Ir pierādīta 5. tēze “ Studiju ceļi, atbirums un sasniegumi augstākajā izglītībā vīriešiem un sievietēm atšķiras ” (attiecībā uz Latvijas Universitātes studentiem): Latvijas Universitātē vislielākā varbūtība iegūt pirmā līmeņa augstāko izglītību (bakalaura grādu vai kvalifikāciju) ir 4. un 5. gadā pēc iestāšanās universitātē, bet lielākā varbūtība iegūt otrā līmeņa augstāko izglītību (maģistra grādu vai ekvivalentu kvalifikāciju) – 6. studiju gadā pēc iestāšanās. Kopš iestāšanās pirmajā gadā pirmā līmeņa augstākās izglītības programmā sievietes pavada ilgāku laiku studējot. Studiju cikla sākumā sieviešu procentuālā dalība studijās ir augstāka, bet ar laiku samazinās un vēlākos gados izlīdzinās ar vīriešiem. Raksturīgi, ka pēc 6. studiju gada vīrieši pavada pamatstudijās vairāk laika nekā sievietes. Tāpat vīrieši pavada vairāk laika augstākā līmeņa studijās 4. un 5. studiju gadā, norādot, ka vīrieši ātrāk uzsāk augstākā līmeņa studijas, bet vēlākos gados sievietes augstākā līmeņa studijām velta vairāk laika. Pārejas starp pirmā līmeņa un otrā līmeņa programmām vīriešiem notiek agrāk nekā sievietēm, bet pārejas no ārpus izglītības uz otrā līmeņa studijām ir vairāk novērojamas sievietēm. Tas norāda, ka sievietes biežāk nekā vīrieši izvēlas paņemt studijās pārtraukumu starp pirmā un otrā līmeņa studijām, turpretī vīrieši relatīvi biežāk uzreiz pēc pirmā līmeņa programmas pabeigšanas iestājas otrā līmeņa programmā. Tas daļēji skaidrojams ar dzimumu neviendabīgu izkliedi studiju programmās un dzimumu specifisko programmu eksistenci. Iestājoties terciārajā izglītībā, sagaidāmais studiju ilgums sievietēm ir 3,89 gadi pamatstudijās un 0,77 gadi augstākā līmeņa studijās. Vīriešiem sagaidāmais studiju ilgums ir 3,70 gadi pamatstudijās un 0,74 gadi augstākā līmeņa studijās. Kopējais paredzamais studiju ilgums sievietēm ir garāks kā vīriešiem. Varbūtība iegūt izglītību starp tiem, kas iesākuši studēt, atšķiras starp dzimumiem. 67% sieviešu, bet tikai 50% vīriešu, kas uzsāk mācības LU pamatstudijās, pabeidz bakalaura programmu. Augstākā līmeņa studijās atšķirība starp dzimumiem ir mazāka, bet joprojām eksistējoša – attiecīgi 21 un 18 %. Līdzīga proporcija vīriešu un sieviešu pabeidz pamatstudijas 4 gadu laikā, atšķirības starp dzimumiem parādās tālākos studiju gados, un var apgalvot, ka sievietes mērķtiecīgāk turpina iesāktās studijas un pabeidz tās, pat ja tas prasa vairāk laika (piemēram, vairākus akadēmiskos pārtraukumus). Sievietēm un vīriešiem, kas uzsākuši studijas uzreiz pēc vidusskolas, varbūtība pabeigt iesākto programmu 5, 6 un 7 gadu laikā būtiski atšķiras (attiecīgi - 53 un 42, 61 un 46, 64 un 48 %).
