On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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Three Questions Today: 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ﬁnding information on the Web? 2. How do you identify reliable information on the Web? 3. How can you minimize the disadvantages and maximize the advantages?
Context: The Growth of Online Usage 1968 First Internet-type ﬁle-sharing1989 Tim Berners-Lee, working in Geneva (Switzerland) invents World Wide Web 1995: 9% of Americans are online 2000: 57% of Americans are online 2010: 79% of Americans use the Internet The Average American Adult Now Spends 13 Hours A Week on the Internet Source: Harris Polls
News Sites on the InternetVersus, How We Get News
Where Top News Sites Stand Overall Alexa.com Rankings 2011
Where Top News Sites Stand Overall #4 Overall #53 Overall #86 Overall #87Overall #44 Overall #1 Overall Alexa.com Rankings 2011
What’s Changing?Information Overload
Abundant information?48 hours of video are uploaded every minute, resulting in nearly 8 years of content uploaded every dayMore video is uploaded to YouTube in one month than the 3 major US networks created in 60 years
The Information Age?
News on the Web - Disadvantages Emphasis on Speed Over AccuracyBlurring of Lines Between News, Opinion, and Advertising
News on the Web - Disadvantages Abundance Doesn’t Guarantee You’ll Choose Quality“Disinhibition Effect” MakesComment Sites Troll HabitatUnderfunding of NewsroomsErodes Quality of Journalism With No “Filters” There AreAlso No Barriers to Partisans
News on the Web - DisadvantagesSpeed over accuracy
News on the Web - DisadvantagesLines blur between news, advertising
News on the Web - Disadvantages• Privacy and
News on the Web - DisadvantagesWith no Filters, Partisans face few
Did the characteristics of reliableinformation change when news moved online? Veriﬁcation Independence Accountability (Mnemonic device: “Via”)
News on the Web - Advantages• Fast • Customizabl• Convenient e• Democratic • Archival• Participatory • Multimedia
News on the WebUp-to-date…Always, EverywhereNew Forms of Delivery Make It
News judgment, democratized
The Web Empowers Watchdogs http://www.psdisasters.com
How the Internet is Changing the News With RSS feeds, you choose the news that comes to you.
News Comes To You, Customized
The Internet Provides Information in New Ways Newsday plots crime reports on a map
On the Web, You Distribute News News Can Disseminate Quicklyon Social Networking Sites Like Twitter
On the Web, you also gather news
The Consequence of Increased User Power is… You Have More Responsibility“With great power comesgreat responsibility,” -Uncle Ben
Your Responsibility: Judging Reliability
How Do We Know What to Trust? MartinLutherKing.org
How Do We Know What to Trust? MartinLutherKing.org
How Do We Know What to Trust?
How Do We Know What to Trust? Stormfront.org
Key LessonRank ≠ Reliability
How Do We Know What to Trust? Facebook Updates
Key Lesson:Popularity ≠ Reliability
Evaluating Web Pages: V • Dates for page creation IA and content updates are provided • Links are working (don’t lead to dead or outdated pages) • Information on the page is not out of date
Evaluating Web Pages:• Information is IA V independent and veriﬁable • Multiple sources are cited, ideally with a variety of viewpoints • Links out to reputable , independent, or authoritative sites • News and opinion are clearly labeled
Evaluating Web Pages: VIA The person/organization providing the information is INDEPENDENT, informed and knowledgeable. By virtue of experience, data collection, observation, training, credentials, access, they
Evaluating Web Pages: VIA • “About Us” easily found, and with robust information about funding, ownership, contact numbers for corrections, etc.
Look at the ‘About Us’ PageCan You Identify Who Is Responsible For the Site?
Who Runsthe Site?Look Up Who Owns andRuns the Site on “Whois”
.COM.COM can be purchased by anyperson or company from any country It is suggested that .COM bereserved for commercial interests(businesses). There are norestrictions for use.
.ORG.ORG can be purchased by anyperson or company from any country.ORG is often used to denoteOrganizations, speciﬁcally Non-ProﬁtOrganizations, BUT, there are norestrictions for use.
.NET.NET can be purchased by anyperson or company from any country It is suggested that .NET bereserved for internet providers andthe like, BUT there are norestrictions.
.EDU.EDU IS RESTRICTED! It can only be used by regionallyaccredited, degree grantinginstitutions. Each institution mayonly hold a single .EDU domain.Mostly used for US schools.
.GOV.GOV IS RESTRICTED! It can only be used by UnitedStates governmental organizations.Registration is done through theUS government directly.
How do we know WHOM to trust?
The above cartoon by Peter Steiner has been reproduced from page 61 of July 5, 1993 issue of The NewYorker, (Vol.69 (LXIX) no. 20)only for academic discussion, evaluation, research and complies with the copyright law of the United States as deﬁned and stipulated under Title 17 U. S. Code. 52
Information on the Web: Advantages and Disadvantages
Wikipedia EditsAren’t Always AccurateJohn Seigenthaler’s Wikipedia
Wikipedia Responds to Criticism and Adds Editors
Watch for tags, warnings, and captions . . . . . . which can help you spot problems in articles.
Shortcuts: Is It a Hoax? Check Snopes
Look who we found on Snopes…
Reviewing this Lecture: Information on the Web: Advantages and disadvantages How to identify reliable information on the Web How to Minimize the Disadvantages and Maximize the Advantages
The Big Lessons You have the power to slow down the rush of information Don’t Let The Speed of InformationDrive the Pace of Your Critical ThinkingRank and popularity do not guarantee reliability Remember VIA!
Due today • Final Essay • TV deconstruction assignment (NewsU)
Extra credit• Student rating of this class (release your name)
Final Exam• Emailed to you tonight• Four questions, 25 points each• Last half of the course