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Ch16_Atmosphere_students

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Student power point packet notes

Student power point packet notes

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Transcript

  • 1. CH. 16 – THE ATMOSPHERE
  • 2. Meteorology
    Study of atmosphere & its dynamic processes (weather)
    Weather – state of atmosphere at a given place for short period of time
  • 3. Meteorology
    Climate - compilation of weather over time for a region
    - changes gradually
    Ex: Ice Age vs. present
    Global warming
  • 4. Elements of Weather
    1)
    2)
    3)
    4)
    5)
    6)
  • 5. Heating the Atmosphere
    Radiation – energy transmitted through space
    Different types of energy travel at different wavelengths
  • 6. Heating the Atmosphere
    All objects give off radiation:
    Hotter object = shorter wavelength
    Cooler object = longer wavelength
  • 7. Solar & terrestrial wavelengths
  • 8. Steps for heating the atmosphere:
    1) Short wavelength solar radiation passes through atmosphere (uv & visible range)
    2) Earth’s surface absorbs solar radiation & heats up
  • 9. Steps for heating the atmosphere:
    3) Earth emits infrared radiation
    4) CO2 & H2O vapor absorb infrared radiation
    - “selective absorbers”
  • 10. Earth-Sun Relations
    Causes annual variations in seasons at a given latitude
    Rotation = Earth spins on axis
    Revolution = Earth’s elliptical orbit around sun
  • 11. Earth’s axis:
    Tilted 23 ½ o off vertical to plane of the ecliptic
    - points to North Star
    Most intense sunlight = solar rays striking Earth’s surface at 90o
  • 12. Earth-Sun Relations
    Know for each season:
    1) date
    2) location of vertical rays of sun
    3) nickname
  • 13. Controls of Temperature
    1) Latitude controls:
    a) Intensity = sun angle
    Most intense = 90o
    Lower sun angles = less intense
  • 14. Latitude
    b) Amount = length of daylight hours
    At night, Earth emits radiation w/o collecting anymore
    - coolest temp. = _____________
  • 15. Latitude
    Summer vs. Winter
    More daylight hours = Earth builds up surplus of energy (hot temp’s)
    Less daylight hours = Earth loses more energy than it gains (cold temp’s)
  • 16. Latitude
    Affects annual temperature range
    i) Closer to equator = ____ annual temp. range
    ii) Closer to poles = _____ annual temp. range
    Why?
  • 17. Temperature Range
    Difference between high & low temperatures
    - daily, monthly, annual
  • 18. Controls of Temperature
    2) Amount of water vapor
    Water vapor acts as a “blanket”
    • critical to daily temperature range
  • Arid vs. Humid Regions
    Arid regions:
    Daily temp. range is__________
    Humid regions:
    Daily temp. range is __________
  • 19. Cloudy vs. Clear Nights
    Cloudy night:
    Daily temp. range is__________
    Clear night:
    Daily temp. range is __________
  • 20. Controls of Temperature
    3) Land vs. water
    ____ heats more in summer
    Land cools more in winter
    Land has more variable annual temperature range than water
  • 21. Controls of Temperature
    4) Elevation – land height above sea level
    Cooler temp’s at higher elevations b/c:
    a) Further from main heat source (“radiator”) = Earth’s surface
  • 22. Elevation
    b) Less water vapor available in atmosphere
    Why?
  • 23. Controls of Temperature
    5) Geographic Position
    - prevailing westerly wind directions between 30o & 60o latitude
    • both hemispheres!
    Ex: East Coast vs. West Coast
  • 24. U.S. map
  • 25. Geographic Position
    “Landlocked” cities have _______ annual temp. ranges
    Coastal cities have ______ annual temp. ranges
  • 26. Global Temperature Distribution
    Figures 16.32 & 16.33
    Isotherm = line connecting points of equal temp’s
    NOTE:
    1) Isotherms run __________
    Why?
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. Global Temperature Distribution
    2) Isotherm pattern is more ______ in Northern Hemisphere
    Why?
  • 30. Global Temperature Distribution
    3) Ocean surface currents alter general east-west trend of isotherms
    “Gyre” = circular pattern of ocean currents
  • 31. Ocean circulation
  • 32. Ocean Circulation
    Poleward-moving currents are _______
    Equatorward-moving currents are _______
    Ex: Gulf Stream vs. California Current
  • 33. Ocean Circulation
    Affects temperature mean at similar latitudes
    Ex: England vs. Newfoundland
  • 34. January temp’s