Crafting the brand positioning

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  • Crafting the brand positioning

    1. 1. MARKETING MANAGEMENT 13 th edition Chapter 10: Crafting the Brand Positioning Charlie Guzman crguzmanmd.blogspot.com Kotler Keller
    2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>How can a firm choose and communicate an effective positioning in the market? </li></ul><ul><li>How are brands differentiated? </li></ul><ul><li>What marketing strategies are appropriate at each stage of the product life cycle? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the implications of market evolution for marketing strategies? </li></ul>
    3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Developing and communicating a Positioning Strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiation Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Product life cycle Marketing Strategies </li></ul>
    4. 4. Backbone of Marketing Strategy Segmentation Targeting Positioning
    5. 5. What is Positioning? Act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market.
    6. 6. Example of Positioning
    7. 7. Example of Value Proposition <ul><li>Domino’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A good hot pizza, delivered promptly to your door, at a moderate price </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Writing a Positioning Statement “ To young, active soft-drink consumers who have little time for sleep, Mountain Dew is the soft drink that gives you more energy than any other brand because it has the highest level of caffeine...You can stay alert & keep going even when you haven’t been able to get a good night’s sleep.”
    9. 9. Straddle Positioning <ul><li>Two frames of reference </li></ul>
    10. 10. Competitive frame of Reference <ul><li>Category Membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Products or sets of products w/ which a brand competes and which function as substitutes </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Defining Associations <ul><li>Points-of-difference (PODs) </li></ul><ul><li>Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find, to the same extent, with a competitive brand </li></ul><ul><li>Points-of-parity (POPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands </li></ul>
    12. 12. Conveying Category Membership Announcing category benefits Comparing to exemplars Relying on the product descriptor
    13. 13. Desirability Criteria for PODs Relevance Distinctiveness Believability
    14. 14. Deliverability Criteria for PODs Feasibility Communicability Sustainability
    15. 15. Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits <ul><li>Low-price vs. High quality </li></ul><ul><li>Taste vs. Low calories </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritious vs. Good tasting </li></ul><ul><li>Efficacious vs. Mild </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful vs. Safe </li></ul><ul><li>Strong vs. Refined </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous vs. Exclusive </li></ul><ul><li>Varied vs. Simple </li></ul>
    16. 16. Addressing negatively correlated PODs and POPs <ul><li>Launch separately </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage equity of another entity </li></ul><ul><li>Redefine negative relationship </li></ul>
    17. 17. Differentiation Strategies <ul><li>Competitive Advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to perform in one or more ways that competitors cannot or will not match. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leverageable advantage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Customer advantage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Differentiation Strategies Product Channel Image Personnel
    19. 19. Various Product Differentiation <ul><li>Product form </li></ul><ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Conformance </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Reparability </li></ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering ease </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Installation </li></ul><ul><li>Customer training </li></ul><ul><li>Customer consulting </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
    20. 20. Personnel Differentiation
    21. 21. Channel Differentiation
    22. 22. Image Differentiation
    23. 23. Identity and Image Identity: The way a company aims to identify or position itself Image: The way the public perceives the company or its products
    24. 24. Product Life Cycle (PLC)
    25. 25. Facts about Product life cycles <ul><li>Products have a limited life. </li></ul><ul><li>Product sales pass through distinct stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Profits rise and fall at different stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Products require different marketing, financial, manufacturing, purchasing, and human resource strategies in each stage. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Common PLC Patterns
    27. 27. Style, Fashion, and Fad Life Cycles
    28. 28. Marketing strategies <ul><li>Introduction stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer advantage </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Long-Range Product Market Expansion Strategy
    30. 30. Marketing strategies <ul><li>Introduction stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth stage </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing program modification </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Marketing Program Modification Prices Distribution Advertising Sales promotion Services
    32. 32. Marketing strategies <ul><li>Introduction stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneer advantage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth stage </li></ul><ul><li>Maturity stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing program modification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decline stage </li></ul>
    33. 33. Product in decline
    34. 34. Market Evolution Stages Emergence Growth Maturity Decline
    35. 35. Emerging Markets Single-niche Multiple-niche Mass-market
    36. 36. Maturity Strategies
    37. 37. Achievements <ul><li>Proper selection and communication of effective positioning in the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Brand differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate marketing strategies for each stage of the product life cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of market evolution for marketing strategies. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Application in Health Care
    39. 39. MARKETING MANAGEMENT 13 th edition Chapter 10: Crafting the Brand Positioning Charlie Guzman crguzmanmd.blogspot.com Kotler Keller

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