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History 239
History 239
History 239
History 239
History 239
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History 239
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History 239
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History 239

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History overview for Comms 239, Principles of Journalism

History overview for Comms 239, Principles of Journalism

Published in: Education, News & Politics
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  • Transcript

    • 1. Historical Overview Comms 239: Principles of Journalism
    • 2. Penny Press Benjamin Day New York Sun Journalism History
    • 3. Yellow Journalism
    • 4. Great Newspaper Editors Benjamin Day Henry Raymond New York Sun New-York Times James Gordon Bennett Joseph Pulitzer New York Herald New York World Horace Greeley Wm. Randolph Hearst New York Tribune New York Journal Journalism History
    • 5. PhotojournalismThe emergence of a new journalism
    • 6. Milestones Leica: mass produced in 1924• Half-tone photographic printing• Gelatin-based film• Flashbulbs• Smaller, mass-produced cameras
    • 7. Photojournalism• Photographers no longer need permission or cooperation of subjects• Photographs more candid, intimate, immediate, episodic• Considered “objective” documents• News content in their own right, not just illustrations ancillary to the text
    • 8. LIFE Magazine• Founded in 1936 by Henry Luce• Instant success• Two million circulation by 1938• 22 million readers by 1944
    • 9. Robert Capa• Born 1913 in Budapest, Hungary as Andre Friedman• Escapes anti-semitism by moving to Berlin, takes up photography• Shows promise by photographing Leon Trotsky• Creates persona• Spanish Civil War: Moment of Death
    • 10. Walter CronkiteErnie Pyle Andy Rooney
    • 11. Edward R. Murrow – “The Murrow Boys”Cecil Brown Richard C. HotteletWinston Burdett Larry LeSueurCharles Collingwood Eric Sevareid Mary Marvin BreckinridgeWilliam Downs William L. ShirerThomas Grandin Howard K. Smith
    • 12. “I don’t make the infantryman look noble, because he couldn’t look noble even if he tried. Still there is a certain nobility and dignity in combat soldiers... With dirt in their ears ... They wish to hell they were someplace else ...Bill Mauldin They wish to hell the mud“Willie & Joe” was dry and they wish to hell their coffee was hot.”
    • 13. “I don’t make the infantryman look noble, because he couldn’t look noble even if he tried. Still there is a certain nobility and dignity in combat soldiers... With dirt in their ears ... They wish to hell they were someplace else ...Bill Mauldin They wish to hell the mud“Willie & Joe” was dry and they wish to hell their coffee was hot.”
    • 14. Voice by wireAlexander Graham Bell — 1876
    • 15. Wireless James Clerk Maxwell• Electromagnetic radiation theorized 1864 Heinrich Hertz• Transmission of radio waves 1887 Guglielmo Marconi• First wireless transmission 1895• Transatlantic wireless transmission 1901
    • 16. Broadcasting Reginald Fessenden• Wireless voice transmission 1906 Lee deForest• Audion Tube 1864• Broadcasts from Eiffel Tower 1908 Edwin Howard Armstrong• Regenerative Circuit 1913
    • 17. Radio Networks US Congress • Establishes the Federal Radio Commission 1927 David Sarnoff • Suggests Radio Music Box 1916 • Establishes NBC 1926 William Paley • Columbia Broadcast System 1928
    • 18. NBC 1921AT&T radio networkWEAF flagship station
    • 19. NBC 1921 1923AT&T radio network GE + Westinghouse = RCAWEAF flagship station WJZ flagship station
    • 20. NBC 1921 1923AT&T radio network GE + Westinghouse = RCAWEAF flagship station WJZ flagship station 1926 AT&T sells to RCA Becomes NBC
    • 21. NBC 1921 1923AT&T radio network GE + Westinghouse = RCAWEAF flagship station WJZ flagship station 1926 AT&T sells to RCA Becomes NBC NBC NBCRed Network Blue Network
    • 22. ABC• FCC declares NBC a monopoly 1940• NBC Blue becomes ABC in 1945
