The Profession Of IT Architecture
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    The Profession Of IT Architecture The Profession Of IT Architecture Presentation Transcript

    • The Profession of IT Architecture
      Christopher Grant
      IT Architect – HomeDepot.com
      crgrant@gmail.com
      02/01/2010
    • Objectives
      Challenges
      Highlight some of the challenges managers and professional face in understanding what IT architecture is.
      Architecture in the Organization
      Expand our view of architecture and see how it fits in the organization
      The Role of Architect
      Discuss aspects of various architect types and what skills / focus is required in each
    • Challenges
    • Current understanding
      People have a vague idea what an architect does
      They design an implementation
      They are subject matter experts
      They may also approve other designs
    • How to become an Architect
      Promotion due to seniority
      Bob’s been a Sr. Developer for a long time, promote him to Architect
      Promotion due to expertise
      Fred really knows his stuff, lets make him an architect
      Proactive move to Architecture
      Karen applies for new positions in Architecture
    • Architecture is not Development
      Architecture is a different field than Development
      Many great developers don’t thrive in architecture
      Many end up as developers with an Architect title
      Architects utilize different skills
      Less development
      Project Management
      Working with people
      Communication
    • What Architect jobs are out there
      IT Architect
      Enterprise Architect
      Solution Architect
      Data Warehouse Architect
      Technical Architect
      SOA Java Architect
      Application Architect
      EDI System Architect
      Security Architect
    • Common Architect Titles
      Enterprise Architect
      Solution Architect
      Domain Architect
      Application Architect
      Technical Architect
      Systems Architect
    • Job Descriptions
      Solution Architect: Candidates must be consultative, seasoned veterans who can manage relationships with multiple internal and external parties, present extremely well at the executive level, and contribute with technical expertise to the work of the internal solution development staff.
    • Job Descriptions
      Systems Architect: The System Architect will serve as a SharePoint .NET Developer and will be responsible for assisting in the development and implementation of e-Forms and Electronic Case Files.
    • Job Descriptions
      Enterprise Technical Architect: Performs the leadership, facilitation, analysis and design tasks required for the development of an enterprise technical architecture (ETA) for the project
    • What a mess
      Lack of standard terminology
      Varying expectations
      Wide range of skill sets
      How can leaders ensure proper skills coverage
      How can professionals plan a career path
      How can mangers evaluate and guide Architects
    • Architecture in the Organization
      Areas of Architecture
    • Types of Architecture
      To understand what architects do we need to look at the environment they work in
      In the next section we’ll look at how Architecture is segmented and fits in an IT organization
    • Methods and Frameworks
      Zachman
      Togaf
      Archimate
      National Institute of Health
      Integrated Architecture Framework
    • Zachman
      Categorizes Architecture based on a Grid
      Vertical
      Scope {contextual} Planner
      Business Model {conceptual} Owner
      System Model {logical} Designer
      Technology Model {physical} Builder
      Detailed Representation {out-of-context} Subcontractor
      Functioning Enterprise
      Horizontal
      What - Data
      How - Function
      Where - Network
      Who - People
      When - Time
      Why - Motivation
    • Zachman
    • TOGAF 9
      Architecture Principles, Vision and Requirements
      Business Architecture
      Information Systems Architectures
      Technology Architecture
      Architecture Realization
    • Archimate
    • National Institute of Health
    • Integrated Architecture Framework
    • Common Elements
      Business Architecture (What)
      Information Architecture (How)
      Technology Architecture (Where)
    • Enterprise Architecture Areas
      Business Architecture (What)
      What do they do
      Who does it
      Which information do they use
      Where is it done
      Information Architecture (How)
      Data Architecture
      Integration Architecture
      Application Architecture
      Technology Architecture (Where)
      Systems Architecture
      Infrastructure
      Network
      Hardware
    • The Architect Role
    • What is an architect
      The Open Group states:
      An IT Architect defines solutions to client business problems through the reasoned application of information technology.
      Those solutions are documented as architectures and can include systems, applications, and process components.
