cuff on either side.
      • An exposed drop of glue (but less than 5 mm)
      • A small window without fluff within the pad.
      • Leg gathers or leg cuffs without elastics.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Examples of Critical Defects:
      • A small hole on the backsheet.
      • A piece of leg trimming still attached.
      • One tape or both are missing.
      • No frontal tape.
      • Exposed pulp due to nonwoven rupture.
      • Open ends exposing the pulp.
      • Presence of fungus or spores or any other kind of biological contaminants.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • 1- Diaper Craftsmanship(process control)
      • Weight variation can be another manifestation.
      • This is typically due to lack of process control originated by the equipment or by the people.
      • Most times it can be explained by a variation on the amount of fluff (dirty drum pockets, etc).
      • Other times is due to variation of SAP between diaper to diaper (volumetric .vs. gravimetric).
      • Depending on the origin is the dimension of the problem (more critical if it is due to SAP).
    • Lack of Process Control
    • Is it because of fluff or SAP?
      • 1 gram of fluff holds about one third of the free swell urine capacity that is typical SAP.
      • 1 gram of fluff holds less than 1/15 of the retentive capacity of the typical SAPs.
      • For this reason looking at variations on centrifugal retentive capacity can give us an excellent idea if the weight variation is due to the fluff or to the SAP.
    • Lack of Process Control
    • 2- The absorbent pad system
      • Often considered the heart of the diaper.
      • Has to work in harmony with the overall design.
      • It is conformed by:
      • The absorbent pad (a mix of SAP and Celulose).
      • A pad wrapping material (tissue or light weight Spunbond).
      • Hot melt adhesive (for integrity)
      • Curly Fiber (P&G, Ontex, etc.)
      • ADL patch (high loft nonwovens used for liquid acquisition)
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Different kinds of carriers
      • Why is it used ?
      • Discrete pad formation (No carrier?)
      • Tissue or Spunbond ?
      • In USA almost everyone use Nonwoven
      • In Colombia nonwoven is also preferred; in Mexico is split (by KC and P&G); in Ecuador, Venezuela, in Mercosur, Africa and India tissue is preferred.
      • Top/ Bottom/ Fully Wrapped?
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • 2- The absorbent pad system
      • In order to test which diaper has the best absorbent pad system, we need to test:
      • Total free swell capacity (using saline solution at 0.9% and 23 C).
      • Centrifugal or retentive capacity (or absorbency under load).
      • Strike trough times (also called liquid penetration times).
      • Wicking speed at 90 and/or 45 degrees.
      • Pad Symmetry and 3D core indexes.
      • Of course many more sophisticated tests can be done, these are the tests you can do with a low budget. Not even the best of dynamic tests can compare against the actual testing with real babies.
    • 3
      Symmetry= (1+3+5) .vs. (2+4+6)
      3D Index= (average(1,2,3,4)/average (5,6))
    • South Africa July 2009
    • 3-The fastening System
      • From the point of view of diaper performance we need to know the diaper fits the right waist range of babies and that it will stay in place.
      • To know these parameters you need to test:
      • Max and Min waist circonference.
      • Tape Peel force (using its full width).
      • Tape shear force (using its full width).
      • Relative dimensions between lateral and frontal tape.
      • Stretch Force, both before and after the oven test.
    • Huggies
      Guatemala 2009
    • Huggies
      Hook and Loop at 125 X
      Hook and Loop at 500 X
    • Hooks used on Huggies
      Loop at embossing
    • Freskolin Locked Loop
      Hooks with less density of hooks
      used on Freskolin Brand
    • Hook & Loop used on
      Jueguitos and Chiquitines
      Sold in Guatemala in 2009
    • Required Peel Forces
      Try not to exceed 2 Newtons
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • 4-The Containment System
      • We want to make sure the diaper is capable of holding the storage of liquids under pressure without leaking to the outside.
      • To know this you need to test:
      • The performance of the leg cuffs.
      • Elastic stretch and resistance to the oven test.
      • The size of the open channels.
      • The pinhole test to avoid leakage trough the backsheet.
    • Open Channels at leg cuff ends
    • 5-Comfort and Luxury
      • It is the most subjective chapter of our diaper classification process.
      • Becuase it has little or nothing to do with performance but a lot to do with consumer preference.
      • Some things to look for:
      • Use of cloth like backsheet or plain film.
      • Use of registered or random printed tapes and frontal.
      • Use of easy recognizable cartoon characters, such as Disney, Sesame St, versus the Peabody Ducks or any other Ugly Duckling Design.
      • Use of special skin topical lotions or perfumes.
      • Ecological claims.
      • Use a focus group…… or at least a group of friends.
    • 6-Cost of manufacturing
      • Comparing diaper performance without comparing manfacturing costs is like driving a car at night without the headights. You will crash.
      • How do you estimate diaper manufacturing cost?
      • Find out the exact usage of each diaper element (reverse engineering).
      • Multiply each element by its individual raw material cost.
      • SAP and pulp in the mix can be easily calculated in a very exact way using the total pad weight, the free swell and centrifugal retention, and the performance of a sample of SAP extracted from the diaper.
      SAP Fluff
      X (a) + Y(b) = 450 a=14.5 c=1.7
      X (c) + Y(d) = 375 b=31.5 d=23.5 X=19.7 Y=8.36 SAP
    • Manufacturing Cost
      Example of potential raw material costs for Tier 3:
      • Sample A= 0.086 USD
      • Sample B= 0.083 USD
      • Sample C= 0.084 USD
      • Sample D= 0.089 USD
      • A new machine upgrade does not look so expensive anymore.
      Not the same if you are B and better than
      the rest, or D and the worst in your tier.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Putting it all together
      • Following the suggested guidline you will know by now which diaper is the best in every one of the six measured dimensions.
      • How to add them all together to find the best?
      • Craftsmanship; Absorbet system together with Containment; Luxury items; Fastening system.
      • Use of mannequin tests.
      • Consumer tests .vs. Laboratory tests.
    • Conclusions
      • You need to know where you stand in terms of diaper performance but also in terms of costs, use trends when possible.
      • You need to know your weaknesses, strengths, risks and oportunities before you can suggest product design improvements that make sense.
      • Dont be affraid to invest in machine upgrades when needed; it may be too late once you are forced to do it.
      • If you have a lower performing product with a higher unit cost, look for an urgent solution. If you cant find it ask for help.
      • If you are beyond help, I can help you sell your old equipment.
      Richer Investment
      Diaper Consulting
    • Join the Disposable Diaper Network Group at Linkedin using this link: 
      Thank You
      What do we do?
      Factory Audits
      Feasibility Studies
      Benchmark Reports
      Technical Support
      Machine Appraisals
      Insurance Claims
      Expert Witness
      By Carlos Richer
      Richer Investment SA de CV
      Diaper Consulting Services