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The copycompilation 2009 Document Transcript

  • 1. thecopycompilation http://creativeclassics.blogspot.com maggio 2009
  • 2. FCB grid (vecchio arnese) può essere utile per posizionare un prodotto/marca e per valutarne iprogressivi spostamenti verso quadranti diversi.
  • 3. Brand touchpoints,Alina Wheeler: http://alinawheeler.com/brand-touchpointsBrand love,David Armano: http://darmano.typepad.com/logic_emotion/2006/06/brand_love.html
  • 4. Unidea deve potersi adattare ai diversi canali di comunicazione.Dalle caratteristiche di prodotto ai vantaggi, ai valori: una scala da salire/scendere per trovare unapromessa rilevante per il target.
  • 5. 50 Reasons Why People Buyhttp://www.mortongregory.com/downloads/50_Reasons_Why_People_Buy.htm1. To make more money – even though it can’t buy happiness2. To become more comfortable – even a bit more3. To attract praise – because almost everybody loves it4. To increase enjoyment – of life, of business, of virtually anything5. To possess things of beauty – because they nourish the soul6. To avoid criticism – which nobody wants7. To make their work easier – a constant need to many people8. To speed up their work – because people know that time is precious9. To keep up with the Joneses – there are Joneses in everybody’s lives10. To feel opulent – a rare, but valid reason to make a purchase11. To look younger – due to the reverence placed upon youthfulness12. To become more efficient – because efficiency saves time13. To buy friendship – I didn’t know it’s for sale, but it often is14. To avoid effort – because nobody loves to work too hard15. To escape or avoid pain – which is an easy path to making a sale16. To protect their possessions – because they worked hard to get them17. To be in style – because few people enjoy being out of style18. To avoid trouble – because trouble is never a joy19. To access opportunities – because they open the doors to good things20. To express love – one of the noblest reasons to make any purchase21. To be entertained – because entertainment is usually fun22. To be organized – because order makes lives simpler
  • 6. 23. To feel safe – because security is a basic human need24. To conserve energy – their own or their planet’s sources of energy25. To be accepted – because that means security as well as love26. To save time – because they know time is more valuable than money27. To become more fit and healthy – seems to me that’s an easy sale28. To attract the opposite sex – never undermine the power of love29. To protect their family – tapping into another basic human need30. To emulate others – because the world is teeming with role models31. To protect their reputation – because they worked hard to build it32. To feel superior – which is why status symbols are sought after33. To be trendy – because they know their friends will notice34. To be excited – because people need excitement in a humdrum life35. To communicate better – because they want to be understood36. To preserve the environment – giving rise to cause-related marketing37. To satisfy an impulse – a basic reason behind a multitude of purchases38. To save money – the most important reason to 14% of the population39. To be cleaner – because unclean often goes with unhealthy or unloved40. To be popular – because inclusion beats exclusion every time41. To gratify curiosity – it killed the cat but motivates the sale42. To satisfy their appetite – because hunger is not a good thing43. To be individual – because all of us are, and some of us need assurance44. To escape stress – need I explain?45. To gain convenience – because simplicity makes life easier46. To be informed – because it’s no joy to be perceived as ignorant
  • 7. 47. To give to others – another way you can nourish your soul48. To feel younger – because that equates with vitality and energy49. To pursue a hobby – because all work and no play, etc.50. To leave a legacy – because that’s a way to live foreverSource: Geoff Ayling "Rapid Response Advertising"
  • 8. The Rhetorical Trianglehttp://www.english.uga.edu/writingcenter/writing/triangle.htmlAristotle taught that a speakers ability to persuade is based on how well the speaker appeals to hisor her audience in three different areas: ethos (ethical appeals), pathos (emotional appeals), andlogos (logical appeals). These areas form something that later rhetoricians have called theRhetorical Triangle.We could also illustrate the concept this way:"Ethos" refers to the writers "ethical appeal," that is, how well the writer presents herself. Does sheseem knowledgeable and reasonable? Does she seem trustworthy? Does she treat her opponents,people who might disagree, with fairness and respect, or does she take cheap shots at them? Doesshe try to establish common ground with the reader? Why do you think essays that lack this kind ofappeal are likely to be unconvincing? What effect do you think it would have if a writer includednothing but ethical appeals?"Pathos" refers to the arguments "emotional appeals," that is, how well the writer taps into thereaders emotions Many times, this appeal is how a writer will make an argument "matter" toreaders. Advertisements do it all the time. Perhaps a writer will offer an anecdote to illustratesuffering or appeal to readers as parents concerned for their children. Does the writer appeal to youremotions—feelings of sadness, pride, fear, being young, anger, patriotism, love, justice? On theother hand, is the essay loaded with facts, figures, and nothing else? Is the emotional appealeffective or overwhelming?
  • 9. "Logos" corresponds with the arguments "logical appeals," that is, how well the reader uses the"text" of his own argument and evidence. Effective arguments will probably include facts and othersupporting details to back up the authors claims. They may contain testimony from authorities andwill demonstrate the writers carefulness in choosing and considering evidence. They are likely tobe well organized, skillfully written, and well edited/proofread. Questions to consider: What isbeing argued here, or what is the authors thesis? What points does he offer to support this idea? Hashe presented arguments that seem logical, or does he seem to be jumping to conclusions? Can youthink of kinds of writing that rely exclusively on logical appeals? Do they bore you?Note that this triangle is essentially equilateral. Why? Again, the equal sides and angles illustratethe concept that each appeal is as important as the others. It also suggests that a BALANCE of thethree is important. Too much of one is likely to produce an argument that readers will either findunconvincing or that will cause them to stop reading.Finally, note how each of the areas potentially affects the others. An illogical argument may moveus emotionally, but only in the sense that it makes us angry at the author for wasting our time. Anoverwhelming emotional argument may make us feel that the author is relying exclusively onemotions rather than offering solid reasoning. Finally, if an argument contains only facts and figuresand no emotional appeals, we may simply get bored. All these defects may, in turn, affect theauthors ethical appeal: how can we trust a writer who appeals only to our emotions? What commonground do we have with a writer who doesnt appeal to our emotions at all?—adapted from materials by Dr. Joseph Sigalas
  • 10. Come farsi venire le idee.Bruno Munari ci dà qualche consiglio.
  • 11. Made to Stick, perché alcune idee sopravvivono e altre muoionohttp://www.mestierediscrivere.com/testi/madetostick.htmMade to Stick, dei fratelli Chip e Dan Heath, è stato forse il maggiore successo editoriale del 2007nel campo della comunicazione e del marketing. Sottotitolo: “Perché alcune idee sopravvivono ealtre muoiono”. In inglese sticky vuol dire "adesivo", "appiccicoso", ma negli ultimi anni a questosignificato si è aggiunto quello di "vincente", "efficace", "che non si dimentica o abbandonafacilmente", soprattutto riferito ai siti, ai messaggi, alle idee. Quindi il titolo si potrebbe tradurre con"Fatti o - nel nostro caso - scritti per vincere."Le idee vincenti devono avere alcune caratteristiche, che hanno a che fare soprattutto con il loromodo di comunicarle. Le caratteristiche sono sei e in inglese le loro iniziali formano la parolaSUCCES. In italiano, il gioco non regge più, ma la sostanza sì.Dei due giovani autori, uno è professore di comportamento organizzativo alluniversità di Stanford,laltro ha fondato una delle aziende più innovative di libri di testo.I tantissimi casi, esempi e racconti sono la vera sostanza del libro, dalle grandi aziende ai presidentiUSA, da piccole realtà imprenditoriali a persone comuni, come infermiere o insegnanti dallefulminanti intuizioni. Per questo è un bel libro di comunicazione utile a tutti, non solo a chi scrive.Ed è la migliore dimostrazione di quello che insegna: le sei caratteristiche di un messaggio efficace- semplicità, sorpresa, concretezza, credibilità, emozione, storie -, ci sono tutte.I racconti vanno ascoltati dalla viva voce (anche scritta, come in questo caso) di chi li racconta, maquello che io ho tratto dalla lettura del libro, i miei appunti insomma, li condivido volentieri.Ecco quindi i sei elementi chiave per messaggi molto sticky, che si appiccichino bene addosso a chili riceverà per non lasciarlo più.SEMPLICITAPiù di tot informazioni alla volta non riusciamo a elaborare, tantomeno a ricordare (è noto che piùscelte abbiamo, più ci è difficile scegliere). E per questo che tutti i messaggi vincenti, dagli antichiproverbi ai payoff pubblicitari di oggi, sono semplici.