T.V. shows have had a large part of influencing me. Once attending HS I went to tech school for biomedical technology, and CSI camp funded by the tech school. Which I might be working at this summer. October 6 2000
My whole project revolves around forensic science. The term defines the sciences used in solving a crime and also the criminal background and court dealings behind the crime.
Definition I like found on science. How stuff works. Article by julialayton.
Book: The Forensic Science of C.S.ICool change-“when a man is pushed off a hotel balcony (the hotel room and the sidewalk are the crime scenes.)”Table stakes-”when the C.S.I.s suspect a second murder took place on a property where another body is found.”Read the room- “listen to the body before doing anything. Assess the whole before looking at the parts.”Grid search-”investigators walk the approximate area, shoulder to shoulder, stopping only when someone in the line signals that something appears to be evidence. A flag is set down in the place where it was found, and this procedure continues until everything is collected.”No-knock warrant-”issued only if there is compelling reason to suppose that the evidence may be destroyed if any warning is given, or that the officer may be in danger.”
Corroborate-confirm or give support to.Book: The forensic science of C.S.I.
May change or be lostAssociated with specific conditions at the crime scene.Links a suspect or victim to a sceneBlood, impressions, tire treads, residue or evidence of the modus operandi (method of operating)Produced by physical contact with some surface
Chemistry- deals with identification of substances which matter is composed the investigation of their properties and the ways in which they interact, combine, and change, and the use of these processes to form new substances.Biology- study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution.Anthropology- the study of human kind, study of human societies and cultures and their development.
-Impressions from tools, shoes, car tires, fabric, and teeth-Body fluids such as semen, blood, and saliva-Biological evidence such as hair, fingernail scrapings, and body tissue-Tract evidence such as glass, plant spoors, fibers, paint chips, gunshot residue, and accelerants-Weapons or the evidence of them, such as shell casings-Questioned Documents, which include forged checks, fake suicide note, and ransom notes
Tools needed at every crime scene
Fingerprint kit-fingerprint powder in diff colors to go with diff colored surfaces and to apply to diff types of surface, also comes in fluorescent for use with ALS’s.UV lamp for illuminating powders, filter goggles, fuming glue (super glue) for lifting on rough surfaces. Cobex sheeting for handprint and footprints, photographic scales, a postmortem kit for taking prints off deceased victims, retabs to allow rerolling a smeared print and a palm print roller.
A side note in a article that seemed interesting
PO’s-first to arrive, arrest perpetrators if still present. Call for ambulance if necessary. Responsible for securing scene, no evidence can be destroyedCSI unit- documents scene in detail. Collects physical evidenceDistrict attorney- often there to help determine if investigators require any search warrants to proceed and obtain from the judge.Medical examiner- if a homicide, he/she could be present to determine a preliminary cause of deathSpecialists- (entomologists, forensic scientists, forensic psychologists) called in if evidence requires expert analysis.Detectives- interviews witnesses and consult with CSI unit. Investigate crime by following leads provided by witnesses and physical evidence.
Anthro- examines bones to help determine identity, also involved in time of death issues and forensic art (computer enhancement, facial sculpture)Artist/sculptor- provide sketches of offender use computer enhancement come up with a rendition of someone or uses 2 and 3 dimensional facial reconstruction on decomposed remains.Accountant- financial investigations for deducing motive and identifying suspectsBallistics-knowledge about functioning of fire arms and bullet projectilesBotanist- studies plant growth at crime scene and analyzes plant sporesChemist/trace- studies molecular component of pieces of evidence like glass, paint chips, fibers, and dyes. Also toxicology.Dact- analyzes fingerprintsEntomol- studies the developmental stages of insects to help establish a time of death or body dump sites.Geol-analyzes soil content to provide info about where a body may have beenGeo-use computer models to help find where a serial offender may resideLinguist-analyzes spoken or written word to match separate messages with single individual, probe underlying intent, and tell something about person’s educational level and reading sources.Mental health//- determine how evidence is to be interpreted by analyzing potential motives and criminal behavior from crime scene. Can also predict what serial offender might do, narrow down indentifying characteristics and explain puzzling aspects of a crime.Odonto- studies teeth, can examine teeth impressions, bite marks, and dental formation for identification.Serologist- analyzes body serums like blood, semen, and saliva, and offer info about DNA and blood pattern analysis.
