Easc116 introduction

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Ch. 1 Introduction notes for EASC 116

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Easc116 introduction

  1. 1. Geology is a young scienceGeology = study of solid EarthRoots are in observations of natural world
  2. 2. Nicolaus Steno(1669)
  3. 3. 1669: Nicolaus StenoOriginated three basic principles:1) Superposition- in series of layers, oldest layer is on bottom
  4. 4. Steno’s Basic Principles2) Original Horizontality- sediments (layers) are deposited parallel to Earth’s surface- forces act on rx after they were deposited
  5. 5. Steno’s Basic Principles3) Lateral Continuity- sediment deposited to the edge of its depositional environment- rock layers continue laterally for a distance
  6. 6. Lateral ContinuityDetermined by fieldmapping or drilling
  7. 7. Principle ofUniformitarianism1787: James HuttonPhysical, chemical, & biologic laws unchanged through time- forces which appear small can produce features very largeEx: Colorado River and Grand Canyon
  8. 8. UniformitarianismImportant: Processes are the same, but the rates changeEx: Earth’s harsh early atmosphere & lack of plants speeded erosionEx: Banded iron formations
  9. 9. Physical GeologyStudies:1)Earth Materials - minerals - rocks
  10. 10. Physical GeologyStudies:- changes onEarth’s surface& interior
  11. 11. Physical Geology2) dynamic forces that cause change (both external & internal)
  12. 12. THEME: EARTH IS DYNAMIC! (and) Everything is connected
  13. 13. 4 parts to Earth’s system:1) Atmosphere- carbon dioxide (CO2)- free oxygen (O2)- water vapor (H2O)
  14. 14. 4 parts to Earth’s system:2) Hydrosphere – includes:
  15. 15. 4 parts to Earth’s system:3) Biosphere – all life4) Geosphere – planetEarth’s structure = crust, mantle, core
  16. 16. 4 parts are interrelated:Ex: Clear cutting a forestBiosphere:Atmosphere:Geosphere:Hydrosphere:
  17. 17. 4 parts are interrelated:Ex: Volcanic eruptionBiosphere:Atmosphere:Geosphere:Hydrosphere:
  18. 18. UniformitarianismImportant: Processes are the same, but the rates changeEx: Earth’s harsh early atmosphere & lack of plants speeded erosionEx: Banded iron formations
  19. 19. All parts are interrelated:Ex: building a damBiosphere:Atmosphere:Geosphere:Hydrosphere:
  20. 20. Glen Canyon Dam
  21. 21. ScienceAttempts to understand, explain, and predict events- collects data to discover patterns in natural world
  22. 22. Geologists at Work
  23. 23. Tools of GeologyRock Hammer Maps
  24. 24. Detective AnalogyGeologists are solving a mysteryScene of Clues Crimethe Crime Solved
  25. 25. Scientific ProcessAsk a question:Why doesn’t my #!*#*! car start?1) Collect facts by observation or measurement Gas gauge, lights, radio, etc.
  26. 26. Scientific Process2) Explain how or why it happens (hypothesis) Battery is dead3) Design experiment to test validity of hypothesis Try to jump start battery
  27. 27. Scientific Process4) Accept, modify, or reject hypothesis after extensive testingTheory – well-tested framework that best explains the observations
  28. 28. Scientific RevolutionNew information leads to a better explanation of observationsOccurs due to: a) new approach to the question b) new technology
  29. 29. Scientific Revolution in Geology
  30. 30. Continental Drift1915:Alfred Wegener- hypothesized the supercontinent Pangaea (“all land”)
  31. 31. Pangaea
  32. 32. 2 byo rx
  33. 33. Both 2 byo & ½ byo rx
  34. 34. Scientific RevolutionNew information leads to a better explanation of observationsOccurs due to: a) new approach to the question b) new technology
  35. 35. WWIINew technology = fathometer-used to map ocean floor topography
  36. 36. Harry Hess1962:Hypothesized sea-floor spreading
  37. 37. Plate dynamics
  38. 38. Hydrothermal Vents
  39. 39. Plate map
  40. 40. Plate Tectonics TheoryPlate – rigid slab of lithospherePlates move independently
  41. 41. Types of Plate Boundaries1) Divergent – plates pull away from each other- caused by magma rising to create new seafloor- “sea-floor spreading”
  42. 42. Types of Plate Boundaries2) Convergent – plates collideCan be marked by: a) deep-sea trenches b) mountains c) volcanic activity
  43. 43. Types of Plate Boundaries3) Transform - plates slide laterally - characterized by shallow EQ’sEx: San Andreas Fault
  44. 44. Geologic Time“Deep time”Earth = 4.6 billion years oldRelative Dating – putting rocks/events in chronological order1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.
  45. 45. Geologic Time ScalePaleozoic Era (“ancient life”) “Age of Invertebrates”- ended with largest mass extinction in Earth’s history(over 90% organisms were extinct by 245 mya)
  46. 46. Geologic Time ScaleMesozoic Era (“middle life”) “Age of the Dinosaurs”- ended with extinction of dinosaurs (66 mya)
  47. 47. Geologic Time ScaleCenozoic Era (“recent life”)“Age of Mammals”Will the Cenozoic Era end?

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