“Semplici” non vuol dire necessariamente brevi o poveri di informazioni, piuttosto selettivi econcentrati. Selettivi, perché puntano non su mille vantaggi, ma su uno solo, quello che si immaginapiù importante per linterlocutore. Compito difficilissimo, questo di andare allessenza di unmessaggio, soprattutto per chi il tema, il prodotto, il servizio, la politica, li conosce a fondo.Entra qui infatti in gioco la Maledizione della Conoscenza: quando sappiamo troppo sembraimpossibile riuscire a metterci nei panni di chi al contrario non sa nulla, condizione peròindispensabile per elaborare e scrivere un messaggio che arrivi, resti, cambi unopinione, convincaallazione. Condizione più facile da raggiungere se invece del cosa ci domandiamo il perché diunazione o di una scelta che chiediamo ai nostri interlocutori. Concentrati, perché un testo puòessere anche molto breve in superficie, ma molto profondo per ciò che fa immaginare ed evoca. Iproverbi sono semplici e brevi, ma sono anche enciclopedie compatte di saggezza, guide nelledecisioni e nelle azioni della vita. Le loro immagini sono così universali che le ritroviamo pressochéidentiche in tutte le culture, anche lontanissime. Per chi scrive, uno dei modi classici per andareallessenza è quello di adottare il modello della piramide rovesciata: prima la notizia, lidea piùimportante, poi via via verso i dettagli e il contesto. Modello ottimo, che però va interpretato dallaparte di chi leggerà, non da quello della “realtà oggettiva”, dei fatti incontrovertibili.La raccomandazione dei caporedattori anglosassoni “Dont bury the lead”, non allontanarti dal fattopiù importante, può anche voler dire introdurre subito una domanda cruciale, creare aspettativaattraverso un dettaglio, capire quale è la rilevanza della notizia non dal punto di vista del giornalista,ma da quella del lettore (non “Per domani il servizio meteorologico ha previsto una terribile buferadi neve sul paese di Paesello e circondario, che prevedibilmente porterà a una chiusura delle scuolee delle strade principali”, ma “Quasi sicuramente domani le scuole e le principali strade checollegano Paesello con il circondario saranno chiuse per la bufera di neve prevista dal servizio
  • 12. meteorologico”). La migliore applicazione della piramide rovesciata è la scoperta di un punto divista. Un messaggio semplice è anche un messaggio che usa come punto di partenza uno schemanoto e familiare, per esempio unanalogia, per sovrapporvi uno strato di maggiore astrazione ecomplessità (“un pomelo è il frutto più grande della famiglia degli agrumi” oppure “un pomelo èpraticamente un super-pompelmo”?).SORPRESA“Se potessi richiamare la vostra attenzione solo per qualche momento, sono sicura cheapprezzereste le caratteristiche di sicurezza di questo aereo. Se non siete saliti su una macchina dallontano 1965, vi dirò che il modo migliore per allacciare la cintura è infilare la linguetta nellafibbia. Per slacciare, tirate su la fibbia. Come dice la canzone, avete cinquanta modi per lasciare ilvostro fidanzato, ma ne avete solo sei per lasciare questo aereo: due porte davanti, due finestrerimovibili sulle ali e altre due porte dietro. Riconoscerete le uscite dalle insegne luminose: seguite leluci bianche e rosse da discoteca sul pavimento del corridoio."La hostess che ha così giocato conlannuncio sulle “caratteristiche di sicurezza di questo aereo” è riuscita sicuramente a farsi ascoltare,perché ha “rotto lo schema”. Schemi cui ci adattiamo così facilmente, ma ai cui cambiamenti siamoterribilmente sensibili. Basta cambiare qualcosa nel già noto per farci alzare le antenne.Cosa che succede per tutti i testi e i messaggi-schema: gli annunci in aereo, i saluti formali, gliauguri… la sorpresa genera automaticamente attenzione. Quindi, alla larga dal senso comune, siadal punto di vista dei contenuti, sia da quelli della struttura e del lessico. Il senso comune e il giàsentito si saltano a pie pari, scivolano da un orecchio allaltro. Se la sorpresa suscita attenzione, permantenerla ci vogliono linteresse e la curiosità di chi ci ascolta o ci legge. Due cose che si tengonoben deste quando linterlocutore capisce di avere dei vuoti di conoscenza da colmare.Piccoli, come in una soap opera o in giornale di gossip, grandi come il mistero degli anelli intorno aSaturno. Anelli che un divulgatore scientifico può raccontare con lo stesso meccanismo narrativo diun giallo, suscitando domande che tengono il lettore o lascoltatore incollato. Per creare sorpresa erisvegliare linteresse, dobbiamo trasformare la domanda “Quali informazioni devo trasmettere?” in“Quali domande devo suscitare?”CONCRETEZZA“Una radio che deve stare in una tasca.” Con questa immagine, nei primi anni cinquanta, quando leradio nelle case erano ancora dei pezzi di arredamento come i tavoli e i divani, il giovane capo diuna piccola azienda giapponese chiamata Sony, riuscì a galvanizzare una piccola squadra diprogettisti fino alla produzione della prima radiolina a transistor, unimpresa cui non credevanonemmeno i grandi Bell Labs, che i transistor li avevano inventati. “Prima della fine di questodecennio riusciremo a portare un uomo sulla luna, e a riportarlo indietro sulla terra."Con questa immagine nel 1961 JFK concluse un suo famoso discorso e galvanizzò un paesesullobiettivo della conquista dello spazio, cosa che avvenne appunto prima della fine del decennio,nel 1969. Due immagini semplici e concretissime, cose ambiziosissime che però sono alla portatadellimmaginazione. Immagini di oggi. Parole che arrivano da lontano, ma trasmettono immaginiche parlavano agli uomini di 2.500 anni fa e agli uomini di oggi: le Favole di Esopo, con le lorovolpi, uva, lupi, cicale e formiche. Gli esempi concreti e il lessico quotidiano aiutano tutti, non sologli scrittori dellantichità, i grandi manager e i presidenti degli Stati Uniti.Più ci rivolgiamo a chi è completamente digiuno di un tema, più abbiamo bisogno di convincere, diportare linterlocutore dalla nostra parte, più dovremmo rinunciare alle buzzword, ai gerghi,allastrazione e avvicinarci invece allesperienza comune. Lastrazione è il lusso degli esperti, mauccide sul nascere ogni interesse in chi ne sa di meno. Una grande astrofisica come MargheritaHack lo sa perfettamente. Non dimenticherò mai la sua conferenza sotto il cielo stellato di una caldanotte romana in cui rispondeva alla domanda “Che cosè lastrofisica?” davanti a un pubblico dimigliaia di persone, grandi e piccole. Per spiegare lespansione delluniverso cominciò a raccontare:“Avete presente quando si prepara un dolce con luvetta dentro? Si impasta, si impasta, e appenacomincia a lievitare i chicchi di uvetta si allontanano luno dallaltro. E quello che accade
  • 13. nelluniverso dopo il big bang, astri e pianeti si allontanano luno dallaltro.” Gli esempi concreti siricordano con più facilità e la memoria funziona come leffetto velcro: più gancetti afferriamo, piùsalda sarà la presa. Parole e cose concrete sono gancetti in più, anche in contesti teorici.”Una radio con transistor al suo interno” o “Una radio che sta in una tasca?” E avete notato che allestorie che si tramandano, siano leggende antiche o leggende metropolitane, vengono aggiuntisempre nuovi e inediti particolari? Più parliamo ad esperti, più possiamo permetterci lastrazione.Ma se esperti e non esperti devono parlarsi tra loro, allora la concretezza rimane unottimapiattaforma di collaborazione e un terreno ideale di intesa per tutti.CREDIBILITANaturalmente un messaggio può essere semplice, sorprendente e concreto, ma per funzionare deveessere anche credibile. Credibilità che può avere molte fonti diverse, a parte la scontata autorità daparte di un famoso testimonial, cosa che solo le grandissime aziende possono permettersi:• la credibilità di unantiautorità: in una campagna antifumo, un fumatore incallito che ha smessopuò essere un testimonial più autorevole di un grande medico• la credibilità intrinseca, fatta di una estrema ricchezza di dettagli, di descrizioni concrete epotenti, di grande vividezza, che fanno “vedere” un prodotto, mettono il risultato di una politica, diuna scelta, direttamente sotto lo sguardo di chi legge o ascolta• la credibilità delle statistiche e dei numeri, che però non vanno mai sciorinati nel loro valoreassoluto, ma utilizzati per creare relazioni, confronti, stimoli a pensare, contestualizzati nella vitaquotidiana delle persone, più che come puntelli per la propria tesi (gli attacchi degli squali fannonotizia, ma è 300 volte più probabile morire perché la nostra macchina si scontra con un cervo –cioè con un povero Bambi – che essere attaccato da uno squalo)• la credibilità del “provare per credere”, quella che fa appello alla capacità di verifica di una“persona come me”, sempre più diffusa con le “conversazioni” in rete. Ma ben prima della rete,Ronald Reagan riuscì a sbaragliare Jimmy Carter chiedendo agli americani semplicemente “Statemeglio oggi o quattro anni fa?”EMOZIONISenza emozioni, non cè azione. E per elaborare e scrivere messaggi che smuovono bisognatogliersi dalla testa il “cappello analitico”, distogliere lattenzione dal cervello e puntare al cuore.Per quanto sembri strano, è difficile suscitare emozioni con le grandi teorie, i grandi numeri, anchequelli più impressionanti. E quello che gli autori di Made to Stick chiamano leffetto “MadreTeresa”, la quale ripeteva spesso: “Se guardo la massa, non farò mai niente. Se guardo al singolo,mi metto in azione.” Ed è il motivo per il quale possiamo leggere tutti i più dettagliati e attendibilirapporti sulla fame nel mondo, ma muoverci davvero solo quando ci raccontano la storia di ununico bambino e del piccolo ma concreto aiuto che possiamo dare. Una lezione di cui tutte leassociazioni no-profit hanno fatto tesoro, allontanandosi dagli studi, le statistiche, persino i famositestimonial, per affidarsi piuttosto ai diari dei volontari e al racconto dei loro operatori, facendociconcretamente vedere sul web un progetto realizzato, o toccare con mano lunico contatto con ilmondo per un bambino sordocieco. Da persona a persona. Naturalmente si suscitano emozionianche facendo appello allinteresse del singolo o del suo gruppo di appartenenza. Interessi nonnecessariamente egoistici e di parte, ma anche interessi alti, nella sfera dei bisogni affettivi espirituali. Dei bisogni della famosa Piramide di Maslow, che li considera in rigoroso ordinegerarchico, i due autori di Made to Stick, ci invitano a considerarli tutti insieme, come un insiemesimultaneo. I bisogni di autorealizzazione e di libertà possono andare di pari passo con quelli piùmateriali.
