Planning for Healthy Food Outside
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Like this? Share it with your network


Planning for Healthy Food Outside

Uploaded on

Markets: a brief historical view, followed by a discussion the contemporary issues of commerce, social interactions, health and environmental benefits, legal and policy considerations, and political ...

Markets: a brief historical view, followed by a discussion the contemporary issues of commerce, social interactions, health and environmental benefits, legal and policy considerations, and political benefits.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads


Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds



Embeds 1 1

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

    No notes for slide
  • Historical connections between state and society in marketsMedieval europe, Historically, vending was central, declined and is returning…vending served many purposes.CivicEconomicHealthSocial
  • Maxwell Street1932Socialized immigrants, employment, food securityCensus occ category - 1940
  • U.S. history…world history,Explosive release of energy
  • New york city svReleasing creative energies of Commerce and Cosmopolitanism
  • Downtown redevelopmentAct as an anchor for local businesses. Encourage spin-off development. Enhance real estate value & tax base. Keep dollars in the neighborhood.Employment and Job Training~Increased employment is one of the most obvious benefits of markets. They create job opportunities for farmers, vendors, suppliers, other growers, the list goes on and on. One of the biggest advantages is that markets have low overhead costs and provided unskilled employment. This is very important in terms of unemployment both in the United States and in the Third World. (Cross, Morales 2007).Additionally, being a vendorprovides endless valuable on-the-job training for life skills from money management to product knowledge to customer service.Business IncubationLow start-up costs. Markets create new business irrespective of income levels and provide them with staying power. Human Capital, Gross/Net Receipts, and Multiplier~Human Capital is the accumulation of skills and knowledge in a worker; essentially it is an economic value placed on a person’s working capability. As previously stated, the skills learned on-the-job are endless and generally can only be obtained through experience, therefore human capital of a market worker can be quite valuable.~By Gross/Net Receipts I mean money made in a market – how much a vendor grosses, how much they net after expenses – there is not much literature on this – and measures exist – but are not good – The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS, pronounced Nakes) contemplates street vendors~Markets are Multipliers meaning they have a synergetic effect on local businesses. There is inevitably “spillover” from the marketplace so businesses located near the market tend to see increased sales on the day the market is held. This is one reason why stores and malls are open to having markets meet in their parking lots.Promoting Local/Sustainable AgricultureSustainability is one of the biggest goals and greatest benefits of a market. “Markets often provide more lasting economic gains and healthier community impacts than what results from ‘big projects’” (Davies 1). Markets facilitate the cyclical exchange between local farmers and consumers that allow for local agriculture to sustain a community. Local Business Pros: Businesses that sell and rent space to vendors, businesses that supply farmers and vendors, surrounding business can see increased traffic on market days, markets make a space more desirable and attract more and better customers to the whole areaCons: Congestion from markets may block entrances to local businesses, vendors “forestall” off-street businesses, vendors competitive prices could lower prices for all businesses in area (Morales, Balkin 2000).Many markets employ the Producer-only Rule where all foods and goods sold at the market must come entirely, or almost entirely, from family farms near the market or within a certain distance from the market. This eliminates any “middle-man” from the market process and is intended to promote local farmers.Business PartnershipsBig businesses are progressively making an effort to partner with markets for several reasons. First, as previously mentioned, area business experience a “spillover” effect on market days. Secondly, the cost to ship food from the west coast is becoming less cost effective, so big businesses are purchasing locally.According to the New York Times, large supermarket chains are beginning to make a major effort to buy produce from local farmers instead of bringing in large shipments from the west coast. Many are also allowing farmers’ markets to set up in their parking lots and even inside their stores. (NY Times 2008).Public Investmentinvestment in a market is similar to other investments in places – have we measures or discussions of this? Probably so, when looking at the history of particular markets TourismTourism is lucrative and many communities make this an economic goal. For example, Granville Island in Vancouver was made over from a dirty industrial abandonment to a public market which has grown exponentially. It has become a large community recreational area and now is one of Vancouver’s biggest tourist attractions.
