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  • 1. The Meaning of Freedom:The ChurchTally Portnoi and Libby McKown
  • 2. • In “The Meaning of Freedom,” Eric Foner argues that following emancipation, African Americans strived to realize freedom by gaining control over all aspects of their lives: they stabilized their families, founded independent churches, established community organizations free from white influence, sought economic independence, and asserted their rights by becoming politically active. Through these efforts, antebellum free African American and Freedmen communities were consolidated and expanded to form the foundation of modern African American society.Article Thesis
  • 3. • Following emancipation, the church remained a focal point of African American life while being transformed and consolidated as African Americans established independent churches free from white influence.Church Thesis
  • 4. Separated from whitechurches
  • 5. Established completelyindependent black churches
  • 6. Churches: centersof community life
  • 7. Ministers thrust into politicalleadership
  • 8. Religion transformed:“chosen people” Identity
  • 9. • African American Teaching a Bible Class. 1900s. Photograph. Jesse Alexander Photograph Collection, New York City. Digital Schomburg Images of 19th Century African Americans. New York Public Library. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. <http://digital.nypl.org/schomburg/images_aa19/aa19c_info.cfm?>.• "A Slave Preaching". 1863. The Illustrated London News. Learn NC. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. <http://www.learnnc.org/lp/multimedia/11572>.• Crossing Red Sea. Photograph. Heavenly Accents. Wordpress, 24 Mar. 2010. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. <http://www.heavenlyascents.com/2010/03/24/the-exodus-narrative-as-another-creation-story-for-old-testament-lesson-13/>.• Moore, Joanna P. BANNER BIBLE BAND, NASHVILLE, TENN. c1902. Photograph. "Christs Stead": Autobiographical Sketches, Chicago. Documenting the American South. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. <http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/church_images.html>.• "Reverend Charles H. Pearce - Founder of the A.M.E. church in Florida". c. 1900. Florida Memory. Florida Memory: Division of Library and Information Services . Web. 3 Jan. 2012. <http://www.floridamemory.com/items/show/861>.• St. Philips Church, Richmond, Virginia. 1867. Photograph. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York City. Digital Schomburg Images of 19th Century African Americans. New York Public Library. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. <http://digital.nypl.org/schomburg/images_aa19/aa19c_info.cfm?>.• Stephens, Alice B. Church Scene with Worshippers. 1800s. 19th Century American Women. Blogspot, 31 Mar. 2011. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. <http://b-womeninamericanhistory19.blogspot.com/2011/03/two-paintings-about-19th-century-morals.html>.• Unidentified. Meeting in the African Church, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1870s. Illustrated News, p.276 , Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Photographs and Prints Division. . Digital Schomburg Images of 19th Century African Americans. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. <http://digital.nypl.org/schomburg/images_aa19/aa19c_info.cfm?>.• Unknown. "Baptism". c. 1905. James Branch Cabell Library. Special Collections and Archives; Valentine Richmond History Center . VCU Libraries. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. <http://dig.library.vcu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/cook/id/104>.• Unknown. Joseph Priestley, English Chemist and Presbyterian Minister. 1860. Oxford Science Archive, Oxford. Heritage Images. Web. 4 Jan. 2012. <http://www.heritage-images.com/Preview/PreviewPage.aspx?id=1158718&pricing=true&licenseType=RM>.• Walters, Alexander. NEW CHURCH TO WHICH BISHOP WALTERS CONTRIBUTED THE FIRST $ 25. 1917. Photograph. Documenting the American South. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Web. 3 Jan. 2012. <http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/walters/ill5.html>.Bibliography