  • 14. Altro grande suscitatore di emozioni è il senso di identità, quello sul quale ha giocato lagenziapubblicitaria che ha realizzato la campagna di spot antirifiuti per lo stato del Texas. Comeconvincere il texano guidatore di pick-up a non buttare fuori dal finestrino qualsiasi cosa? Facendoappello alla sua texaneria e al suo linguaggio: “Non incasinare il Texas” è più o meno la traduzioneitaliana del payoff della campagna.STORIETutti i punti precedenti si trovano concentrati nella forma espressiva più antica ed efficace, la storia,il racconto. Se una storia ci resta dentro meglio e più a lungo di un documentatissimo saggio o diuna serie di istruzioni è perché leggere o ascoltare una storia, come ognuno di noi sa fin da piccolo,significa viverla dentro di noi anche a livello sensoriale ed emozionale. Viverla, simularla dentro dinoi, non è come agirla direttamente, ma è quanto di più vicino ci possa essere. Per questo le storiesono così efficaci per spingere allazione. Qualche volta è meglio la storia di un problema risolto,con i perché e la creatività del singolo, che una serie di passi da compiere.Meglio il racconto di chi è riuscito a perdere 100 chili di una brochure sul metodo della dietarivoluzionaria. Meglio la storia di una persona del suo curriculum professionale. O meglio, meglioqueste cose insieme, in un dosaggio e in un equilibrio che ogni volta va ricercato, aggiustato,ristabilito. Perché le storie ovviamente non sostituiscono le altre forme comunicative ed espressive,ma sono quanto spesso può dare loro calore, compattezza, credibilità, emozione e sostanza.Sono anche quelle che in certi ambienti e in certe culture vengono più snobbate per il loroappartenere alla cultura popolare, alla sfera personale e soggettiva. Eppure, sono anche il materialeche più ci circonda. Non è necessario essere un grande creativo per inventare una grande storia. Lestorie sono sotto i nostri occhi, continuamente. Nei discorsi che facciamo, nei racconti cheascoltiamo, sulla stampa, alla televisione, sui blog.Basta tirare su le antenne e mettersi in ascolto.
  • 15. 12 format di spot tv secondo Gunn Reporthttp://www.slate.com/id/2170872/http://wadejolson.wordpress.com/2007/07/25/12-kinds-of-ads/ • Demo: A visual demonstration of the product’s capabilities. Think iPhone commercials or recent screen casts in KDE. Straightforward. • “Show the need or problem”: The premise is to begin with a problem or issue for a consumer. Then present the product and the solution. “Itchy throat? Runny nose? Haaaa– CHOO! You need Wade’s Magical Health Tonic and Elixir!” • Symbol/analogy: Use a metaphor or simile with the “need or problem” category above to make a more sophisticated presentation. This one is ubiquitous today with cheap CGI. From elephants trampling mud on your clean kitchen floors to talking kittens, many commercials set up a situation and then relay it back to an issue in your life and how their product/service helps. A CGI nose that wanders about day-to-day life miserable encountering problems only to eventually have a cute female CGI nose hand him some of Wade’s Magical Health Tonic and Elixir – making him feel better so they can walk off into the sunset hand-in-hand. • Comparison: How your product is better than the competition’s. “Why is our Ford Taurus better than a Mercedes? Because we have a bigger trunk and cupholders!!! Why pay extra?!?! Damned overcharging Germans!” • Exemplary story: Tell a story or set up a situation when an event unfolds where you’re glad you have the particular product/service handy. Another subtle take on the “show the need” category. But here you’re giving a natural everyday situation: An overworked mother gets ready to take her kids to their balls games after dinner, but one of them has a cold. She doesn’t have time for this added stress, so she goes to the bathroom cabinet and gets some of Wade’s Magical Health Tonic and Elixir. Later the children are seen healthy and running around. The mother sighs relief, knowing she got through yet another depressing and tedious day. • “Benefit causes”: A convoluted scenario is created where the consumer realizes the situation is due to the power/effects of the product. “Hey, this guy got to the hotel with all his luggage feeling fine, but his friend only has a small bag and is really thirsty. Why? Cause the smart guy is driving a super-awesome Ford Taurus with cupholders and a big trunk; his stupid friend bought the overpriced Mercedes. Damned overcharging Germans!” • Presenter/Testimonial: Have archetype that you trust, like a neighbor or a friendly old lady give a testimonial. Or maybe Wade Olson is in an official looking lab coat with some test tubes and beakers telling you about his Magical Health Tonic and Elixir (snake oil). • Ongoing characters/celebrities: Find a character that the public responds well to, and keep using them to create ongoing stories and familiarity. Like Jared from Subway or the phone tech guy from Verizon or Joe Isuzu. Or…our ever-popular Gearheads.
  • 16. • Exaggerated analogy: Really, really oversell what sell what your product/service. Look at that crazy guy racing jet airplanes and lifting up cars because he dropped his wallet underneath. How can he do all that? Ahhh…he’s using Wade’s Magical Health Tonic and Elixir!• Associated Imagery: Who are the people you identify with and want to be associated with? A coffee shop full of supermodels typing away on their laptops. Panning around: Holy shit, every single one is using KDE! Who knew? (You knew).• Unique Personality Property: What is special about this product? What is unique and how can I convey its Unique Selling Proposition manifested in 30 seconds?• Parody: Popular today because people want to laugh and be entertained if they HAVE to watch commercials. Take a well known idea/concept/situation that people recognize or identify with. Make them laugh, then put your product name at the end. Hell, most commercials today have absolutely nothing to do with the product, it’s all about making the viewer “feel good” and associate that with the brand. “Look, these crazy squirrels are doing all sorts of funny this in the supermarket. Man, those squirrels sure do crazy things! Ha look – one is balancing on a watermelon. Hilarious!” Then the final screen shows “Ford Taurus: Half the cost and twice the cupholders.”
  • 17. 11 Delicious Recipes for Successful Advertising by Dean Rieckhttp://www.directcreative.com/11-delicious-recipes-for-successful-advertising.htmlMelt 3 tablespoons of butter in a fondue pot. Stir in 3 tablespoons of all-purpose flour and cook onlow heat for about 2 minutes. Mix in 1 1/2 cups of dry white wine and stir constantly until thick.Add 1 1/2 cups grated Swiss Cheese and stir until melted.Beat 4 egg yolks and 2 tablespoons of thick cream, then stir into the cheese mixture. Season with1/4 teaspoon nutmeg and 1/4 teaspoon white pepper. For an extra kick, add a dash of Kirschwasser.Serve with cubes of your favorite breads and diced vegetables. Serves 2 to 4.If direct marketing were only as simple as this delicious cheese fondue, Id write a book, sell a fewmillion copies, and retire.There are plenty of recipes for success out there. I have quite a few of my own. But despite whatsome gurus would have you believe, selling is more complicated than cooking. And though many ofthese recipes are helpful for analyzing and discussing what works, I have yet to see one thatprovides a clear-cut guide for whipping up a winning ad or mailing from scratch.Nevertheless, Ive collected a few of my favorite selling recipes and present them here in the hopethat they may provide inspiration at a moment when you need it most. • AIDA — This is the best-known recipe of all time. It suggests that every successful selling message must attract Attention, arouse Interest, stimulate Desire, and present a compelling call for Action. • ACCA — Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction, Action. This is similar to AIDA, but Comprehension stresses the importance of clarity and understanding, which is vital for any persuasive message. Also, Conviction is much stronger than Desire. It suggests certainty. • Attention-Interest-Description-Persuasion-Proof-Close — This is another AIDA variation by Robert Collier. Intended for sales letters, it outlines what he thought was the correct sales sequence. • AAPPA — The eminent Victor O. Schwab suggested this commonsense, clear formula. Get Attention. Show people an Advantage. Prove it. Persuade people to grasp this advantage. Ask for Action. • AIU — This is my own formula for envelopes. It stands for Attention, Interest, Urgency. Something about an envelope must get your Attention, whether its teaser copy, graphics, or just blank paper. This should lead to Interest in the contents and a sense of Urgency to open the envelope immediately. • PPPP — This is a formula by Henry Hoke, Sr. It stands for Picture, Promise, Prove, Push. In many ways, its easier to implement than AIDA because it shows you four basic tasks you must perform to make a sale. Picture: Get attention early and create a desire. Promise: Make a meaningful promise or describe benefits and what the product will do. Prove: Demonstrate value and support your promise with testimonials. Push: Ask for the order.