  • Social Encounters Over and over, people say that the reason they use markets is to see other people. Social encounters are a crucial part of the market experience. Why are markets a better social experience than a grocery store? The kind of interaction is the vital difference. Grocery stores foster ‘heads down’ retail encounters. A person is always looking on the shelf or in their cart with little reason to look up and around them, generally only socializing with the cashier. Markets, on the other hand, create ‘heads up’ retail environments where the surroundings are exciting and full of sensory experiences. People socialize with each other and numerous vendors. Diversity and Density~One of the greatest aspects of markets is their diversity between each market and within each market. On the grand scale, every market is different with regionally specific foods and goods for sale, the different local activities it fosters and the wide variety of people is attracts. On the individual scale, within each market, there are innumerable different fruits, vegetables, meats, flowers, art and crafts, and more. Additionally, there is great diversity in the people, both between vendors and market-goers. ~Markets prosper on account of their density. People tend to be drawn towards crowded places due to the social undercurrents and communal safety. Recreation and Multi-useMarkets are not just places to buy and sell fruits and vegetables, in fact, many markets are big community recreation centers. They offer activities such as arts and crafts for children, exercise classes for adults, parks and art galleries for all ages and so much more.Further, there are even farmers’ markets which are held on hospital grounds where they offer blood pressure readings and other health services to the public. Markets can house any number of activities and services for its community.Community Relations/Human Scale, Markets make a significant contribution to community relations and increasing its human scale. Congressman Earl Blumenauer said it best, “The public market is going to be key to whether or not we can give people the array of human scale, cost-effective, simple developments that will in fact bring people together … you have people of all different political persuasions, philosophies, economic backgrounds that are brought together because they love a public market.”Youth involvement Many markets make an effort to reach out to the community youth. For example, Brooklyn, New York has a community garden/farmers market internship available to area youth where they are taught how to grow and then sell fresh produce in which they actually keep the money they make in the process. Louisville is another example of a market with youth involvement; they have a Kid’s Café which serves freshly prepared meals for children in a low-income neighborhood that are not likely to eat otherwise. Public SafetyCongressman Blumenauer makes a great case for markets as public safety devices. “In many cases, we have opportunities for redevelopment of markets in areas that aren’t particularly safe these days because nobody goes there. As soon as you put people on the street they get safer overnight; it is the Times Square Phenomenon.”SERVICES….TO LAUREN…ON FOOD AND HEALTH
  • Rural/urb by land trusts as in Ann Arbor“Health and city design are inextricably linked, especially by public markets” (Davies 2006).Access to healthy food “A recent study of the food system in Detroit revealed that in three low-income zip codes, only 18 percent of stores selling food sold a minimal ‘healthy food basket’ from which one could produce balanced meals” (Hung 3). Vendors make healthy food more accessible to any person in a community in which it is located. It is clear that vendorsare needed in communities such as Detroit so that the people who need healthy foods the most will have access.Cost of Healthy FoodHealthy foods cost more in supermarkets than they do at markets; moreover, studies show that healthy foods are more expensive in low-income neighborhoods. So not only do markets make healthy foods more accessible to these neighborhoods, but more affordable as well.Increasing Physical ActivityCreating walkable environments“Markets can help increase physical activity and social and emotional well-being. If a market is well planned it is able to link to its community facilitating walking to and from the market, within the market and to nearby commercial venues. The increased walking is an important component of well-being” (Davies 2006).Health and Nutritional Education Markets are a conduit for health and nutritional information, services and products. Several marketplaces have incorporated health services and nutritional education that would otherwise never reach its community members. These services can include health screenings, immunizations, cooking classes and yoga. Psychological Well-beingReduce isolation and depression The benefits of healthy eating and physical activity are clear for a person’s psychological well-being. Additionally, markets also provide a place for social and leisure activity which improve a person’s mental health. EYES ON THE STREETPollution Pollution is an ever increasing dilemma across our nation. One way to lower the pollution rate is to decrease the food miles between food produces locally and foods produced internationally. “Food miles” are the distance food travels from place of production to place of consumption and correspondingly the environmental effect of this transportation. If food is produced and consumed locally, food miles will understandably decrease. “The majority of food trade, however, occurs between countries of similar natural environments that could be growing much of their own food instead of importing and exporting it. Several European studies on food miles have demonstrated that, in many cases, food is merely “swapped,” that is, a given country will both export and import the same item” (Bentley 2005).
  • The key is how to design, physical places and social organizations that foster the key elements of this in each particular context. Now I want to focus on the social-organization of vending/markets - Fulfilling these roles and Realizing this potential requires responsive constitutions, management and governance– the point here is that there are many starting points for successful street commerce – all imply relationships – flexibility and stability are hallmarks – we can expect markets/vendors to move from cell to cell over timeGovernment, profit, nonprofit organizations
  • Think of this as a fishing expedition, many to fish for, many environs to fish, many desirable traits, many useful tools, but even so there is a measure of uncertainty as well as a significant dose of serendipity and finally there will be unintended consequencesCapacity building – mixing types of governance
  • Experiment but REMEMBER