Crowner-someone who collects taxes for the king.Pathology- knowledge about changes in the body after injury.
Inquests-a judicial inquiry to ascertain the facts relating to an incident, such as death.
“The weight of each ? Varies with the case. Some victims are known, others only suspected. A car crash victim’s time of death might be known to the second, but other estimates for time of death may cover a period of weeks and still be considered significant. Cause, mechanism, and manner of death determinations can, together, suggest how a crime or accident may have occurred. Cause of death is the direct agent that leads to a death. A bullet, poison, and electrocution are all causes of death. Mechanism or mode of death is what happened to the body as a result of it’s run in with the cause of death. If a bullet is swallowed it may cause no harm at all. If a bullet tears a gaping hole in the aorta death is almost inevitable. Bleeding into the chest cavity (with it’s attendant loss of blood pressure and other factors) would be the mode of death.
-C.s.I.’s need a Photo log to keep track of every photo taken in case one is missing that is important.-Certain Photo scales so the measurement of things is accurate like shoe imprints.-At least 2 photographs because one might be blurry.-Photos can be quickly developed with tools that plug into a cigarette lighter in their car.-First get perspective of scene and talk to the investigating officer or other technicians before photographing.-”Pan” the scene. To take overlapping shots or use a video camera. Makes for people who aren’t at the scene to get a good idea of it.-
Distortion-pull or twist out of shape.-sharp focus for best detail.Bodies are photographed from 5 angles: head to feet, right side, feet to head, left side, and straight down from above.When investigators were looking at Kennedy’s body the photographer had not written down if photos were exits or entry wounds and a scale wasn’t used for their size and also the photos of the internal organs were fuzzy and blurry. The body was no longer available and made it extremely difficult to solve the shooting.
Plan of operation-needed in order to minimize potential contamination of evidence.Spots of found evidence are all drawn later on a diagram of the whole crime scene and a notebook holds what each numbered marker stands for.-chain of custody- each person who handles evidence signs off on it, records what is done with it on what dates, and replaces it in its secure storage location.
Died in environment not considered hostile2. Fell victim to a hostile (unfriendly) environment3. The person caused their own death4. Someone else caused their death5. UnknownNot all homicides are criminal. Those that are include death by auto, manslaughter (recklessly causing a death) and murder (knowingly causing a death or bodily injury leading to death) and murder noncriminal homicide might be a killing justified as self-defense.
Unattended deaths- the person died in a place other than a hospital, hospice, or long-term care facility, and no physician had recently examined him or her for some illness. If physician doesn’t feel okay signing death certificate without examination, then death investigation ensues. If death is expected and there is no threat to anyone from it, then the investigator may let it go. They will look at the body again later at the morgue, funeral home, or hospital.
Velocity of the droplets-the smaller the drops, the faster they were moving.
When a drop of blood hits a smooth surface from directly overhead it tends to form a round spot. Drops from a greater height can form a “crown” –a round drop that hits bounces up then falls again to cause small droplets around the original drop. Math- by following the angle of impact back to the origin, the examiner can begin to determine the positions of both the victim and the assailant.
the field of forensic entomology has supplied important info about how bugs come and go from a corpse. The forensic entomologist is asked to estimate the postmortem interval based on insect activity. maggots
DNA analysis has been performed on Egyptian mummies.-blood evidence at a scene frequently comes from more than one individual either the attacker and the attacked or a number of victims
Clearly many of these sources will be submitted for more than DNA examination, so it’s essential that prioritization and joint handling procedures be agreed upon by all investigation members to avoid loss of evidence.
2. might be the case if reusable items like metal forceps are used.3. Even unconscious habits, like pushing glasses up on the bridge of the nose, can introduce investigator DNA4. Such as swabs6. Biological evidence
The outward spiral search: The CSI starts at the center of scene (or at the body) and works outward.The parallel search: All of the members of the CSI team form a line. They walk in a straight line, at the same speed, from one end of crime scene to the other. The zone search: In a zone search, the CSI in charge divides the crime scene into sectors, and each team member takes one sector. Team members may then switch sectors and search again to ensure complete coverageThe inward spiral search: The CSI starts at the perimeter of the scene and works toward the center. Spiral patterns are a good method to use when there is only one CSI at the scene.