  • 18. • Star-Chain-Hook — This is Frank Dignans charming and surprisingly fresh way to approach an advertising message. Hitch your wagon to a Star with an attention-getting opening that is positive and upbeat. Create a Chain of convincing facts, benefits, and reasons and transform attention into interest and interest into desire. Then, Hook them with a powerful call to action, making it easy to respond.• ABC Checklist — William Steinhardts formula is more detailed than most and very practical. Attain attention, Bang out benefits, Create verbal pictures, Describe success incidents, Endorse with testimonials, Feature special details, Gild with values, Honor claims with guarantees, Inject action in reader.• The String of Pearls — This is a particular method of writing copy. The idea is that you assemble details and string them together in a long line, one after another. Each pearl is complete in some way. Collectively, their persuasive power becomes overwhelming.• The Cluster of Diamonds — Similar to the String of Pearls, this formula suggests assembling a group of details under an umbrella concept. For example, an ad might have the headline "7 Reasons Why Youll Save Money With XYZ." The copy would then list these seven reasons. Each detail is a "diamond" in a particular setting.• The Fan Dancer — The analogy here is perfect, though a bit racy. The idea is to tantalize with specific details that never reveal any actual information. Its like teaser copy or what one influential writer called "fascinations." For example, lets say youre selling a book on reducing your taxes. Part of your copy might read: "The one secret way to pay zero taxes and get away with it — page 32. How the IRS uses your mailing label against you — page 122. Three clever ways to turn a vacation into a business tax deduction even if you dont own a business — page 158." As with a fan dancer, youre left wanting more.
  • 19. 16 consigli di Drayton Bird (per il direct marketing e non solo)http://www.draytonbird.com/Well, this is by popular request - one of you asked for more facts about pictures and illustrations.Before saying any more let me tell you one thing that often helps. When you cant afford a letter anda brochure in a direct mail piece, try an illustrated letter. (You know, of course, that given a choicebetween a letter and a brochure, you always use the letter in preference as its more personal).Having said that, here are a few facts, much of them based on research by Gallup or testing.1. Cartoons attract most attention. Good on envelopes.2. Photos convince most. Use them if looks or credibility matter.3. Charts often attract interest - e.g. weight-loss figures or interest rates.4. People look at people. Responses for a business school nearly doubled when we put the Deansface in the ads.5. Men look at attractive women; so do women. But they look at babies even more.6. Illustrations relating directly to the message work on average 32% better.7. TV frames from commercials are extremely effective.8. If you dont illustrate the product or the idea, the ad is 27 % less effective than average.(Thatmeans dont be a clever-clogs)9. Stereotypes - chatting people, loving couples, smiling sippers and ecstatic eaters kill ads. Theydont develop uniqueness. .10. If the picture has something odd about it, people remember the message.11. One big picture usually attracts better than several small ones.12. Pictures should demonstrate.13. Before and after pictures are particularly effective.14. Cut out pictures attract the eye better than squared-up ones.15. Dont have pictures just for the sake of it; they cost money and can divert attention needlessly.16. Coupons in ads used to add most conviction. Now that you often direct people to a website, thatmeans it should be very prominent.By the way, never use pictures that have nothing to with the product but seem a clever idea.
  • 20. Seven
handy
hints
for
succesful
adsAdrian
Holmes,
Chairman
of
Lowe
Worldwide
shares
seven
points
for
doing
well
at
the
Worldwide
CreaNve
Review.
Theyre
also
great
principles
that
obviously
apply
to
evaluaNng
all
creaNvity.
Adrians
7
handy
hints:
1.
Be
simple.
Be
simple.
Be
simple.
Too
many
ads
and
commercials
we
see
at
the
Review
are
just
over‐complicated.
They
are
either
trying
to
say
too
many
different
things
at
once,
or
else
not
enough
effort
has
been
put
into
making
things
easy
for
the
audience.
Messages
that
are
clearly
and
intelligibly
expressed
always
get
scored
higher
by
the
Jury.
So
keep
asking
yourself
when
you
are
working
on
an
ad:
how
can
we
make
this
even
simpler?
What
can
we
take
out?
As
Bill
Bernbach
once
remarked:
its
not
how
short
you
make
it,
its
how
you
make
it
short.
2.
Give
your
ad
an
unexpected
twist.
Does
something
happen
in
your
print
ad
or
commercial
that
the
audience
wasnt
expecNng?
If
it
does,
its
WCR
score
will
be
higher,
simple
as
that.
Every
creaNve
teams
mission
should
be
to
induce
that
feeling
of
A‐ha
in
the
viewer
by
building
in
a
clever
piece
of
thinking
‐
a
twist
‐
so
that
they
are
taken
by
surprise.
Ads
that
dont
do
this
are
seen
as
flat
and
two‐dimensional,
so
tend
to
score
lower.
3.
Show
us
something
we
havent
seen
before.
So
o?en
in
adverNsing
the
challenge
is
to
express
the
same
old
selling
messages
in
new
and
untried
ways.
Thats
what
we
really
get
paid
for
as
an
agency.
Just
occasionally,
a
mould‐breaking
piece
of
work
comes
along
where
the
jury
can
honestly
say
weve
never
seen
anything
like
that
before.
As
a
result,
the
ad
will
score
far
higher.
Moral:
try
to
make
your
adverNsing
look
as
liOle
like
adverNsing
as
possible.
And
above
all,
dont
copy
someone
elses
approach.
ImitaNon
is
the
sincerest
form
of
the?.
4.
Make
your
layouts
elegant
and
uncluOered.
A
frankly
unacceptable
number
of
print
ads
get
low
scores
at
the
WCR
because
the
layouts
are
so
ugly‐looking.
Badly‐balanced
headlines,
too
many
elements
scaOered
across
the
page,
poor
photography,
unsightly
typography...
the
list
of
sins
that
we
see
print
adverNsements
commit
is
long
indeed.
But,
ah,
when
a
simple,
beauNfully
cra?ed
page
appears
before
the
jury,
you
can
almost
hear
the
joint
sigh
of
relief
that
goes
up,
and
the
ad
is
duly
rewarded
with
a
higher
score.
5.
Beware
the
standard
award‐winning
layout.
You
may
be
tempted
to
think
that
resorNng
to
the
big
visual,
Nny
logo,
no
words
formula
is
the
only
way
to
devise
an
award‐winning
ad
nowadays.
The
trouble
is,
every
other
team
around
the
world
is
beginning
to
share
exactly
the
same
view.
With
the
result
that
more
and
more
adverNsing
shares
a
kind
of
global
sameness
‐
check
Archive
Magazine
and
youll
see
this
phenomenon
at
work.
Theres
nothing
wrong
in
reducing
an
ads
elements
to
the
very
minimum.
The
Daily
News
poster
from
Lowe
Brindfors
thats
reviewed
this
month
is
a
good
case
in
point.
But
to
do
that
and
nothing
else
is
simply
to
deny
yourself
the
myriad
creaNve
possibiliNes
that
the
printed
page
can
offer.
The
standard
award‐winning
layout
can,
in
fact,
be
quite
dangerous.
Its
all
too
o?en
the
layout
used
in
scam
adverNsing,
leading
awards
juries
to
believe
your
ad
is
possibly
a
scam
itself,
and
so
mark
it
down
accordingly.

  • 21. 6.
Er,
just
one
thing.
Can
we
actually
understand
your
ad?
Quite
o?en
we
see
pieces
of
work
on
the
WCR
jury
that
break
the
most
fundamental
communicaNon
rule
of
all:
we
dont
actually
comprehend
them.
This
is
not
a
lack
of
understanding
because
of
some
cultural
or
language
issue,
but
because
the
team
has
expressed
their
message
in
such
an
oblique
or
badly
thoughOhrough
way
that
their
audience
will
simply
fail
to
get
it.
An
adverNsements
prime
duty
once
it
has
been
noNced
is
to
be
understood.
And
if
the
audience
fails
to
grasp
the
message
you
are
trying
to
get
over,
all
youve
done
is
to
waste
their
Nme
and
the
clients
money.
So
heres
a
Np:
when
youve
wriOen
a
commercial
or
print
ad,
take
the
script
or
the
layout
to
the
team
across
the
corridor
and
ask
them
this
quesNon:
Do
you
understand
what
this
is
about?
Not:
Do
you
like
it?
Or
Do
you
think
this
will
get
an
award?
As
weve
always
said
at
Lowe:
first
be
clear,
then
be
clever.
7.
Body
copy
is
not,
repeat
not,
carpet
Nling.
Again
and
again
we
see
typesePng
of
body
copy
which
make
the
WCR
jurors
visibly
flinch
in
their
seats.
Usually,
its
set
far
too
small.
The
lines
are
too
close
together.
With
no
paragraphs.
And
with
too
many
words
per
line.
The
result
is
body
text
thats
treated
like
a
piece
of
grey
carpeNng
to
be
cut
to
size
and
stuck
somewhere
‐
anywhere
‐
at
the
boOom
of
the
layout.
Copy
is
one
of
the
most
powerful
weapons
at
a
creaNve
teams
disposal.
Our
jury
suggests
you
reawaken
yourselves
to
the
possibiliNes
of
great
wriNng,
and
the
power
of
wriOen
advocacy
to
produce
a
compelling
argument.