Krumins crebus bucharest_2012
International conference “Entrepreneurship education - a priority for the higher education institutions” 8 - 9 October 2012 Bucharest, Romania Juris Krumins University of Latvia, RigaAcquisition of entrepreneurial skills during and after university studies: case of Latvia 1
Population: 2.07 millions (2011)Number of students: 97 035or 4.7 % of total population.Enrollees 31 941; Graduates 24 82533 HE institutions (2011): - 17 state (incl. 6 Universities), - 16 private,+24 HE colleges - 17 state - 7 private 2
Coordination in HE AcademicsState Market Clark (1983)
Number of study places in Latvia’s higher education institutions andcolleges, subsidized by state or local government budget or covered by tuition fee as private contribution (at the beginning of academic year) 7
Growing global competitiveness and recent economic crisis has underlined a need for wider acquisition of entrepreneurial skills by university students from all study areas, particularly in the Central and East European countries.The goal of this study is to analyze acquisition of entrepreneurial skills during and after university studies in Latvia. Study covers formal academic and professional higher education and continuing education. 8
Student and graduate statistics aregathered and analyzed in Latvia oninstitutional, regional and national level(see: csb.gov.lv; izm.gov.lv)Surveys and interviews are performed onregular basis.Self evaluation and external evaluationreports are available publicly for allstudy programs and institutions of highereducation (see: Centre of QualityAssurance in Higher Education -www.aiknc.lv )
Data and methods Two sample survey data are used in the analysis1) Survey-I of 2,491 graduates from Latvian higher education institutions (years2003 and 2005), performed during 2006-2007. Stratified random sampling.Respondents were selected from the academic databases of more than 30institutions of higher education (including colleges).85% of all interviewed graduates were employees, 5% employers, 3% self-employed and rest were nonworking.2) Survey-II of 4,909 university graduates having the last university diploma since2006, performed during Nov.-Dec. 2011. Respondents of that Internet survey wereselected from the academic databases of all six Latvia’s universities (University ofLatvia, Riga Technical University, Latvia University of Agriculture, LiepajaUniversity, Daugavpils University, Riga Stradins University).Among all respondents 78% studied full-time and 22% part-time, 94% resided inLatvia, but 6% abroad. 10
Net salary of graduates during previous month by types of study programs (Data: Survey-I, n=2491) 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 LVL 100 50 0 Pro BA Pro MA f-1 f-2* 11
Students employed during studies by types of study programs (Data: Survey-I, n=2491) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 % 30 20 10 0 BA Prof- Prof- MA 1 2 12
„Was your work during studies related to qualification acquired in education institution?” (Data: Survey-I, n=2491) (subjective assessment)60504030 % of empl. students2010 0 Completely Partially Not at all 13
Graduation probabilities with the 1st cycle or 2nd cycle diploma by years of education (per cent of the initial cohort, University of Latvia - 2002) 3 years 4 years 5 years 6 years 7 years 8 years1st cycle Males 1.8 29.5 41.6 45.9 47.3 49.6 Females 2.8 30.4 53.3 60.7 63.3 66.3 M + F 2.5 30.1 50.2 56.6 58.8 61.62nd cycle Males 0 0 1.0 11.8 16.4 17.3 Females 0 0 1.2 11.9 19.0 20.1 M + F 0 0 1.2 11.9 18.3 19.3 Source: Cunska Zane 2012.
Net salary (LVL) of employed graduates according to compliance to acquired qualification by education programme groups Education programme Profession comply with Profession does not comply group qualification with qualificationPedagogic education 218 (100%) 277 (127%)Humanities & arts 287 (100%) 327 (114%)Natural sciences 370 (100%) 335 (91%)Agriculture 240 (100%) 276 (115%)Health care & social welfare 266 (100%) 394 (148%)Services 348 (100%) 294 (84%)Commerce & administration 373 (100%) 327 (88%)Law 505 (100%) 271 (54%)Engineering 413 (100%) 374 (91%) 15
Higher Education Council. European Social Fund Project “Evaluation of Higher Education Study Programmes and proposals for Quality Improvement”. Retrieved 14 August 2012 from http://www.aip.lv/eng_tasks_ESF_proj_about.htmAccording to information from academic data-bases, site visits, self- evaluation and external evaluation all study programmes by the Project in the June 2012 were grouped in three groups –1) qualitative and sustainable programmes;2) programmes requiring improvements,3) programmes which usefulness is questionable.Among evaluated 854 study programmes 58 or 7% were assigned to the third group, which mostly included programmes in social science and business administration. Experts proposed to finish dividing study programmes in academic and professional and to secure integration of academic competencies and professional skills. 16
Demand to increase a role of professional / entrepreneurial skillsAll tertiary study programmes in Latvia are designed according to the StateStandards for education and are divided in two groups – academic andprofessional.Standard form 2001 introduced regulation for so-called integratedacademic-professional study programmes – higher professional educationBachelor’s and Master’s study programmes, graduates of which areawarded both academic degree and qualification. State Standard defines alength of internship period and acquisition of entrepreneurial skills forprofessional programmes only.Content of academic study programs in that respect relay on institutions ofhigher education. In the large part of academic study programs modules orcourses in entrepreneurship and periods of internship are missing.Experts proposed to finish dividing study programmes in academic andprofessional and to secure integration of academic competencies andprofessional skills 17
Survey II (n=4909 university graduates).Average assessments to given statements were calculated, using a six point scale:0 – not acquired, 1 – at very low level, 2 – at low level, 3 – at medium level, 4 – athigh level, 5 – at very high level.Question: “To what extent that statement “N” characterize your university educationin general?”The highest assessment: “Obtained education is sufficient to continue studies”-3.25,The lowest assessment: “Obtained education sufficiently contributed toformation/development of entrepreneurial skills” – 2.22 .Question: “Evaluate please, a level of knowledge and skills obtained during youruniversity studies”The highest assessment: “Theoretical competency in a chosen field of study” – 3.68,The lowest assessment: “Skills necessary to begin entrepreneurial activity” – 1.90.Consequently - There is a well-grounded need to complement existing universitystudy programs by adding training of entrepreneurial skills and career development. 18
