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The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
The Profession Of IT Architecture
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The Profession Of IT Architecture

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  • 1. The Profession of IT Architecture<br />Christopher Grant<br />IT Architect – HomeDepot.com<br />crgrant@gmail.com<br />02/01/2010<br />
  • 2. Objectives<br />Challenges<br />Highlight some of the challenges managers and professional face in understanding what IT architecture is.<br />Architecture in the Organization <br />Expand our view of architecture and see how it fits in the organization<br />The Role of Architect<br />Discuss aspects of various architect types and what skills / focus is required in each<br />
  • 3. Challenges<br />
  • 4. Current understanding<br />People have a vague idea what an architect does<br />They design an implementation<br />They are subject matter experts<br />They may also approve other designs <br />
  • 5. How to become an Architect<br />Promotion due to seniority<br />Bob’s been a Sr. Developer for a long time, promote him to Architect<br />Promotion due to expertise<br />Fred really knows his stuff, lets make him an architect<br />Proactive move to Architecture<br />Karen applies for new positions in Architecture<br />
  • 6. Architecture is not Development<br />Architecture is a different field than Development<br />Many great developers don’t thrive in architecture<br />Many end up as developers with an Architect title<br />Architects utilize different skills<br />Less development<br />Project Management<br />Working with people<br />Communication<br />
  • 7. What Architect jobs are out there<br />IT Architect<br />Enterprise Architect<br />Solution Architect<br />Data Warehouse Architect<br />Technical Architect<br />SOA Java Architect<br />Application Architect<br />EDI System Architect<br />Security Architect<br />
  • 8. Common Architect Titles<br />Enterprise Architect<br />Solution Architect<br />Domain Architect<br />Application Architect<br />Technical Architect<br />Systems Architect<br />
  • 9. Job Descriptions<br />Solution Architect: Candidates must be consultative, seasoned veterans who can manage relationships with multiple internal and external parties, present extremely well at the executive level, and contribute with technical expertise to the work of the internal solution development staff.<br />
  • 10. Job Descriptions<br />Systems Architect: The System Architect will serve as a SharePoint .NET Developer and will be responsible for assisting in the development and implementation of e-Forms and Electronic Case Files.<br />
  • 11. Job Descriptions<br />Enterprise Technical Architect: Performs the leadership, facilitation, analysis and design tasks required for the development of an enterprise technical architecture (ETA) for the project<br />
  • 12. What a mess<br />Lack of standard terminology<br />Varying expectations<br />Wide range of skill sets<br />How can leaders ensure proper skills coverage<br />How can professionals plan a career path<br />How can mangers evaluate and guide Architects<br />
  • 13. Architecture in the Organization <br />Areas of Architecture<br />
  • 14. Types of Architecture<br />To understand what architects do we need to look at the environment they work in <br />In the next section we’ll look at how Architecture is segmented and fits in an IT organization <br />
  • 15. Methods and Frameworks<br />Zachman<br />Togaf<br />Archimate<br />National Institute of Health<br />Integrated Architecture Framework<br />
  • 16. Zachman<br />Categorizes Architecture based on a Grid<br />Vertical<br />Scope {contextual} Planner<br />Business Model {conceptual} Owner<br />System Model {logical} Designer<br />Technology Model {physical} Builder<br />Detailed Representation {out-of-context} Subcontractor<br />Functioning Enterprise<br />Horizontal<br />What - Data<br />How - Function<br />Where - Network<br />Who - People<br />When - Time<br />Why - Motivation<br />
  • 17. Zachman<br />
  • 18. TOGAF 9<br />Architecture Principles, Vision and Requirements<br />Business Architecture<br />Information Systems Architectures<br />Technology Architecture<br />Architecture Realization<br />
  • 19. Archimate<br />
  • 20. National Institute of Health<br />
  • 21. Integrated Architecture Framework<br />
  • 22. Common Elements<br />Business Architecture (What)<br />Information Architecture (How)<br />Technology Architecture (Where)<br />
  • 23. Enterprise Architecture Areas<br />Business Architecture (What)<br />What do they do<br />Who does it<br />Which information do they use<br />Where is it done<br />Information Architecture (How)<br />Data Architecture<br />Integration Architecture<br />Application Architecture<br />Technology Architecture (Where)<br />Systems Architecture<br />Infrastructure<br />Network<br />Hardware<br />
  • 24. The Architect Role<br />
  • 25. What is an architect<br />The Open Group states:<br />An IT Architect defines solutions to client business problems through the reasoned application of information technology.<br />Those solutions are documented as architectures and can include systems, applications, and process components. <br />http://www.opengroup.org/itac/cert/docs/ITAC_Conformance_Requirements.pdf<br />
  • 26. Definition Simplified<br />High level <br />Solves a technical problem<br />Communicates the solution<br />Verifies implementation follows communicated solution<br />
  • 27. Architect v. Developer<br />Developer<br />Problem: How to implement the Data Access Layer<br />Focused on solving an individual task<br />Communication: Little to none<br />Verifies Implementation: Often implements personally<br />Architect<br />Problem: How to integrate the Data Layer Business Logic and UI <br />Planning for multiple efforts<br />Communication: Working with multiple developers<br />Verifies Implementation: Participates in code / implementation reviews<br />