And
above
all,
once
those
words
are
wriOen,
make
sure
the
typographer
accords
them
the
respect
they
deserve.

  • 22. 17 Strategies to Killer Adshttp://thefamiliarstrangers.com/17-strategies-to-killer-ads/After reading The Advertising Concept Book by Pete Barry, we have an overall look at 17 differentstrategy for killer ads1. Before and After StrategyThis common strategy is basically :”show life without he product, show life with the product.” Thesubsequent idea and execution that comes from this strategy is usually a negative visual (withoutthe product) followed by a positive one (with the product).2. Before Only StrategyThe “After” is simply the product name/logo and tagline. The idea is to let the customer figure outthe “after” stage themselves, without have to see it.
  • 23. 3. After Only StrategyThere are many advertising ideas belong to this category, this is the easiest method to demonstratethe benefit of the products, or in other words, “life with the product.”
  • 24. 4. Advice / Knowledge StrategyThe advice strategy creates a positive image in the mind of the consumer. This is a lateral, “we canhelp you” approach, usually expressed through the benefit. And also demonstrate how a qualityproduct of service is.5. Empathy StrategyThis approach demonstrates how empathetic the client is toward the consumer. It demonstrates tothe targe audience “We understand and care about tou and/or your relationship with the product.”
  • 25. 6. Demonstration StrategyA new, clever way to demonstrate the product benefit can actually be the most engaging, direct formof communication. It is the purest form of strategy focuses solely on ways to show the productbenefit explicitly via a “demonstration”.7. Testimonial StrategyTestimonial advertising can exist as early on a the strategy stage, or it can be deduced later, duringthe concept stage. This approach uses a famous or non-famous consumer to report their positiveexperiences with the product or services. It is very common in the fashion ad and traditional productad.
  • 26. 8. Heritage StrategyThis is an effective strategy because no 2 company histories or backgrounds are the same: eachstory is so unique.9. Owner or Staff StrategyUsing the client or owner in the advertising can be hit or miss. The benefit is its down-to-earthintegrity, since he or she is the heart and soul of the product.
  • 27. 10. Product Positioning StrategyIn a sense, this is the broadest, most basic type of strategy — simply to position a new orestablished product in a different way from its competition. One could argue that all goodadvertising should adopt this strategy, with or without an additional, more specific strategy.11. Product Repositioning StrategyIf a current product is losing money despite a healthy advertising spend, the product may need toreposition itself —- switch from the original positioning due to a sudden or prolonged shift in themarket.
  • 28. 12. Competitive or Comparison StrategyAll clients compare themselves to their competition to a greater or lesser degree. This strategicapproach can make either an overt or subtle reference to any differences between products in theactual advertising, rather than merely keeping it within the strategy statement.13. Challenge StrategyThis is the “have you got what it takes?” strategy. Some brands need to persuade people to dosomething, rather than buy somthing. One possible strategic approach is to challenge theconsumber, to see if he or she is right for the “product” or service.
  • 29. 14. Negative to Positive StrategyThis strategy turns a boring or negative perception about a product/brand/market into a positive one,usually by adding an extra thought or clever argument.15. Logic StrategyThis strategy express in the form of logical thinking,
  • 30. 15. Logic StrategyThis strategy turn the boring price into a positive strategy.17. Honesty StrategyThe honesty strategy is one that runs through the strategy, idea, executions, and tone of voice. Itmeans self-honesty 9about the product) rather than honesty about another related or unrelatedsubject. If doing it well, the honesty approach is refreshing, disarming down to earth, and oftenhumorous.
  • 31. "Art Direction" magazine, January 1960http://d.hatena.ne.jp/chuukyuu/20090509/12418023551. Every DDB ad has a "big idea" behind the facade of the visual. The big idea showsitself either in copy or art; its so strong one can almost describe it without showing thead.2. "Idea" is not big picture or short copy. These are techniques, not ideas. Many DDB adsfeature long copy.3. DDB ads may look entertaining. Behind the hoopla-ho is a deadly serious purpose:information about the product.4. All DDB ads start with a selling point of the product. There are no exceptions to this.
  • 32. 38 Great Ideas for Your Next Headline by Robert Blyhttp://www.bly.comThe best way to get ideas for headlines when you are stuck is to keep a swipe file ofsuccessful headlines, and consult it for inspiration when you sit down to write a new ador mailing. As a shortcut, here’s a partial collection of such headlines from my vastswipe file, organized by category so as to make clear the approach being used:1. Ask a question in the headline.“What Do Japanese Managers Have That American Managers Sometimes Lack?”2. Tie-in to current events.“Stay One Step Ahead of the Stock Market Just Like Martha Stewart – But Without HerLegal Liability!”3. Create a new terminology.“New ‘Polarized Oil’ Magnetically Adheres to Wear Parts in Machine Tools, MakingThem Last Up to 6 Times Longer.”4. Give news using the words “new,” “introduction,” or “announcing.”“Announcing a Painless Cut in Defense Spending.”5. Give the reader a command – tell him to do something.“Try Burning This Coupon.”6. Use numbers and statistics.“Who Ever Heard of 17,000 Blooms from a Single Plant?”7. Promise the reader useful information.“How to Avoid the Biggest Mistake You Can Make in Building or Buying a Home.”8. Highlight your offer.“You Can Now Subscribe to the Best New Books – Just as You Do to a Magazine.”9. Tell a story.“They Laughed When I Sat Down at the Piano … But When I Started to Play.”10. Make a recommendation.“The 5 Tech Stocks You Must Own NOW.”11. State a benefit.“Managing UNIX Data Centers – Once Difficult, Now Easy.”12. Make a comparison.“How to Solve Your Emissions Problems – at Half the Energy Cost of ConventionalVenturi Scrubbers.”13. Use words that help the reader visualize.“Why Some Foods ‘Explode’ In Your Stomach.”
  • 33. 14. Use a testimonial.“After Over Half a Million Miles in the Air Using AVBLEND, We’ve Had No PrematureCamshaft Failures.”15. Offer a free special report, catalog, or booklet.“New FREE Special Report Reveals Little-Known Strategy Millionaires Use to KeepWealth in Their Hands – and Out of Uncle Sam’s.”16. State the selling proposition directly and plainly.“Surgical Tables Rebuilt – Free Loaners Available.”17. Arouse reader curiosity.“The One Internet Stock You MUST Own Now. Hint: It’s NOT What You Think!”18. Promise to reveal a secret.“Unlock Wall Street’s Secret Logic.”19. Be specific.“At 60 Miles an Hour, the Loudest Noise in This New Rolls Royce Comes from theElectric Clock.”20. Target a particular type of reader.“We’re Looking for People to Write Children’s Books.”21. Add a time element.“Instant Incorporation While U-Wait.”22. Stress cost savings, discounts, or value.“Now You Can Get $2,177 Worth of Expensive Stock Market Newsletters for theIncredibly Low Price of Just $69!”23. Give the reader good news.“You’re Never Too Old to Hear Better.”24. Offer an alternative to other products and services.“No Time for Yale – Took College At Home.”25. Issue a challenge.“Will Your Scalp Stand the Fingernail Test?”26. Stress your guarantee.“Develop Software Applications Up to 6 Times Faster or Your Money Back.”27. State the price.“Link 8 PCs to Your Mainframe – Only $2,395.”28. Set up a seeming contradiction.“Profit from ‘Insider Trading’ – 100% Legal!”29. Offer an exclusive the reader can’t get elsewhere.“Earn 500+% Gains With Little-Known ‘Trader’s Secret Weapon.’”
  • 34. 30. Address the reader’s concern.“Why Most Small Businesses Fail -- and What You Can Do About It."31. “As Crazy as It Sounds…”“Crazy as it Sounds, Shares of This Tiny R&D Company, Selling for $2 Today, Could beWorth as Much as $100 in the Not-Too-Distant Future.”32. Make a big promise.“Slice 20 Years Off Your Age!”33. Show ROI (return on investment) for purchase of your product.“Hiring the Wrong Person Costs You Three Times Their Annual Salary.”34. Use a “reasons-why” headline.“7 Reasons Why Production Houses Nationwide Prefer Unilux Strobe Lighting WhenShooting Important TV Commercials.”35. Answer important questions about your product or service.“7 Questions to Ask Before You Hire a Collection Agency … And One Good Answer toEach.”36. Stress the value of your premiums.“Yours Free – Order Now and Receive $280 in Free Gifts With Your Paid Subscription.”37. Help the reader achieve a goal.“Now You Can Create a Breakthrough Marketing Plan Within the Next 30 Days … forFREE!”38. Make a seemingly contradictory statement or promise.“Cool Any Room in Your House Fast – Without Air Conditioning!”