Instruments- maintenance people for the machines and devicesSetup- separate spaces where evidence from the victim can be kept separate from evidence from the suspectTrace- examining how evidential material such as metals, glass, soil, fibers, plants, hair, and paint chips function in a crime
“each offers expertise to local agencies on criminal matters relevant to it’s responsibilities”
There are even more, this is what C.S.I’s have access to in order to solve a crime
It will then be subject to photographs, transportation, and other delays, and over that period of time there will be changes in the corpse.1. after death bodies stop breathing without oxygen, can’t maintain normal temp of 98.6 F body cools at one to one and one half degrees per hour until it takes on temp of its surroundings. If weather is cold, might happen quicker.2. also known as postmortem lividity or hypostasis. Dark purple color of the body that is found closest to the ground where it’s lying. 1 or 2 hours after death. Lividity is caused by the cessation of the hearts pumping action which allows red cells to settle into lowest parts. 3. bodies go limp after death but within 15 min to 15 hrs accumulating waste products stiffen the muscles. First shows in face, lower jaw, neck and over next 12 to 18 hrs spreads through body. Things that affect rigor are presence of heat which speeds it up and differences in musculature. Obese people fail to develop this stifness at all.4. if eyes remain open after death, thin film forms on surface. Potassium content from breakdown of red blood cells enters eyes and within 2 hrs to 3 hrs they look cloudy. Closed eyes experience same thing but it take much longer maybe a whole day. 5. based on assumption that stomach digests food and empties into the intestines at a predictable rate. Type of food the body’s metabolizing rate presence of drugs or medication and persons emotional condition prior to death. Exercise right before death can slow it down. Amount of food can do the same. Light meal-2 hrs. heavy meal- 4 to 6 hrs6. if witness can place person alive at specific time in a specific place then obv that person was not dead at that time. If she had an appointment and failed to show up that means she was not where she was expected.7. depends on environmental factors, such as air temp, whether body was buried in earth or left in water whether it was exposed to the sun or wrapped in a blanket. Or whether it was placed in a cool cellar. Injured areas decompose more quickly then other parts especially if there is an insect activity.
H Sgp Powerpoint 1st Submission
Forensics: Guide to a Crime Scene and Crime Scene Investigations<br />
Overview<br />Relevance<br />Definition of Forensics/Crime scene<br />Evidence/Training/Tools/Coroner<br />Photography/Blood spatter patterns/DNA testing<br />Application<br />Conclusion<br />Visit the crime scene<br />
Relevant To You<br />Forensic and criminal investigations are relevant to everyone because someone you love could be involved in a murder or there are wanted signs hanging around your neighborhood that scare you. There are people who work to keep you safe and when that fails, they work to put the criminals away.<br />
Forensic Science<br /><ul><li>A variety of sciences connecting to committed assaults in the legal system
Science and technology used to find unknown facts defying the court of law</li></ul>(“Dictionary.com”)<br />(“Freedictionary.com”)<br />
Crime Scene Investigation<br />“Crime scene investigation is the meeting point of science, logic and law. "Processing a crime scene" is a long, tedious process that involves purposeful documentation of the conditions at the scene and the collection of any physical evidence that could possibly illuminate what happened and point to who did it. There is no typical crime scene, there is no typical body of evidence and there is no typical investigative approach.”<br />(“science.howstuffworks.com/csi.htm”)<br />
Crime Scene<br /><ul><li>“A location where an illegal act took place, from assault to burglary to murder, and it comprises the area from which most of the physical evidence is retrieved.”
Criminalistics- connection of science to the “physical evidence, such as bloodstains, DNA, and bullet trajectories.”
Criminology- “psychological angle, which involves studying crime scenes for motives, traits, and behavior that will help to interpret the evidence.”</li></ul>(“Katherine Ramsland, The Forensic Science of C.S.I”)<br />
Evidence<br /><ul><li>Collected at the scene has many purposes:</li></ul>1.Prove that a crime has been committed<br />2.Indicated key aspects of the crime<br />3.Establish the identities of the victim or suspect, or determine what kind of investigation must be done to identify them and see how they interacted<br />4.Corroborate any testimony given by witnesses<br />5.Help to exonerate a suspect who is innocent<br />6.Provide leads for further investigation<br />7.Pressure suspects into giving confessions<br />(“N.E. Genge, The Forensic Casebook”)<br />
Types of Evidence<br /><ul><li>Testimonial-“Anyone who was near the scene and saw something.” These witnesses are separated, detained, and interviewed. Some write formal statements.
