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351 lecture 9 351 lecture 9 Presentation Transcript

  • Week 8 Sources
  • • Take-home style exam • Submitted on Turnitin.comMidterm • Available November 2 Exam • Due November 8 • Short answer and essay on material presented up to Week 6. • Study guide now online
  • Says Who? Critical Evaluationof Sources interviewed for News Reports
  • Smart Questions About Sources: ü What is her/his self-interest? ü Does anyone else say so? ü Is it verified fact, or assertion? ü How would this source know? ü Who, exactly, is this source?
  • Critical Thinking is…Critical Thinking skills:
  • Why Sources Matter
  • What Are the ConsequencesWhen The Press Gets it Wrong? U.S. Invades Iraq to Capture WMD
  • Why Critical Thinking About Sources Matters
  • To Be Fair… "Saddam  Hussein  has  spent  the  be1er  part   of  this  decade,  and  much  of  his  na7ons  wealth,  not  on  providing  for  the  Iraqi  people,   but  on  developing  nuclear,  chemical  and   biological  weapons  and  the  missiles  to   deliver  them."                 President  Clinton,  Jan.  27,  1998.  
  • To Be Fair…          "Iraq  is  a  long  way  from  [here],  but   what  happens  there  ma1ers  a  great   deal  here.  For  the  risks  that  the  leaders   of  a  rogue  state  will  use  nuclear,   chemical  or  biological  weapons  against   us  or  our  allies  is  the  greatest  security   threat  we  face."                 Madeleine  Albright,  Feb.  18,  1998.        
  • To Be Fair…                "Fateful  decisions  will  be  made  in  the  days  and  weeks  ahead.  At  issue  is  nothing  less  than  the  fundamental  ques7on  of  whether  or  not  we  can  keep  the  most  lethal  weapons  known  to  mankind  out  of  the  hands  of  an  unreconstructed  tyrant  and  aggressor  …”               Sen.  Joe  Biden  (D,  DE),  Feb.  12,  1998    
  • To Be Fair… "He  will  use  those  weapons  of  mass  destruc7on  again,  as  he  has  ten  7mes  since   1983."                 Sandy  Berger,   Clinton  Na7onal  Security  Adviser,   Feb.  18,  1998
  • “The problematic articles varied in authorship and subject matter, but many shared a common feature. They depended at least in part on information from a circle of Iraqi informants, defectors and exiles bent on ‘regimechange’ in Iraq, people whose credibility has come under increasing public debate in recent weeks.” May  26,  2004
  • Today: Five Smart Questions About Sources: üWhat is her/his self-interest? üDoes anyone else say so? üIs it fact, or assertion? üHow would this source know? üWho, exactly, is this source?
  • Judging the Reliability of Sources Independent Sources Are Better Than Self-Interested Sources Multiple Sources Are Better Than Single Sources Sources Who Verify Are Better Than Sources Who Assert Authoritative/Informed Sources Are Better Than Uninformed Sources Named Sources Are Better Than Unnamed Sources (Mnemonic Device: I’M VAIN)
  • Judging the Reliability of Sources Independent Sources Are Better Than Self-Interested Sources
  • Self Interest vs. Selfishness IntellectualReligion/poli7cs Familial/Roman7c Financial
  • A Self-interested source…
  • An Independent source
  • Independence: Rival Praises FindingDecoded  DNA  Reveals  Details  Of  Black  Death  Germ Scien/sts  have  used  DNA  lurking  inside  the  teeth  of   medieval  Black  Death  vic/ms  to  figure  out  the  en/re   gene/c  code  of  the  deadly  bacterium  that  swept   across  Europe  more  than  600  years  ago,  killing  an   es/mated  half  of  the  popula/on... The  Natural  History  Museum  of  Denmarks  Thomas   Gilbert  is  one  of  the  scien/sts  who  tried  to  find  plague   DNA  in  Black  Death  vic/ms  in  the  past  without   success.  He  says  the  new  technique  used  in  this  study   is  exci/ng  and  the  analysis  is  compelling.  "Its  a  great   result.  It  looks  very,  very  convincing,"  Gilbert  says.   "Theres  no  reason  why  the  data  shouldnt  be  real."
  • NYT  –  (October  13,  2011)  People  with  eaFng  disorders  like  anorexia  have  this  source    self-­‐interested? in  the  insurance   How  is   opened  up  a new  baKleground  wars,  tesFng  hat  boundaries  of  laws  s  unreliable? Does  tthe   mean  the  story  i mandaFng  equivalent  coverage  for  mental  illnesses.
  • Independent Sources Are Better Than Self-Interested Sources
  • Independence: A Ruthless Standard
  • Judging the Reliability of Sources Multiple Sources Are Better Than Single Sources
  • Multiple Sources vs. Lone Source
  • Multiple Sources Trump a Lone Source?
  • Reconstructing the Blackwater Incident in Nusoor Square
  • In Pursuit of TruthBlackwater shooting
  • Judging the Reliability of Sources Sources Who Verify Are Better Than Sources Who Assert
  • Verifying or Asserting? The  Tokyo  ci/zens’  group…in   consulta/on  with  the  Yokohama-­‐based   Isotope  Research  Ins/tute,  collected  soil   samples  from  near  their  own  homes.   Some  of  the  results  were  shocking:  the   sample  that  Mr.  Hayashida  collected   under  shrubs  near  his  neighborhood   baseball  field  in  the  Edogawa  ward   measured  nearly  138,000  becquerels   per  square  meter  of  radioac/ve  cesium   137,  which  can  damage  cells  and  lead  to   an  increased  risk  of  cancer.  
  • Verifying or Asserting?
  • Sources Who Verify vs. Sources Who Assert
  • A Corollary to Last Week’s Lesson: Just Like We Always ask: “Did the Reporter Open the Freezer?” You can also ask” “Did the Source Open the Freezer?
  • Judging the Reliability of Sources Authoritative/Informed Sources Are Better Than Un-informed Sources
  • Authoritative vs. Uninformed
  • Authoritative/Informed Sources vs. Un-informed Sources
  • Judging the Reliability of Sources Named Sources Are Better Than Unnamed Sources
  • Who Was ‘Deep Throat’?The Most Famous Unnamed Source in History
  • Who Was ‘Deep Throat’?The Most Famous Unnamed Source in History
  • Who Was ‘Deep Throat’?The Most Famous Unnamed Source in History
  • Characterizing Unnamed Sources
  • Vaccines are Dangerous? Sez Who?
  • Evaluating Anonymous Sources Transparency Characterization Corroboration (evidence/sources)
  • Evaluate The Sources
  • Sources Outlets
  • Evaluate The Source
  • Judging the Reliability of Sources Independent Sources Are Better Than Self-Interested Sources Multiple Sources Are Better Than Single Sources Sources Who Verify Are Better Than Sources Who Assert Authoritative/Informed Sources Are Better Than Uninformed Sources Named Sources Are Better Than Unnamed Sources (Mnemonic Device: I’M VAIN)
  • Key Lesson:Evaluate SourcesEvaluate SourcesEvaluate Sources
  • Evaluate SourcesTo Find Reliable Information With Which You: Make a decision Take Action Make a judgment
  • Preparing to Deconstruct the News 1) What Do I Know? 2) How Do I Know It? 3) What Don’t I Know?
  • • Take-home style exam • Submitted on Turnitin.comMidterm • Available November 2 Exam • Due November 8 • Short answer and essay on material presented up to Week 6. • Study guide now online