  • 35. Ma quanti titoli bisogna scrivere per trovarne uno decente? Ad esempio 800 per8 annunci BMW: li ha scritti Sally Hogsheadhttp://www.radicalcareering.com/hogblog/?p=31Even atheists kneel on a BMW. • Taunt gravity. • Armchairs cause bedsores on the psyche. • Put as much distance as possiblebetween you and the strip mall. • One of the two times in your life when your spirit will soar. • Buy one before the Church bans suchmarriages. • If our engineers built spouses, the divorce rate would plummet. • Questions to ponder: Is there a God? Why are wehere? Can I take this curve doing 60? • Bring your girlfriend on a ride, if she’s into menage trois. • The bike is aerodynamic. Anydrag would be caused by that stupid grin you’re wearing. • People take vows of chastity to feel this way. • The police have yet tomake a radar gun that can determine how fast your heart is racing. • You don’t get off a BMW so much as take it off. • Many are themotorcycles that say a lot about you. The rare few say a lot to you. • Every life has certain peak moments. Here’s a machine capableof producing them at will. • George Orwell predicted that man and machine would eventually become one. • Why some men won’tstop and ask directions. • If you feel like something’s missing from your life, here’s the lost-and-found department. • Bait forcatching air. • It wasn’t DNA experts, engineers, or microbiologists who finally created perfect fusion. • Some bikes are designed tosay a lot about you. Find one that speaks to you. • “Darling, is that... a smudge of motor oil on your collar?” • Cathedrals, mosques,basilicas, Route 67. • The road is calling. Don’t get its message on voicemail. • The only thing at the end of the road is 23 moremiles. • Assume your rightful place in the food chain. • Runners get a high from jogging around a track at 8 miles per hour. Pathetic. •How “joie de vivre” translates into German. • On a good day, it’s even faster than mortality. • Just ahead, Reason is standing in theroad with its thumb out. Speed up before it hitches a ride. • On any other motorcycle, he would’ve sent the package FedEx. • Soulsearching doesn’t require a compass. • While other animals were blessed with speed, God gaves us brains. And just look what wewent and did with them. • How to keep your life from going by in a blur. • It’s like 4-wheel drive, with two wheels. • Leave it to theGermans to find an autobahn in the middle of nowhere. • Careful. It can smell fear. • What walking on air looks like. • The invitationsaid to bring your significant other. She thinks it’s her. • The chauffeur of your soul. • His body is waiting in line at the grocery store.• A prosthesis for the soul. • Curse the name of whoever invented the stopsign. • A remote control is a far more dangerous machine. •The feeling is more permanent than any tattoo. • If you’ve ever superglued your finger, you know the feeling. • The road to selfenlightenment isn’t paved. • Fits like a glove. A metallic silver, fuel-injected,150-horsepower glove. • “Yippee! I’m off to my rootcanal!” • Most bikes say a lot about you. A very few can actually speak to you. • Engineers take note: The first successful hybrid ofman and machine. • Meandering is for cows. • It speaks to you, and suddenly you’re fluent in German. • Your inner child is fluent inGerman. • The last day of school, any day of the year. • A carnivore in the food chain of bikes. • There is no known antidote once itgets into your blood. • Just another trip to the corner store to pick up some milk. • His refrigerator is stocked with 93 gallons of milkand he’s on his way to get another. • Aerodynamically designed to catch air. • There are no words to describe it. Unless “Wooohoo!”counts. • A translation for the German word “Weee!” • Even if you don’t speak German, you should still be able to translate thepicture. • The part of you that cries for adventure is fluent in German. • From the people who brought you unification of an entirecountry, the same principle on a slightly smaller scale. • No amusement park ride can give this feeling. • While riding it, your wheelswon’t touch the ground. And once you get off, neither will your feet. • If he had on a mood ring, it would be bright green right now. •While other bikes brag about their traction, ours is better known for not sticking to the road. • The better traction you have the lessyou have to stick to the road. • Off, off, off, off-road. • “Look Ma! No hands!” •If it had a rearview mirror, you’d see your troubles init. • The Church has yet to comment on such a marriage of man and machine. • Lifts your spirits as well as the rest of you. •Somewhere, some small part of you is fluent in German. • Aluminum is more pure than you are. • Horses usually want to turn backtowards the barn. 100 horsepower together and it works quite the opposite. • The highway patrol will never know you’re breakinglaws of physics. • Occasionally, aerodynamics help you catch air. • There’s something worth racing towards at the end of this road:another 25 miles. • Become one with Nature, thirty miles at a time. • Caution. There’s no known antidote for getting this out of yourblood. • The best psychotherapy doesn’t happen while lying on a couch. • This is exactly the sort of intimacy that would frightenJesse Helms. • It’s as exciting as every other bike. And then you turn it on. • The excuse was to get milk. But the expiration date islong since past. • Never has a raccoon baking in the sun smelled sweeter. • It’s not over til the fat lady sings. • If you’re trying to findyourself, you sure as hell won’t find it on the couch. • If you had eight hours, alone, no radio, imagine what you could think about. •Giddy. A strange word, especially to German engineers. • A bike more likely titled “Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Riding.” • Put asmuch distance as possible between you and mortality. • Zen masters spend their lives trying to be at one with Nature. You could do it30 miles at a time. • Your heart races, your senses tingle. Then you turn it on. • Lots of bikes can make you feel this way while you’reriding. Only one makes you feel like this long after you’ve gotten off. • And you thought only starfish could grow new body parts. •The seat can comfortably fit two. But like most things this intimate, it’s best experienced one-on-one. • Yeah, the seat can fit two,though only in foreign films are three-ways successful. • Where is it written that the love for your motorcycle must be platonic? •Seems preoccupied. Comes home later than usual. Always wanting to get out of the house. • Men who own a BMW think havesomething else to think about every 22 seconds. • A giant hearing aid for the call of the road. • People talk about riding alone forhours. Obviously they’ve never owned a BMW. • The road is calling. Don’t let the answering machine pick up. • If you wanted todrive something fat and lazy, you would’ve gotten a Ferrari. • Life isn’t a dress rehearsal. Don’t let the prop man give you the wrongaccessories. • Our warranty: 5 years, 50,000 miles or 5 major insights. • Stained glass windows and altars don’t have a monopoly onspirituality. • Let’s see. You’re either riding it, or wishing you were riding it, or thinking about the last time you rode it. Now, who’sin charge here? • Considering how much you love your bike, shouldn’t it at least treat you with a little respect? • You can tell wherehis body leaves off and the machine begins. He can’t. • Keep reminding yourself, it’s just a machine, just a machine. • Not manyroadtrips could guarantee that after 75,000 miles together you’ll be head over heels in love. • Attention physicists: Man and machinehave been successfully fused. And it wasn’t in a laboratory. • You’ve got just one companion on the road. Find one you can get alongwith. • Scientists brag about hybrids of mice and rats. We’ve been doing it for years with bikes and riders. • It would take a bisectionto prove exactly where the bike ends and the rider begins. • Scientists have tried to find the soul. They’re using the wrong equipment.• Not even Chang and Eng were this close. • On a bike where riding is holy, it’s no wonder the riders look like they’re kneeling. •Start shoe shopping for steel-belted radials. • Please refrain from using the word “machine” in its presence. • Relationships thisintimate are illegal in some states. • It goes fast, handles well, and looks good. What more could you ask in a rider. • You drive a car.You ride a motorcycle. You actually go somewhere in a BMW. • You possess a motorcycle. You’re possessed by a BMW. •
  • 36. What you’re seeing is his soul. His body’s in a board room in Cincinnati right now. • If BMW built spouses, the divorce rate wouldplummet. • Long before the Berlin Wall came down, the Germans perfected unification. • Usually, this kind of connection requiressurgery. • Do you become more machine, or does it become more human? • What sounds to the uninitiated like the roar of an engineis a brilliant orchestral duet. • Admit it, a little part of you sits in a garage right now. • And then there were two. • DNA researchersbrag about creating a hybrid of mice and rats. We did it long ago with bikes and riders. • The first truly successful genetic hybrid. •You’ll become so much alike, you might start to crave gasoline after a while. • Spiritually, you don’t need a seatbelt to hold you in. •Unlike many lifelong bonds, no one ever divorced from their BMW. • “Oh look, honey. What a sweet looking couple.” • Stainedglass windows and candles do not a marriage make. • After seven years, it’s a commonlaw marriage. • If you ever connect like thiswith a person, marry them. • We must warn you, relationships this intimate with anyone but a spouse are frowned on by the Church. •The only thing that comes between them is a nice comfy seat. • It handles well, looks good, and goes fast. But we understand there’sfar more to a rider. • What you’re seeing is his soul. His body is trapped in a conference room right now. • Board rooms bear an oddresemblance to coffins. • The first few months you just hear the roar of the engine. Then you understand what it’s saying to you. •Scientists say they don’t know where the soul actually lives. They’re obviously driving the wrong bikes. • If it looks like he’skneeling, you’ll understand why it’s so spiritual. • No coincidence that he looks like he’s kneeling. • We’ve successfully joining ofman and machine without surgery. • Somebody call Ray Bradbury. We’ve combined man and machine. • The Greeks had the Centaur.Half-man, half-beast. • After a while you might find yourself shoe shopping for steel-belted radials. • It’s not a bike designed to pickup dates. Though it can comfortably seat two. • Your bike is your only company on the road. Find one you can get along with. • Lost-and-Found called. They have what’s been missing in your life. • Bike and rider. Separated only by a nice comfy leather seat. •Attention physicists: Atomic fusion was finally achieved. And it wasn’t in a laboratory. • We were combining man and machinebefore Terminator was ever filmed. • If you’ve been soul-searching, perhaps you’re not looking in the right places. • Put as muchdistance as possible between you and inertia. • Not every spiritual union comes out of a cathedral. • Not every religeous experiencehappens in a church. • More Westminster Abbey than Cal Tech. • There are basilicas, cathedrals, mosques. And then, there is Route67. • You can be reincarnated as a Brahma bull. But if you’re very lucky you’ll be a BMW rider. • At the top of the motorcycle foodchain. • Millions of aluminum cans go to bed at night praying to be recycled into a BMW bumper. • Aluminum. In some, a soda can.In others, a holy instrument. • About as much fun as your allowed in a religious experience. • Others give vows of chastity to have areligious experience. • We’d be millionaires by now if we could market this connection as glue. • Usually when two people are thishappy on the road they have a Just Married sign. • There’s another reason why some men don’t stop and ask directions. • A prosthesisfor your soul. • The whole is greater than sum of your parts. • Cross-pollinate between man and machine. • Merge with traffic.Not every other motorcycle owner. • The bike is fully assembled. And once you buy it, so are you. • Drive off the map. •If you wantto find yourself, start by pulling out a map. • Stick playing cards in the spokes of the wheels. • The path to self enlightenment israrely paved. • Not everyone has a bad picture on their motorcycle driver’s license. • Your heart will stop so suddenly, better hopeit has antilock brakes. • See the reflection of your soul in the chrome. • Chrome wheels, for reflecting on your past. • Rearviewmirrors, for moments of quiet reflection. • Put inertia in the rearview mirror. • Some burn candles when praying. Others, rubber. • Theglow of pride never loses its showroom shine. • Find out the turning radius of your problems. • Sitting on the sofa is far morehazardous. • A remote control is a far more dangerous machine. • The bike runs on gasoline. Your adrenaline is self-propelled.