Physical-“Reserved for the crime scene technicians who are trained in how to collect it, and for the criminalists, identification technicians, or forensic scientists who do the analyses.
5 different classifications</li></ul>1.Temporary<br />2.Conditional<br />3.Associative<br />4.Pattern<br />5.Trace/transfer<br />(“N.E. Genge, The Forensic Casebook”)<br />
Crime Scene Investigators<br /><ul><li>Should have experience and background in:</li></ul>Chemistry<br />Biology<br />Computer programs<br />Anthropology<br />Police and court procedure<br />(“Katherine Ramsland, The Forensic Science of C.S.I.”)<br />
Trained Duties<br /><ul><li>Look for things that seem out of place (foreign elements)
Find and collect physical evidence for analysis with different types of equipment
Prepare detailed report and be capable to testify in court
Looking for: Fingerprints, Impressions, Body fluids, Other biological evidence, Tract evidence, Weapons, Questioned documents , Special evidence in cases of arson or explosions.</li></ul>(“Flikr/rafaelomondini”)<br />(“Katherine Ramsland, The Forensic Science of C.S.I”)<br />
What Tools You Need<br /><ul><li>Crime scene tape
Evidence rulers of different lengths or measuring tape
Evidence seals, tags, bags, and boxes of different sizes</li></ul>(“Howstuffworks.com”)<br />
What You Might Find In a CSI Van:<br />An Article by Julia Layton-<br />Hack saws, pliers, a pipe wrench, a pry bar, wire cutters, bolt cutters, shovels, sifters, a pocket knife, measuring tapes, orange marker flags, a flashlight, batteries, chalk, forceps, Vise-Grips, a compass, a magnet, a metal detector, distilled water, kneeling pads, and stuffed animals for child victims.<br />(“science.howstuffworks.com/csi.htm”)<br />flikr/jtl308<br />
People at the Scene<br />Police Officers<br />CSI unit<br />District attorney<br />Medical examiner<br />Specialists<br />Detectives<br />(“science.howstuffworks.com/csi.htm”)<br />
King would confiscate a deceased person’s property and the “crowner” would collect it’s taxes
The coroner would please the family with a decent cause of death
Medical examiners with degrees in pathology have taken over the coroner’s job today</li></ul>(“Katherine Ramsland, The Forensic Science of C.S.I.”)<br />(“Wsiuntangledweb.com”)<br />
The coroner Continued…<br />The coroner’s job is to:<br />Investigate all deaths by violence, criminal means, suicide, or unattended death<br />Order autopsies<br />Provide identification of victims<br />Conduct inquests<br />Hold unidentified remains in the morgue<br />Keep violent death statistics<br />(“N.E. Genge, The Forensic Casebook”)<br />
Autopsy's Goals<br />Determine the identity of the decedent<br />Determine the cause of death<br />Determine the manner of death<br />Determine the mechanism (or mode) of death<br />Determine the time of death<br />Manner of death can be: accident, suicide, murder, or natural<br />(“theforensiccasebook”)<br />
Snapshots of the Scene<br />(“Flikr/Johncarney”)<br />(“Katherine Ramsland, The Forensic Science of C.S.I.”)<br />
Good Photographing Skills<br />To keep in mind:<br />Set camera for correct exposure, record evidence that might be in a shadow<br />Maximum depth of field, with a smaller lens opening and with a shorter focal length lenses<br />Good perspective with no distortions<br />Sharp focus<br />(“Katherine Ramsland, The Forensic Science of C.S.I.”)<br />(“Viritech.com”)<br />
Preserving the Evidence<br />Plan of Operation<br />Fragile evidence is immediately collected after photographed<br />Special clothing and tools are used for biohazards<br />Evidence receives a numbered flag or marker where it was found<br />Collection of the evidence will be thoroughly threatened by defense lawyers for truth.<br />Chain of custody<br />(“Flikr/Tourista de mancunia”)<br />(“N.E. Genge, The Forensic Casebook”)<br />
Manner of Death into 5 Categories:<br />1. Natural<br />2. Accidental<br />3. Suicide<br />4. Homicide<br />5. Undetermined<br />(“Theforensicscience”)<br />
Human Remains<br />“Deaths not the result of natural causes such as disease or expiring in bed from old age, should be investigated.”<br />“Natural deaths should be investigated if caused by a contagious disease that could harm the community. All childhood deaths are investigated, and deaths of people in the public eye.”<br />“Unattended Deaths”<br />(“Theforensicscience”)<br />
Blood Spatter Patterns<br />“The physical presence of blood droplets– their shape and number, as well as the patterns made when they fell or were sprayed against walls, floor, or ceiling—tells a story.”<br />Wide and close photographic views of individual blood spatters<br />Scale and relative position are taken with the ceiling spatters<br />The shape and size of drops should be recorded with micro scales<br />Velocity of the droplets<br />(“Theforensiccasebook”)<br />(“http://wpsmedia.latimes.com”)<br />
Blood Spatter Patterns Continued…<br />A fog of tiny droplets indicated higher velocity<br />-gunshot or an explosive device<br />Large, slow drops relate to low-impact injuries<br />-a punch<br />Mid-speed droplets<br />-knife or blunt object impacts<br /><ul><li>Slightly slower, slightly bigger droplets result from a severe beating by hand.
