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  • 1. How can Entrepreneurship be taught in Higher Education. Differentiated methods for Business and Non-Business Studies . INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION-A PRIORITY FOR THE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS CReBUS- 2012 8 - 9 OCTOBER 2012 BUCHAREST, ROMANIANothando Moyo (Cyprus International University, Northern Cyprus)
  • 2. Outline Introduction Literature Review Findings Suggestions Conclusion
  • 3. Introduction Entrepreneurship refers to an individual’s ability to turn ideas into action and is therefore regarded as a key competence for all . Entrepreneurship has always been regarded as something that people turn to when they have failed in the job market after completing their education or when the education itself holds no apparent value To incorporate entrepreneurship in higher education is necessary to stimulate the entrepreneurial mindset of young people, to encourage innovative business start- ups, and foster a culture that is friendlier to entrepreneurship It is acknowledged that the primary goal of entrepreneurship education at higher education level should be to develop entrepreneurial capacities and mindsets
  • 4. Literature Review Entrepreneurship and the Entrepreneur Entrepreneurship is defined by Kuratko (2003), as a dynamic process of vision, change and creation. It requires an application of energy and passion towards the creation and implementation of new ideas and creative solutions Entrepreneurship is the process by which individuals pursue opportunities without regard to resources they currently control. Entrepreneurship is diverse; it is comprised of individual projects up to large scale corporations however all these companies improve the statistics of employment in a country
  • 5. Entrepreneurship Education The European Union 2020 strategy has highlighted the need to embed creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship into education and they proposed a number of actions to unleash entrepreneurial and innovative capabilities in the higher education institutes in Europe (European commission, 2012). They listed some objectives they felt should be reached through entrepreneurship education, these being:- Improvement of the entrepreneurship mindset of young people to enable them to be more creative and self confident in whatever they undertake and to improve their attractiveness to employers.- To encourage innovative business start- ups- Improvement of their role in society and the economy. The entrepreneurship key competence being identified as a composition of an entrepreneurial attitude, entrepreneurial skills and knowledge of entrepreneurship, and this places entrepreneurship education at a pivotal role as it is at this point that the key competences are meant to be realized
  • 6.  Entrepreneurship education means developing a culture through, for and about entrepreneurship. Such competences are best acquired through people led enquiry and discovery that enables students to turn ideas into action It is really hard to change the education curriculum yet it is widely accepted that effective entrepreneurship education must be built around real world experiences, not textbooks Teachers rarely have entrepreneurship experience, or the right mindset. As such it becomes an interesting phenomenon as to how one can effectively teach something they have no experience about, to foster the right mindset of entrepreneurship to the students when they do not possess it themselves Traditionally, the education system has inhibited the development of entrepreneurial qualities because it taught young people to obey, reproduce facts and to engage in wage employment after finishing their education. In contrast, entrepreneurs tend to rely on their own judgment, learn through the process of trial and error and create and facilitate their own job environment
  • 7. Entrepreneurship Education with Technology Education without the use of technology in the current technological that the world has evolved into would be a blatant attempt of ignoring the importance of technology today. Entrepreneurship education should involve technology use as seen from the introduction of using second life Entrepreneurship education is a recipe in need of a vital ingredient, the ingredient being technology. Technology based innovation is acknowledged as being a key growth driver in the global economy therefore as entrepreneurship education is having significant positive impact on individual students, the university environment and society then entrepreneurship education opportunities should spread across institutions including science and technology departments (Byers, 2000).
  • 8. The Entrepreneurship Teacher The development of entrepreneurial mindsets is a burden that lies on the teacher, and as their role is central they need to be equipped with the right skills, knowledge and attitudes to be able to provide their students with the new curricular, pedagogies and learning environments that they will need if they are to acquire entrepreneurial competences Teachers feel educational and school cultures do not fully support them in fostering creative and innovative approaches to learning: this requires time to explore new approaches and a culture that encourages experimentation and allows for failure and all this in short is what they said embodies an entrepreneurship experience in the education system for the students. The entrepreneurship teachers are required to be flexible and to push boundaries with respect to established norms within education although still abiding by the rules and regulations of their institutions (Curth, 2011)
  • 9. Findings The importance of entrepreneurship education is being acknowledged worldwide with various amounts of research being carried out on the best and most effective ways in which entrepreneurship may be taught The teaching methods are both creative and innovative meaning that teachers are recognizing the fact that traditional teaching methods alone will not do justice to entrepreneurship education. The teacher is basically the one responsible in ensuring that the entrepreneurship education being matted out is relevant and beneficial to the student. Thus the burden falls upon them to come up with various ways to foster motivation and the entrepreneurship mindset in their students It was observed that only in developed countries, is there mention of institutions using technology frequently in entrepreneurship education, especially on the aspect of virtual learning in the form of second life and so on Entrepreneurship education is basically biased towards the Business Studies curriculum, very little has been said or done to incorporate the students in the non- business studies side of the education system
  • 10. Suggestions Higher education institutions need to get actively involved in entrepreneurship education Entrepreneurship education tools should not be left at the sole discretion of the teacher, making it their burden to approach existing entrepreneurs, should they wish to have them come in as guest lecturers or when arranging for site visits If the higher education institutions took the time to form coalitions with entrepreneurship groups and organizations they could establish long-term working relationships at the same time it would become easier for correspondence to take place between entrepreneurs and the students Higher education institutions should invest in technology that can be used for entrepreneurship education, in the same manner in which technology is invested for courses to do with information technology Higher education institutions should consider offering entrepreneurship education as part of the pre-requisite courses done by all students in all departments Higher education institutions should approach entrepreneurs that can volunteer their guest lecturing services for the long term as the challenge often encountered is that of continuity It is important for the institution and the teacher to work hand in glove in coming up with a curriculum suitable for entrepreneurship education
  • 11. Conclusion It is essential that a strong entrepreneurship foundation be established among individuals especially through the education system as this would ensure higher entrepreneurial success rates in the long term, and this success equally spells for economic growth, The curriculum needs to be adapted to suit entrepreneurship more than management or business studies courses. With the teachers and the institutions working closely together, the way in which entrepreneurship education is conducted will definitely improve Higher education institutions teaching entrepreneurship should strive to include technology use in their curriculum as the exposure would benefit both the institution and the students in the long run Entrepreneurship education should be granted to all students that register at a higher education institution regardless of the course they are taking or which faculty they may fall under
  • 12. Thank You.