•Nowhere is there a BMW with a bumper stickers asking “How’s My Driving?” • The highway patrol has yet to detect a racing heart.• Nowhere will you find a BMW-driving simulator. • There is no way to be more unlike the experience of riding in a Greyhound bus.• On some roadtrips, the points of interest aren’t the scenery. • Your estimated time of arrival just got bumped up. • An added safetybenefit: you’ll never fall asleep at the wheel. • Where do you drive when you daydream? • If you don’t end up with a lust for life, atleast you’ll have a crush on it. • Every bike ride is a parade of one. • And together they rode off into the sunset. • Fate has chosenyour ideal mate. And it might just be metallic silver with 120 horsepower. • What walking on air actually looks like. • One of the twotimes in your life when your spirit will soar. • Taunt gravity. • The invitation said to bring your significant other. She thinks it’s her. •The chauffeur of your soul. • Remote controls are far more dangerous machines. • The feeling is more permanent than any tattoo. •The highway patrol can’t detect how fast your heart is racing. • Armchairs cause bedsores on the soul. • Soul searching doesn’trequire a compass. • Curse the name of whoever invented the stopsign. • You know when you’re driving a car and you get to yourdestination without remembering the drive? He doesn’t. • Responsibility can only ride 50 mph. • Power isn’t about wearing a red tie.• Living too comfortably puts bedsores on the soul. • There are slower vehicles. They’re called hearses. • Yellow is for caution. Don’ta yellow-bellied. • If your life is going in circles, here’s how to break the centifugal force. • For some, it’s more comfortable than anarmchair. • There is a messenger waiting to tell you that it’s time to go home. Hurry or he’ll catch up.• Some messages last longerthan tatoos. • He was going to get a tatoo. But decided he wanted something more permanant. • Put as much distance as possiblebetween you and Responsibility. • Lust fueled by gasoline. • For two bodies to be connected so closely usually requires ligaments. •Usually when two people are this happy on the road they have cans trailing behind them. • The bike is fully assembled. And once youride it, so are you. • the last time you felt like this there were playing cards stuck in your wheels. • Put Reason in the rearview mirror.• Find out the turning radius of your problems. • It’s sitting in front of the TV eating potato chips that’s hazardous. • Where do youdrive when you daydream? • Please check one: single, married, divorced, BMW owner. • Fits tighter than OJ’s glove. • Each of ushas a spiritual twin. Yours might just be metallic silver. • Who’s driving who? • The shuttle to Euphoria, now departing. •Destination: euphoria. • A machine designed to chemically inject your body with endorphines. • How odd. Heaven is what you feelwhen you’re most alive. • Don’t get bruises from pinching yourself. • Likewise, his spirit is soaring. • Usually you have to die to feelthis good. • He died and went to Heaven without the dying part. • It’s no coincidence that angels have wings. • The Germans figuredout unification long before the Berlin Wall came down. • The bike, the girlfriend. Guess which model he’ll trade in first. • Theacceleration is felt in places far more intimite than your right foot. • It makes people jealous. Especially spouses. • She wonders whyshe sometimes feels like a third wheel. • All motorcycles are transporation. The difference is where you can go. • The road is calling.Don’t get the message on voicemail. • It would take a bisection to prove exactly which is the bike and which is the rider. • Pleaserefrain from using the word “machine” in its presence. • Do you become more machine, or does it become more human? • Chang andEng weren’t so close. • Let’s see. You’re either riding it, or wishing you were riding it, or thinking about the last time you rode it.Now, who’s in charge here? • Keep reminding yourself, it’s just a machine, just a machine. • Some burn incense while meditating.Others, rubber. • Scoff at gravity. • No one’s ever been pulled over for being drunk with pleasure. • Your brain doesn’t get out much.It needs a chauffeur. • Doctors who claim they can’t locate the soul aren’t using the right equipment. • Curse the stopsign. • The rideris the bike is the road is the 17 miles left until the next stopsign. • Plenty of room for luggage. Very little for baggage. • Stained glassand altars do not have a monopoly on spirituality.
  • 37. 34 ways to write a slogan by Alan Sharpehttp://www.adslogans.co.uk/ww/prvwise03.html1. Ask a questionDoes she or doesnt she? -Clairol2. Show your unique commitmentWe try harder -Avis3. Explain product superiorityTakes a licking and keeps on ticking -Timex4. Evoke a benefit in a fresh wayLet your fingers do the walking -Yellow Pages5. Use an emotive call to actionReach out and touch someone -AT&T6. Use an evocative call to actionPut a tiger in your tank -Esso7. Use an imperative call to actionJust do it -Nike8. Use a one-word call to actionThink -IBM9. Use a cheeky call to actionLet us tan your hide -Crisby Frisian Fur Co.10. Revisit a familiar call to actionReach out and bust someone -Crime Stoppers11. Link a product feature with an abstract needA diamond is forever -DeBeers12. Link a feature with your addressWe corner the market -Irving Rivers Ltd.13. Combine a feature and a benefit in the same phraseMake yourself at home -IKEA14. Declare a superlative featureThe worlds #1 selling financial software -Quicken15. Make a compelling promiseThe world on time -Federal Express16. Be whimsicalIts the real thing -Coca-Cola17. Say it staccatoSoothes. Cleanses. Refreshes. -Murine eyedrops18. Use a two-fold delivery with a twistCommon sense. Uncommon results -David Ingram and Associates
  • 38. 19. Address a specific needFor women whose eyes are older than they are -Robert Powers skin cream20. Be abstract but client-centeredAfter all, it is your information -Authentex Software21. Describe your product in a novel wayLiquid jewelry -Lorr Laboratories nail polish22. Link company name to product benefitNever forgets -Elephant Memory Systems23. Suggest the cost of not using your productBecause so much is riding on your tires -Michelin24. Be grotesque to make a pointWears like a pigs nose -W. M. Finck & Co. mens overalls25. Turn a current business maxim on its earThink small -Volkswagen26. Link a well-known phrase with your product benefitUnderstanding comes with Time -Time magazine27. Brag about yourselfWe take the worlds greatest pictures -Nikon28. Brag about your product and your clientYou and Betty Crocker can bake someone happy -Betty Crocker29. Take a breath and say it allFinest anti-knock non-premium gasoline ever offered at no extra cost -Union Oil Co.30. Describe your service and its #1 benefit in two wordsAdvertising pays -Industry maxim31. Personify your productLaughs at time -Du Pont paint32. Distill your business into one phraseThe Document Company -Xerox Corp.33. Tie your slogan to your logoGet a piece of the Rock -Prudential Insurance Co.34. Dare to be differentDare to diff -LOEB Cola
  • 39. 15 suggerimenti di Bob Bly su come scrivere i testihttp://www.bly.com/new/index.htmlIt’s often said that copywriting can’t be too long, just too boring. And sales writing is often onlytolerated at the best of times. So if your copy is to weave its magic it needs to be light, easy to readand captivating. Here are 15 tips for making your sales writing more punchy and compelling forreaders:1. Aim for an average sentence length of around 16 words.2. Vary between short and long sentences to give your writing rhythm.3. Split long sentences into two if they’ll survive on their own. Use connecting words such as ’so’,‘and’ or ‘because’.4. Wield an axe to flabby language and unnecessary words. As Anton Chekhov put it, ‘Brevity is thesister of talent.’5. Sales writing isn’t blessed with a reader’s patience. So ensure every word and sentence meanssomething to the reader and adds to your argument. Don’t waffle or descend into a longwindeddiatribe that’s of little interest to anybody but you.6. Leave long paragraphs to novelists, and limit yours to a single thought. Two or three sentences isadequate.7. Showy writing isn’t sales writing. Don’t use words just because they sound impressive. And leavejargon and corporate claptrap for the brochure (if you must use them at all).8. Use positive inspiring language on what the reader ‘can’ achieve and ‘will’ be able to do. Avoidnegative terms that might dampen their spirits.9. Break up up your page with subheads and bullets to aid skim reading.10. Use power words to charge up your writing’s impact, such as ‘revealed’, ‘proven’, ’scientific’ and‘breakthrough’.11. Write in your reader’s language and the style they’re comfortable with. Read your targetmarket’s magazines and newspapers to gauge the pitch.12. People are hardwired to respond to stories. Use storytelling on how your product has solvedsomeone’s problem to trigger the reader’s imagination and emotions.13. Use facts or personal history to build rapport, empathy and to show the reader that you feeltheir pain.14. Ask the reader a simple question early on they’ll say ‘yes’ to. This will precondition them to bemore likely to agree with you and say ‘yes’ to your offer later on.15. Sales writing is often compared to a conversation with a pal in a bar. So it should beconversational and sound similar to how you’d speak. Read it aloud to hear whether it flowssmoothly.Another tip I’d add is to keep a swipe file of the best sales writing you find. Study it, highlight key phrases and copy it out by hand togain an understanding of how to write punchy copywriting that generates sales.
