Pp young people’s perception of gender differences
Young people’s perception of gender differences in the promotion of corporate social responsibility by Romanian entrepreneurs Elena Nedelcu Nicolae Titulescu University of Bucharest, Associate Professor, PhD
• The present paper attempts to find an answer for key questions concerning the way in which autochthonous entrepreneurship is perceived by Romanian young people:• If and to what extent do the young people perceive entrepreneurs as CSR promoters in Romania?• If and to what extent do the young people correlate entrepreneurial success with CSR promotion?• Do young Romanians consider that the promotion of CSR by autochthonous entrepreneurs involves gender differences?• Key words: entrepreneurship, corporate social responsibility, perception, gender.
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The integration of CSR in business strategies in Romania• “Responsible” initiatives of companies have been differently coined as: corporate citizenship, corporate philanthropy, corporate societal marketing, community affairs, and community development.• Marrewijk: three important perspectives concerning CSR: 1. The company is financially responsible only for its shareholders. “Business is business” and its role is to make profit. 2. The company is responsible for all stakeholders; on the other hand, there is responsibility towards society. 3. Business organizations – which are components of the social environment – are entirely held responsible towards society.
• Several reasons for getting companies involved in responsible actions: a) a pragmatic one: improving its image and consolidating profits on a long term; b) a deontological one: the company feels that – besides increased profit– it has a moral duty towards society and the community within which it pursues its activities; c) a third one, generated by social pressure: society rejects companies which do not act responsibly. (Iamandi Irina- Eugenia)
• Recent research points out that the preferred social investment domains in Romania, are: -training and professional development opportunities for employees (94%), -education (70%), working conditions for employees -culture(69%) and art (63%). (Diaconu Bogdan & Oancea Dana)• The main limits of CSR responsibility: transparency and credibility;• -61% of the entrepreneurs recognize that their companies are not socially audited and do not publish social reports.• -Only 24% of the companies – most of them multinational ones – are socially audited. (Diaconu Bogdan & Oancea Dana)
The objective of the research• The present study aims to reveal young people’s perception regarding CSR promotion by Romanian entrepreneurs within the relatively hostile economic context in Romania: the low employment potential and the low level of salaries.• The study attempts to point out whether young people perceive the existence of gender differences regarding the extent to which and the forms under which Romanian entrepreneurs promote corporate social responsibility.• - “Brush (1992) hypothesized that women view their businesses as a cooperative network of relationships rather than as a distinct profit-generating entity.• - More women entrepreneurs (73%) in comparison with the new male entrepreneurs (55%) have a degree in management and business administration (Driga Otilia & Lafuente Gonzales Esteban).
The material and method used• The surveyed group The surveyed group comprises a number of 276 young undergraduates and graduates aged between 20 and 35 years old, of whom 47.8% are males and 52.2% are females. There are at least two main arguments that justify the choice of the above mentioned surveyed group. a. In comparison with other categories of young people, undergraduates and graduates are more informed as to the CSR issue – a topic which has quite recently been approached by the special Romanian literature and the educational system. b. Entrepreneurial education especially addresses to young people and consequently it is necessary to know their opinions regarding the attitudes and behaviours of entrepreneurs.
• Inquiry instrument We have used as an inquiry instrument an opinion questionnaire made up of 30 questions conceived on the basis of the following concept scheme:a.Indicators concerning the entrepreneurs’ environmental performances ( their concern for reducing gas emissions, waste, the use of raw materials and energy, as well as for cutting down expenses / investments made for protecting the environment)b. Indicators of the entrepreneurs’ social performance, i.e.: b. 1 ensuring decent working standards and practices (hiring personnel, health and work security, training and promotion); b. 2 the observance of human rights and fight against discrimination at the workplace (freedom of association and negotiation, participation in decision-making, ensuring equality of chances etc.); b. 3 implementing programmes and practices that are meant to develop communities (and generate positive effects for the entire community) through: investments in education, research, philanthropic activities, promoting excellence and civic initiative.
Young people’s perception regarding the environmental performance of Romanian entrepreneurs• Reducing quantities of waste - female entrepreneurs Very large extent – 2,75% Large extent– 17, 43 % Medium – 23, 85 % Small – 27, 52 % Very small/ Don’t know- 28, 44%
- male entrepreneurs Very large extent – 4, 59 % Large extent – 16, 51 % Medium – 20, 18 % Small – 31, 19 % Very small/ Don’t know- 27, 52%
• spent money for environmental protection - female entrepreneurs Very large extent – 7, 25 % Large extent – 10, 14 % Medium – 21, 01 % Small – 44, 20 % Very small/ Don’t know- 17, 39 %
- male entrepreneurs Very large extent – 3, 62 % Large extent – 11, 59 % Medium – 19, 57 % Small – 46, 38 % Very small/ Don’t know- 18, 84 %
Young people’s perception regarding the Romanian entrepreneurs’ social performance• Relations with the local community
• Implementing health programmes for their employees
• attention to practices for preventing accidents at the workplace- female entrepreneurs - male entrepreneurs• Very large extent – 16, 67% - 8, 70 %• Large extent – 15, 22 % - 10, 87 %• Medium – 35, 51 % - 42, 03 %• Small – 20, 29 % - 22, 46%• Very small - 12, 32% - 15, 94 %
ConclusionsThe present research reveals that – according to young people –the implementation by Romanian entrepreneurs of CSR issignificantly deficient.Those who answered the questionnaire appreciate that mostentrepreneurs are low in environmental performance. The situationis similar as regards social performances.Apart from similitudes, young people also perceive the existence ofgender differences as regards the large or significantly large extentto which entrepreneurs promote CSR. In the opinion of youngpeople, gender differences more frequently favour womenentrepreneurs. The surveyed group appreciates that womenentrepreneurs’ performances regarding certain CSR sub-indicators(waste reduction, implementation of health programmes foremployees or of practices that are meant to prevent accidents atthe workplace or of philanthropic activities etc.) are higher thanthose of men.