  • 1. Planning for Healthy Food Outside Presented by: Lauren Dunning, JD, MPH Los Angeles County Department of Public Health Alfonso Morales, PhD University of Wisconsin – Madison
  • 2. 1. Alfonso – Historical Considerations and Frame 2. Lauren – Legal and Policy Considerations 3. Alfonso – Research and Policy Implications 4. Lauren – Examples from Farmers’ Markets and Healthy Mobile Vending 5. Alfonso and Lauren – Concluding Thoughts Roadmap
  • 3. Brief Historical Considerations
  • 4. Maxwell Street, 1932
  • 5. Earlier Systems Of Exchange Economic Upheavals And Regulatory Changes Legitimized Marketplaces Legitimized Marketplaces Legitimized Marketplaces Modern Retail Changed Occupational Categories Legitimized Marketplaces Malls Legitimized Marketplaces Secondary Retail Legitimized Marketplaces Tertiary Retail Legitimized Marketplaces Online Markets Legitimized Marketplaces Marketplaces De-Legitimized Ongoing Practices And Struggles for Legitimation Re-emergent Concerns with Health, Employment Etc. Economic forms Politically (re)legitimized In Summary: 150 Years of Markets More Upheavals And Changes
  • 6. Contemporary Vendors and Vending
  • 7. Commerce • Enhancing Downtowns • Employment and Job Training • Business Incubation • Human Capital, Gross/Net Receipts, and Multiplier • Promoting Local, Sustainable Agriculture • Local Business • Business Partnerships • Public Investment • Tourism
  • 8. Cosmopolitanism • Social Encounters – ‘Heads Up’ versus ‘Heads Down’ • Diversity and Density • Recreation/Multi-use • Community Relations/Human Scale • Public Safety • Involved Youth • Services
  • 9. Health and Environmental Benefits • Food access and cost • Increase physical activity • Health/nutritional education • Psychological well-being • Connecting rural and urban
  • 10. Government Intervention for Health • Procurement and use of public resources • Incentives • Regulation
  • 11. Legal and Policy Considerations • State – State Food Codes • Local – Zoning – Licensing Legal and Policy Considerations
  • 12. Regulation of Use
  • 13. Research Findings • Should Government Allocate Vending Space? – Contingent on how many vendors are allowed – Means of allocation include lottery, auction, first come, rotation, networks – important to communicate goals for vendors • Should Goods/Merchandise be Restricted? – Contingent on public goals • How Might Merchants Contribute to the Public? – Permits – Taxation – Insurance…etc.
  • 14. Many Organizational Options
  • 15. Political Benefits • Revitalizing Public Spaces – Federal government program • Mitigating risks – Public safety – public characters • Public services – Civic engagement – Program participation Arnstein, Sherry R. "A Ladder of Citizen Participation," JAIP, Vol. 35, No. 4, July 1969, pp. 216-224. Accessed at: participation.html#download[coloration added]
  • 16. Foster Commerce and Cosmopolitanism • EXPERIMENT – Take lessons from other places • Vendors fulfill Purposes from Various Perspectives • Management and Internal Relationships – Stability and Flexibility can be won in many different ways • Governance and External Relationships – How do vendors and street food articulate with other elements of planning practice? Transportation, sidewalks, the food system, economic development…etc. What relationships are implied? – What do sensible regulations look like?
  • 17. Example: Farmers’ Markets Private Property Public Property Streets LA City X Code X Code (parks) X LA County X Code EBT X X San Francisco X Code EBT X Code EBT X EBT
  • 18. Example: Healthy mobile vending Streets Sidewalks Public Property Private Property New York Green Carts Kansas City Parks incentive Boston Healthy option Healthy option Healthy option Philadelphia Healthy carts San Francisco RFP
  • 19. Policy Ideas • “When you cannot measure your knowledge is meager and unsatisfactory.” Lord Kelvin – Enumerate markets/vendors – Census data – NAICS (category 454390), etc. • Vendors (and marketplaces) create dynamic places that: – Provide a mix of experiences, diversions and commercial options that appeal to multi-cultural and multi-generational patrons; – Provide visceral and visual experiences across time and season; that – Bridge the goals of state and society. • Micro loans and Business advice when desired – Allow businesses/vendors to remain small, but harness the income for credit – Seek out local/regional supply chain opportunities • Collaborate across agency, jurisdiction and organizational type – e.g. Business Schools, Business Improvement Districts, CBOs, Kitchen Incubators and Food Trucks, etc.
  • 20. Contact Information • Lauren Dunning:, 213-738-6107 • Alfonso Morales