Both Surveys reported rather weak entrepreneurial activity of graduates to start or continue own business. Graduates according to the Survey I (n=2491) results were: employees 85%, jobless (students, housekeepers etc.) 8%, employers 5% and self- employed 2%. Answers to the question “Your activities during the six months aftergraduation of university” in Survey II (n=4909) were distributed by graduatesas follows (note: respondents could give a several answers to that question, therefore a sum exceeds 100%): Continuation of the same employment as during a studies 61.8 Continuation of studies 28.7 Found a new job 17.7 Looking for employment, but did not found 10.3 Started own business or self-employment 2.8 Other 1.4 19
Ambition to start own business could be realized after completion of studies - during a longer time period! Answers to question “Are you planning to start your own entrepreneurialactivity during the next three years”, given by university graduates, who are not employers or self-employed (n=4459), look more promising: All answers 100% of which I am not planning to go into business 40.3 I am planning to establish a new company/business 10.0 I am planning to go into self-employment 4.1 I am planning to buy existing company/business 0.3 Hard to say 45.3 20
Respondents (n=4459) presented following answers to the question “What factors, by your mind hinder to start your own entrepreneurial activity or to go into self- employment?”(Note: respondents could give a several answers to that question; therefore a sum exceeds 100%): Lack of financial support 46.2 Lack of proficiency/skills to start and to develop own business 31.8 Fear to take a risk of failure or bankruptcy 27.6 No guarantees for a regular income 27.5 Complicated administrative procedures 25.2 Now idea how to start business 23.5 Lack of initiative to start an entrepreneurial activity 19.4 None hindrance 9.5 21 Hard to say 7.3
Collaboration between the universities and companiesImportant impulse in strengthening collaboration between the universities and companies usually is given by graduates. Results of the Survey II confirmed that 67.6 per cent ofgraduates, who are employers and self-employed (n=450),are interested in further collaboration with universities. 22
Table. Evaluation of intensiveness of collaboration between companies anduniversity, Latvia 2011Source: Survey II (n = 450). * Respondents, who are employers or self-employed. Of which - evaluation of intensiveness of activity given All by graduates* Activity answers, % Never Rarely Regularly Hard to sayProvision of site for field practice 100.0 38.9 26.0 28.7 6.4Continuing education of employees 100.0 40.4 25.8 25.6 8.2Transfer of knowledge, innovations 100.0 42.0 23.1 23.8 11.1Recruitment of university academic 100.0 44.2 23.1 24.7 8.0staffParticipation in curriculum 100.0 55.1 22.2 14.5 8.2development and guest lecturingResearch funding and co- 100.0 60.0 17.1 12.9 10.0partnershipParticipation in career promotion 100.0 64.0 17.6 9.3 9.1activitiesGrants and sponsorship 100.0 69.6 14.0 8.0 238.4
Innovations focused on acquisition of entrepreneurial skills and careerdevelopmentNew interdisciplinary centres and units are established, which are oriented toacquisition of entrepreneurial skills, professional and career development,technology transfer and innovations:University of Latvia – Career Centre, Innovation Centre, Management andBusiness Education Centre;Riga Technical University – Innovation and Technology Transfer Centre, BusinessIncubator;Latvia University of Agriculture - Business and Technology Incubator, Centre forLife-long Learning;Daugavpils University – Professional Development Centre, Technology TransferOffice;Riga Stradins University – Technology Transfer Office.Joint centres established together by several institutions of higher education,companies and municipalities - Latvia Technology Park, Kurzeme BusinessIncubator, Rezekne Innovation Centre, Ventspils High Technology Park, JelgavaBusiness Incubator, Valmiera Business and Innovation Incubator.The main activities of technology, business and innovation centres are to supportinnovative entrepreneurship activities, to offer consultancy services, to assist infinding partners, to involve in activities students and graduates motivated in 24business.
Continuing educationTable. Continuation of formal and informal education in Latvia (per cent of graduates from previous level of education) Source: Survey I (n=2491).Note: The sum of proportions in per cent exceeds 100 per cent due to overlapping of answers concerning continuation of different forms of education. Formal Informal Professional education education retraining courses 1st level professional higher 47 44 26 education (college) 2nd level professional higher 38 49 31 education (after completed secondary education) Academic bachelor degree 63 43 26 2nd level professional higher 23 61 43 education (after obtained higher education diploma) Academic Master degree 19 66 44 25
Conclusions• There is a well-grounded need to complement existing university study programs by adding training of entrepreneurial skills and counseling activities. Work experience, quality of acquired theoretical knowledge and professional skills are highly evaluated in the labour market. Proffessional experience also influences remuneration.• The key forms of further collaboration between companies and university are: provision of site for field practice, guest lecturing, mentoring, exchange of information and experience, recruitment of graduates and students, joint research projects. 26
Informal education and professional retraining courses also plays animportant role in acquisition of entrepreneurial skills. Necessaryimprovements in training of professional/entrepreneurial skills are stressed byexternal experts involved in the evaluation of study programs.Further strengthening of ties between the companies and universities couldbenefit in transfer entrepreneurial skills to academic staff and students.Business incubators and Innovation centers are important facilitators of thetransfer of skills and ideas.Reforms in higher education in Latvia envisage greater integration ofacademic and professional study programs, closer cooperation of educationinstitutions with employers and professional associations in curriculumdevelopment, teaching, and training of entrepreneurial skills. 27
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