The angles of impact is equal to the arc sin (width/length)</li></ul>Low Velocity<br />(“Theforensiccasebook”)<br />(“Studiesinbloodstainpatternanalysis”)<br />
Insect Activity<br />Showing that a body may have been moved<br />Serving as specimens for toxicological or drug analysis<br />Providing DNA materials from insect ingestion contents<br />Supporting or contradicting an alibi<br />Assessing when wounds were made to a body<br />(“Theforensicscienceofcsi”)<br />
Advantages of DNA Testing<br />Every cell in an individual’s body contains identical DNA. Fingerprints come only from fingers, but DNA can be found in blood, urine, feces, saliva, some hair, shed skin cells found in face cloth or toothbrush even in a sweatband.<br />DNA can survive longer than a fingerprint<br />DNA can indicate familial relationships<br />DNA evidence does not combine<br />(“Theforensiccasebook”)<br />
Fun Fact<br />“In the U.S., the National Institute of Justice has a checklist of items investigators should consider in determining where DNA evidence might be found and suggests the collection of these:<br />Fingernails or fingernail parings<br />Tissues, paper towels, napkins, cotton swabs, ear swabs (bag everything in a bathroom wastebasket)<br />Toothpicks, cigarette butts, straws, anything else that might have been in contact with the mouth, like cellular phones<br />Blankets, pillows, sheets, mattresses, dirty laundry<br />Head gear of any type<br />Eyeglasses, contact lenses<br />Used stamps, envelopes<br />Tapes, ropes, cords, anything else used as ligatures<br />Condoms<br />Bullets that have passed through bodies<br />(“Theforensiccasebook”)<br />chicouniform<br />
Investigators Have Rules<br />Bring lots of gloves and change often<br />Try usingdisposable tools<br />Hold individual swabs with disposable craft sticks prevents transfer of DNA evidence from one sample to the next.<br />Avoid contact between gloved hands and face or hair.<br />Don’t touch surfaces except with collection material.<br />Avoid talking, sneezing, or coughing by using a mask to keep one’s own germs off the scene.<br />Most evidence is damp and should be air dried, then packaged in non-plastic containers to prevent mold or bacteria from contaminating the evidence.<br />(“Theforensiccasebook”)<br />
Four Federal Crime Labs<br />FBI (Department of Justice)<br />DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration<br />ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms<br />U.S. Postal Inspection Service<br />(“forensicscience”)<br />www.highnoonfilm.com<br />Military placques<br />healthlawblog<br />deathby1000papercuts<br />
Also offered by the FBI to C.S.I’s:<br />Firearms Reference Collection<br />Standard Ammunition File<br />Explosives Reference File<br />Materials and Fibers<br />Cigarette Id (for butts)<br />Type-writer Standards File<br />Office Copier Standards File<br />Automobile Paint File<br />Hair Types (animal and human)<br />Tire Tread File<br />
Conclusion<br />My knowledge in forensics and the career of a crime scene investigator has excelled throughout the past year and a half. What I have found has proved that it is an extremely tough and serious career. It also takes years to reach the potential of getting hired to be a C.S.I. It has changed my mind drastically about my future.<br />