    • 23. Radio News• NBC establishes hard newscasts 1930• CBS’s Paul White establishes first network news operation 1933 RCA 44-BX
    • 24. Radio-Press War • 1922 - A.P. says copy is not for radio • 1933 - “Biltmore Agreement” • Two, five-minute newscasts per day (after 9:30 a.m. and 9:00 p.m.) • Networks respond with commentaryUPI “clacker” • 1939 - A.P. lifts ban
    • 25. Broadcast CommentatorsFloyd Gibbons Walter Winchell Lowell Thomas
    • 26. Hindenburg DisasterLakehurst, NJ – May 6, 1937• Reported by Herb Morrison, WLS Chicago• Recorded on “disc cutter”• Played in Chicago next day• First recorded news on NBC
    • 27. Mechanical Television John Logie Baird
    • 28. Philo T. Farnsworth • Born in Beaver, Utah (1906) • Raised in Idaho • Attended BYU (1923-1924) • Invented first all-electronic television (1926)
    • 29. High School Drawing (1921) Research Notes (1927)
    • 30. Dissector Tube
    • 31. Cathode Ray Tube
    • 32. RCAVladimir Zworykin David Sarnoff
    • 33. Edward R. Murrow
    • 34. See It Now“This instrument can teach, it canilluminate, and yes it can inspire.But it can do so only to the extentthat humans are determined to useit to those ends. Otherwise it isnothing but wires and lights in abox.” RTNDA Convention, Chicago, October 15, 1958
    • 35. Douglas Edwards
    • 36. John Cameron Swayze
    • 37. Huntley & Brinkley
    • 38. Chancellor & Brokaw
    • 39. Walter Cronkite
    • 40. Walter Cronkite
    • 41. Walter Cronkite
    • 42. 30 Minutes• CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite - September 3, 1963• NBC News “Huntley-Brinkley Report” - September 9, 1963• ABC News with Peter Jennings - January 1965
    • 43. Elmer Lower &the “Almost Broadcasting Corporation”
    • 44. The JFK Assassination Television News Comes of Age
    • 45. BULLETIN
    • 46. First TV bulletins
    • 47. Live for 56 hours over 4 days
    • 48. Vietnam
    • 49. Leading up to Watergate • Nixon runs on Law and Order platform and promise of “secret plan” to get out of Vietnam • Secret bombing campaign against neutral Cambodia • Congress twice rejects Nixon’s nominations to Supreme Court
    • 50. Leading up to Watergate• U.S. openly invades Cambodia, leading to massive protests• Four students killed at Kent State• News leaks
    • 51. Wiretapping• June 1970: Nixon agrees to plan for White House, FBI, and CIA to wiretap, commit burglaries and (if necessary) other crimes, in the interest of providing intelligence on persons disloyal to the administration• J. Edgar Hoover refuses to cooperate• Nixon authorizes wiretaps on 4 newsmen and 13 government officials
    • 52. Pentagon Papers • MacNamara orders a history of U.S. involvement in Indochina • Leaked by Daniel Ellsberg • Published in June 1971 by New York Times • Government sues for prior restraint • Other papers, including Washington Post, also publish
    • 53. Leaks & Dirty Tricks• Pentagon Papers a turning point• Nixon forms a surveillance team to plug leaks on classified information• “The Plumbers”• “Enemies List”• “Dirty tricks” campaign
    • 54. Campaign against journalists• Pat Buchanan suggests deliberate campaign to attack networks as small group of liberal elites• Speech given by Vice President Spiro Agnew • “Nattering nabobs of Spiro Agnew, the only vice president to resign while under criminal investigation negativism”
    • 55. Watergate Break-in • June 17, 1972: Democratic National Committee in the Watergate complex • Five “plumbers” planting listening devices are caught by Washington, D.C. policeWatergate complex – Washington, D.C. • Operation financed by illegal contributions to CREEP
    • 56. Watergate Break-in• Taping system reveals president participated in coverup
    • 57. Woodward & Bernstein
    • 58. End of an era• Brokaw - NBC anchor retired Nov. 2004• Rather - CBS anchor forced out March 2005• Jennings - ABC anchor dies August 2005

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