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02_minerals_students_revised 02_minerals_students_revised Presentation Transcript

  • CH. 2 - MINERALS
  • MINERALSBasic building block of rocks>4,000 minerals identifiedMineral Definition (requirements):1) Solid2) Naturally Occurring
  • Mineral Definition3) Inorganic – no biologic origin4) Definite Chemical CompositionEx: Halite = Quartz = Diamond = Graphite =
  • Mineral Definition5) Ordered Crystalline StructureEx: Halite (NaCl)
  • Ordered Crystalline StructureDiamond = high pressure- complex bonding of carbon atomsGraphite = low pressure - carbon atoms bond in sheets
  • Diamond structure
  • Graphite structure
  • Mineral Definition1. Solid2. Naturally Occurring3. Inorganic4. Definite Chemical Composition5. Ordered Crystalline Structure
  • Structure of Minerals1) Atom – smallest building block of an elementComposed of atomic particles - protons (+) - neutrons - electrons (-)
  • Periodic Table of the Elements(p. 31)
  • Balanced AtomsAtomic Number = number of protons- defines which element atom belongs toAtomic Mass = sum of protons & neutrons
  • Balanced AtomsNumber of electrons = number of protonsRule:1st energy level = 2 electrons maxAll other energy levels = 8 electrons max
  • Atomic Structure
  • Balanced AtomsValence electrons = electrons in outermost energy levelAtoms bond b/c they want full outer shell of electrons
  • Types of Bonding1) Ionic BondingIon = atom with an electrical charge- caused by losing or gaining electrons
  • Ionic BondingAtoms bond b/c opposites attract (like magnets)Ex: Halite (NaCl)
  • Types of Bonding2) Covalent Bonding- atoms share valence electrons- outer energy levels overlapEx: Oxygen (O2)
  • Oxygen
  • Structure of Minerals2) Element – composed entirely of same kind of atoms - all atoms have same number of ___________92 naturally occurring elements
  • ElementSome minerals are elements:Ex: Native Copper Gold Sulfur Graphite
  • Structure of Minerals3) Compound – combination of two or more elements- characteristics are different than individual elements Ex: Halite NaCl
  • CompoundMost minerals are compounds: Quartz = SiO2 Galena = PbS (lead sulfide) Hematite = Fe2O3 (iron oxide)
  • Chemical Composition of Crust98.3% of crust composed of 8 elements (Figure 2.21)Other 84 elements share 1.7% of remaining crust- includes
  • Crustal Composition
  • Mineral Groups1) Silicate Group - 90% of all minerals Basic building block is the silica tetrahedron SiO44-
  • Silica tetrahedron (SiO44-)Negative charge bonds with positive ionsOther abundant elements of crust are positive ions
  • Mineral Groups2) Nonsilicate GroupIncludes:a) rock-forming minerals Ex: calcite
  • Nonsilicate Groupb) native elements Ex: sulfur, copper, goldc) Metal ores Ex: galena (PbS) magnetite (Fe3O4)
  • RocksAggregate of minerals (mixture)Some rx are impure quantities of the same mineral Ex: Limestone = calcite (rock) (mineral)
  • RocksMost rx are composed of several mineralsEx: Granite = quartz, feldspar, (rock) hornblende (minerals)
  • Granite & its minerals
  • 3 groups of rocks1)2)3)