Citations<br />Barron's forensics the easy way / Harold H. Trimm.Trimm, Harold H. (Harold Henry), 1955- Hauppauge, NY : Barron's, c2005.<br />www.msc.navy.mil/.webloc<br />mentaldefective.files.wo#16CDA6<br />www.planet-csi.com/image#16D25E<br />article32.files.wordpres#16D1B9<br />www.loftmusic.co.uk/wp-c#16CD71<br />images.google.com/.webloc<br />flowtv.org/wp-content/up#16CD5F<br />images.buddytv.com/.webloc<br />Crime scene detective : become a forensics super sleuth, with do-it-yourself activities / Carey ScotScott, Carey. New York : DK Pub., 2007.<br />
Citations<br />Forgeries, fingerprints, and forensics / by Janice Parker ; [illustrations, Chantelle Sales].Parker, Janice. Austin, Tex. : Raintree Steck-Vaughn, , c2000.<br />World of forensic science. Volume 1, A-L / K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, editors.Farmington Hills, MI : Thomson/Gale, c2006. <br />Forensics demystified / Barry A.J. Fisher, David R. Fisher, Jason Kolowski ; with a foreword by PeteFisher, Barry A. J. New York : McGraw-Hill, 2007. <br />Forensics for dummies / by D.P. Lyle.Lyle, D. P. Hoboken, NJ : Wiley Pub., c2004.<br />Careers in criminal profiling / Janey Levy.Levy, Janey. New York : Rosen Pub., 2008.<br />CSI: NY. TV Guide, 9/14/2009, Vol. 57 Issue 37, p45-45, 1/2p, 1 color; (AN 44312494)<br />CSUF bolsters science. (cover story) By: Keller, Ben. Business Journal Serving Fresno & the Central San Joaquin Valley, 7/17/2009, Issue 324050, p1-4, 2p; (AN 43374469)<br />
Citations<br />Forensic Science Investigated. By: Glantz, Shelley. Library Media Connection, Oct2009, Vol. 28 Issue 2, p95-95, 1/8p; (AN 44773919)<br />GPS Forensics, Crime, and Jamming. By: Last, David. GPS World, Oct2009, Vol. 20 Issue 10, p8-12, 3p; (AN 44482555)<br />Irrefutable Evidence: Adventures in the History of Forensic Science. Publishers Weekly, 9/28/2009, Vol. 256 Issue 39, p57-57, 1/5p; Reading Level (Lexile): 1390; (AN 44524248)<br />Microsoft gives police training in IT forensics. By: Grant, Ian. Computer Weekly, 6/9/2009, p6-6, 1/4p; Reading Level (Lexile): 1170; (AN 42998813)<br />Scene of the crime. By: Clapp, Rodney. Christian Century, 6/2/2009, Vol. 126 Issue 11, p45-45, 1p; Reading Level (Lexile): 1160; (AN 41036620)<br />Should forensic labs be separated from law enforcement agencies? By: Thompson, William C.; Collins, John M.. CQ Researcher, 7/17/2009, Vol. 19 Issue 25, p613-613, 1p; (AN 43671488)<br />Sketch the scene to find the cheat. By: Callaway, Ewen. New Scientist, 10/10/2009, Vol. 203 Issue 2729, p11-11, 1p; Reading Level (Lexile): 1330; (AN 44642193)<br /> www.criminology.fsu.edu/#102952<br />
Classroom Crime Scene Activity<br />-Body moved to classroom<br />-Location- Las Vegas/King of Prussia<br />-Evidence- Massive knife, purple purse (victims blood on both)/cigarette, bottle (DNA, fingerprints)<br />-Victim- Taylor McDermott<br />-Murderer- M_ _ _ _ _ _ S _ _ _ _<br />-Witness- Elise Rhoads<br />
Time of Death<br />DI makes informed guess at approximate time when individual expired<br />Estimating:<br />1. Body Temperature (algor mortis)<br />2. Discoloration (livor mortis)<br />3. Rigor mortis<br />4. Ocular indicators<br />5. Food digestion<br />6. Personal factors<br />7. Decay/ decomposition rates<br />(“Theforensicscience”)<br />