      http://www.opengroup.org/itac/cert/docs/ITAC_Conformance_Requirements.pdf
    • Definition Simplified
      High level
      Solves a technical problem
      Communicates the solution
      Verifies implementation follows communicated solution
    • Architect v. Developer
      Developer
      Problem: How to implement the Data Access Layer
      Focused on solving an individual task
      Communication: Little to none
      Verifies Implementation: Often implements personally
      Architect
      Problem: How to integrate the Data Layer Business Logic and UI
      Planning for multiple efforts
      Communication: Working with multiple developers
      Verifies Implementation: Participates in code / implementation reviews
    • Common Roles
      Enterprise (planner)
      Domain (owner)
      Solution (coordinator)
      Technical / Application (designer)
      Implementer / Developer (builder)
    • Role Differentiation
      Enterprise Architect
      Architect role is defined by
      Focus – what elements does the solution cover
      Time – What is the length of time needed to implement the solution
      Domain Architect
      Focus
      Application
      Architect
      Planning Horizon
    • Characteristics of each role
      The Architect Role
    • Application Architect
      The designer
      Focused on the right way to use a specific technology
      Tends to be feature oriented
      Tend to evolve from Sr. Developers
      The most detailed level of architecture
      Industry based Knowledge
      Audience: Developers
    • Application Architect
      Would utilizes design patterns
      Implement the best solution for a specific task
      Lead developer often fills this role
      Very few work products are actually produced
      Whiteboards or code stubs used to communicate
    • Solution Architect
      The coordinator
      Project oriented
      Coordinates with multiple domain architects to design the most appropriate solution.
      Knowledge of managing people /projects
    • Solution Architect
      Designs solutions that meet project requirements as well as domain and enterprise architecture guidelines.
      Communication: presents solution to a governance board. Also explains the solution to a developer
      Work products are eventually owned by the domain architect.
      Audience: App Architects / Developers
    • Domain Architect
      The owner
      Focus on all aspects of a specific area
      Eg. Application owner would be interested in integration, security, performance, runtime, etc
      Audience: Solution Architects, Application Architects, Enterprise Architects, Business Partners
      A role few are prepared for
    • Domain Architect
      Mostly maintains the now, but supports planning for the future
      Primarily focused on maintain a specific area of technology or a specific application
      Owners and gatekeepers for a specific area
      The work in this area is primarily concerned with the current state of the system.
      Guides designs to meet the overall objectives of the domain.
      Knowledge as Subject Matter Expert
    • Enterprise Architect
      The planner
      Focuses on cross domain considerations
      Long term objectives
      Processes and governance
      Audience: CIO/CTO, All other Architects
      Note: tends to get business direction through CIO/CTO or Domain Architects.
    • Enterprise Architect
      Concentrates on how the various domains or subject areas interact
      This layer spends even more time focusing on how technology will be utilized in the future
      Governs how it is used today
      Create technology roadmaps
      This layer views the enterprise as a holistic entity.
      Knowledge of “this” Business
    • Example Roles
      The Architect Role
    • Example Roles
      Architects do the following
      Solve Technical Problems
      Communicate the solution
      Verify Implementation
      Lets look at some examples using these criteria
    • Application Architect
      Problem
      How to implement a feature request
      Communication
      Verbal, POC, Detailed Design Doc
      Verification
      Code reviews, Story Sign Off
      Timeframe
      Weeks
    • Domain Architect
      Problem
      Enable correct usage of current system
      Manage future business and tech requirements
      Communication
      Current state documentation
      Plan Technology Roadmap
      Verification
      Architecture reviews
      Work with Business and IT leadership to ensure roadmap items are in project portfolio
      Timeframe
      Months
    • Enterprise Architect
      Problem
      Enable standard internal develop practices
      Plan for new line of business
      Communication
      Documentation, Presentations, 1:1
      Work with multiple domain architects
      Implementation
      Architecture reviews, SDLC Processes
      Coordinate projects in IT Portfolio
      Timeframe
      Years
    • Bringing it all together
      The Architect Role
    • Core Skills
      All architects share many of the same core skills. How much of each skill is utilized varies by role and area
      Technology
      Technical expertise in one or more areas
      Manage Stakeholder Requirements
      Define Solution to Functional and non-functional requirements
      Validate Conformance of the solution to the architecture
    • Core Skills
      People
      Understanding People
      Collaborating with others
      Listening to Understand
      Lead Individuals & Teams
    • Core Skills
      Planning
      Manage Architectural Elements of an IT Project Plan
      Understand Business Aspects
      Predicting and Forecasting
      Goal Setting
    • Core Skills
      Communication
      Presenting
      Speaking Technically
      Speaking non-technically
      Writing
      Documenting
    • Focus by Role
    • Skills by role
    • Ensuring Coverage
      ?
      Enterprise
      ?
      Domain
      Architecture Roles
      ?
      Technical
      Business
      Information
      Technical
      Architecture Areas
    • Closing
      One Architect can fill multiple roles and in multiple areas
      More than one architect may be needed for one area and role
      These are discussion points
      Mold them to meet your needs
      Understand the needs of your organization
      Understand the skills / focus for each role
      Take a proactive approach to the profession of IT Architecture
    • Thank You
      Christopher Grant
      CRGrant@gmail.com