  • 28. Common Roles<br />Enterprise (planner)<br />Domain (owner)<br />Solution (coordinator)<br />Technical / Application (designer)<br />Implementer / Developer (builder)<br />
  • 29. Role Differentiation<br />Enterprise Architect<br />Architect role is defined by<br />Focus – what elements does the solution cover<br />Time – What is the length of time needed to implement the solution<br />Domain Architect<br />Focus<br />Application<br />Architect<br />Planning Horizon<br />
  • 30. Characteristics of each role<br />The Architect Role<br />
  • 31. Application Architect<br />The designer<br />Focused on the right way to use a specific technology<br />Tends to be feature oriented<br />Tend to evolve from Sr. Developers<br />The most detailed level of architecture<br />Industry based Knowledge<br />Audience: Developers<br />
  • 32. Application Architect<br />Would utilizes design patterns<br />Implement the best solution for a specific task<br />Lead developer often fills this role<br />Very few work products are actually produced<br />Whiteboards or code stubs used to communicate<br />
  • 33. Solution Architect<br />The coordinator <br />Project oriented<br />Coordinates with multiple domain architects to design the most appropriate solution.<br />Knowledge of managing people /projects<br />
  • 34. Solution Architect<br />Designs solutions that meet project requirements as well as domain and enterprise architecture guidelines. <br />Communication: presents solution to a governance board. Also explains the solution to a developer<br />Work products are eventually owned by the domain architect.<br />Audience: App Architects / Developers<br />
  • 35. Domain Architect<br />The owner <br />Focus on all aspects of a specific area<br />Eg. Application owner would be interested in integration, security, performance, runtime, etc<br />Audience: Solution Architects, Application Architects, Enterprise Architects, Business Partners<br />A role few are prepared for<br />
  • 36. Domain Architect<br />Mostly maintains the now, but supports planning for the future<br />Primarily focused on maintain a specific area of technology or a specific application<br />Owners and gatekeepers for a specific area<br />The work in this area is primarily concerned with the current state of the system. <br />Guides designs to meet the overall objectives of the domain.<br />Knowledge as Subject Matter Expert<br />
  • 37. Enterprise Architect<br />The planner<br />Focuses on cross domain considerations<br />Long term objectives<br />Processes and governance<br />Audience: CIO/CTO, All other Architects<br />Note: tends to get business direction through CIO/CTO or Domain Architects. <br />
  • 38. Enterprise Architect<br />Concentrates on how the various domains or subject areas interact<br />This layer spends even more time focusing on how technology will be utilized in the future<br />Governs how it is used today<br />Create technology roadmaps <br />This layer views the enterprise as a holistic entity.<br />Knowledge of “this” Business<br />
  • 39. Example Roles<br />The Architect Role<br />
  • 40. Example Roles<br />Architects do the following <br />Solve Technical Problems<br />Communicate the solution<br />Verify Implementation<br />Lets look at some examples using these criteria<br />
  • 41. Application Architect<br />Problem<br />How to implement a feature request<br />Communication<br />Verbal, POC, Detailed Design Doc<br />Verification<br />Code reviews, Story Sign Off<br />Timeframe<br />Weeks<br />
  • 42. Domain Architect<br />Problem<br />Enable correct usage of current system<br />Manage future business and tech requirements<br />Communication<br />Current state documentation<br />Plan Technology Roadmap<br />Verification<br />Architecture reviews<br />Work with Business and IT leadership to ensure roadmap items are in project portfolio <br />Timeframe<br />Months <br />
  • 43. Enterprise Architect<br />Problem<br />Enable standard internal develop practices<br />Plan for new line of business<br />Communication<br />Documentation, Presentations, 1:1<br />Work with multiple domain architects<br />Implementation <br />Architecture reviews, SDLC Processes <br />Coordinate projects in IT Portfolio<br />Timeframe<br />Years<br />
  • 44. Bringing it all together<br />The Architect Role<br />
  • 45. Core Skills<br />All architects share many of the same core skills. How much of each skill is utilized varies by role and area<br />Technology<br />Technical expertise in one or more areas<br />Manage Stakeholder Requirements<br />Define Solution to Functional and non-functional requirements<br />Validate Conformance of the solution to the architecture<br />
  • 46. Core Skills<br />People<br />Understanding People<br />Collaborating with others<br />Listening to Understand<br />Lead Individuals & Teams<br />
  • 47. Core Skills<br />Planning<br />Manage Architectural Elements of an IT Project Plan<br />Understand Business Aspects<br />Predicting and Forecasting<br />Goal Setting<br />
  • 48. Core Skills<br />Communication<br />Presenting<br />Speaking Technically<br />Speaking non-technically<br />Writing<br />Documenting<br />
  • 49. Focus by Role<br />
  • 50. Skills by role<br />
  • 51. Ensuring Coverage<br />?<br />Enterprise<br />?<br />Domain<br />Architecture Roles<br />?<br />Technical<br />Business<br />Information<br />Technical<br />Architecture Areas<br />
  • 52. Closing<br />One Architect can fill multiple roles and in multiple areas<br />More than one architect may be needed for one area and role<br />These are discussion points <br />Mold them to meet your needs<br />Understand the needs of your organization<br />Understand the skills / focus for each role<br />Take a proactive approach to the profession of IT Architecture<br />
  • 53. Thank You<br />Christopher Grant <br />CRGrant@gmail.com<br />

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