  • 40. E come si riconosce un buon titolo?Ce lo dice Enrico Chiarugi con Questo, lo escludo.www.manuscritto.it/pubblicita/chiarugi.pdfSe hai scritto un buon titolo per una pubblicità, a dirtelo dovrebbero essere gli altri.Se nei hai scritto uno brutto, allora dovresti essere tu a capirlo.E a scartarlo.Davanti a te cè un foglio bianco. O lo schermo grigio-azzurro di un computer. Accanto a te, sulpiano della scrivania, cè il brief per una campagna pubblicitaria. Ora, il problema non è se riusciraimai a scrivere un titolo nel poco tempo che hai a disposizione (in Italia, paese di santi, di poeti, dinavigatori e di copywriter, tutti sono capaci di scriverne uno, dalla casalinga di Voghera al productmanager di via Nino Bonnet), quanto se riuscirai a riconoscere quello giusto tra tutti quelli che avraiscritto. Per tua fortuna, ti vengono in aiuto le "procedure di esclusione": tutte quelle griglie e tuttiquei "no, questo no" che, più o meno consapevolmente, hai depositato nella tua coscienza di copy eche intervengono, sempre per tua fortuna, ad evitare il peggio. Sono dei giudizi di valore chenascono un po con te, con i tuoi gusti personali, e un po sono stati alimentati da altri e da altro: daimaestri di copywriting che hai avuto (se li hai avuti) nel tuo periodo di apprendistato, dallepubblicità su cui ti sei fatto locchio (se hai saputo riconoscere quelle belle da quelle brutte), dallalettura di Remember those great Volkswagen ads? (se sei riuscito a trovarlo e a fotocopiarlo),eccetera eccetera eccetera. A questo riguardo, anche per un copywriter la verità sta nel mezzo: sehai pochi sbarramenti e divieti, rischi più facilmente di non fare un buon titolo (e, più facilmente,rischi di farne uno banale piuttosto che uno semplicemente brutto); se invece ne hai troppi, rischiun attacco di impotentia scribendi. Poiché ti hanno chiesto di scrivere un articolo su come nascono ituoi titoli e tu hai preferito scriverne uno su come muoiono, adesso procedi. Procedure diesclusione, il catalogo è questo.PdE n° 1. "Dice quello che deve dire?"Già qui muore circa il 50% dei tuoi titoli. Alla morte di alcuni fai fatica a rassegnarti: ti eriinnamorato troppo del loro ritmo, per ricordarti che dovevano anche parlare del prodotto. Sullatomba di altri, invece, non porti neanche un fiore.PdE n° 2. "E asciutto?"Il che non significa che il titolo debba essere per forza corto. Può anche essere lungo, basta che nonabbia fronzoli e barocchismi inutili. Gli inutili giri di parole non ti piacciono.PdE n° 3. "Non è che lo capisci solo tu?"A volte ti capita di cadere nella cripto-advertising: dai per scontate troppe cose, troppi presupposti;pensi di stabilire una complicità tra te e il lettore e invece la stabilisci solo tra te e te. Comunque,per liberarti dal dubbio, ti rivolgi allart con cui lavori o al copy vicino di stanza. E il dubbio diventacertezza. Corollario alla PdE n° 3. "Mi ricorda vagamente un titolo di David Abbott del XY per lacampagna YZ". Il copy vicino di stanza sfugge la questione della cripto-advertising e ti colpisce aifianchi. Anche perché non sempre cita Abbott o Bernbach (nel qual caso cancelli il titolo appenascritto, ma ti rimane almeno un pizzico di orgoglio per esserti avvicinato a un grande); anzi, piùspesso fa i nomi di Tizio, Caio o Sempronio: alcuni nomi italici che non figurano nel (tuo)firmamento del copywriting. Se poi il vicino di stanza cita anche lannual su cui il tale annunciosarebbe apparso, lontanamente sottintendendo che puoi anche averlo copiato (inconsciamente,sintende), allora ci può anche scappare la rissa.
  • 41. PdE n° 4. "Non è in rima?"Siamo allABC del copy. Comunque, verifichi in un attimo e magari scopri unassonanza che non tipiace. La rima se la può permettere solo un Maestro. E pensi subito a "O così o Pomì" di Pino Pilla.PdE n° 5. "Non è un titolo manicotto?"Sono i classici titoli che puoi anche rivoltare e rimangono identici a sé stessi: sempre vuoti. Come"Il fascino delleleganza", "Leleganza del fascino" ecc. ecc. ecc. Ricordano un po i titoli di certipornofilm, in cui, se anche cambi lordine delle parole, il significato non cambia. Se però vuoiessere onesto, devi ammettere che hai scritto anche tu qualche titolo manicotto. Certo, erano per unfolder, per un catalogo, tuttavia...PdE n° 6. "Non è il titolo di un film?"Scarti subito lidea di scrivere qualcosa come "Attrazione fatale", anche se magari ti era venuto inmente per la pubblicità di una colla. Non conoscendo naturalmente tutta la filmografia mondiale,scarti anche quelli che suonano come titoli di film.P. E. N° 7. "Non è cheap?"Non usi mai questa parola, ma temi che possa usarla qualcun altro giudicando un tuo lavoro. Ildramma cè quando il brief ti chiede di dire che quel prodotto è davvero cheap ; pardon, convenientee a un prezzo concorrenziale. E hai sempre presente quel manifesto di un grande magazzino che haivisto anni fa, con il titolo "Saldi di gioia".P. E. n° 8. "Non è un proverbio parafrasato?""Tanto va la gatta ai Friskies...", "Chi ha denti non ha Panem...", "Chi trova unAmiga trova untesoro..."; i titoli (questi, naturalmente, immaginari) che attingono alla saggezza dei popoli (e aldizionario) ti irritano così tanto, che non devi neanche più applicare la PdE n° 8: scatta da sola,come censura preventiva.PdE n° 9. "Non è la prima stazione?"Scrivere un buon titolo è un po come percorrere una via crucis. Epuò anche capitare di fermarsi alla prima stazione. Del resto, a volte sarebbe anche scusabile: haitroppo lavoro che si sta accumulando, la presentazione è per domani, il panino ti si è fermato sullostomaco, vivi a Milano ecc. ecc. ecc. Eppure cerchi di applicare sempre la PdE n° 9, perché secondote è quella che distingue il copywriter "fresco" dal copywriter "bollito" (e non è affatto unaquestione di età). A volte capita anche che il primo titolo sia quello giusto; allora, di solito, è statopartorito in bagno.PdE n° 10. "Non è troppo leggero?"Titoli frou-frou, titoli yé-yé, titoli pucci-pucci; in genere si annidanonelle pubblicità della moda, dei gioielli, dei profumi. Sono così leggeri da volare via come unfoulard. Sono titoli light, con solo il 15% di intelligenza. Per reazione, cerchi di rendere il tuo titolopiù concreto, magari anche un po più virile. Hai paura di confessarlo a te stesso, ma ti piaccionomolto certi titoli un po fascisti della pubblicità americana, come quello per un fuoristrada tutto fierodi essere made in the USA e non in Japan:"Real men dont eat sushi".
  • 42. PdE n° 11. "Non è troppo pesante?"Scrivi spesso titoli o un po troppo faticosi nel ritmo o un po troppoponderosi concettualmente. Al contrario dei titoli frou-frou, assolutamente vuoti, nei titoliponderosi spesso si nasconde comunque un buon titolo, che puoi liberare da scorie stilistiche o dainutili intellettualismi. Ma in ogni caso ti ricordi il consiglio di Pirella (di solito impartito dopo avervisto delle proposte dal tono di voce sbagliato, troppo pesanti per un prodotto, invece, che avevabisogno di un tocco più leggero): "Qui ci vogliono due spaghettini!". Peccato che far bene glispaghetti sia una delle cose più difficili della gastronomia pubblicitaria.PdE n° 12. "Non è troppo vago?"Apparentemente simile alla n° 1, questa PdE ferma in seconda battutaalcuni titoli che sì, non dicono niente, ma che a un primo esame ti erano sembrati, al contrario,molto ricchi ed evocativi. Chi ama questo tipo di titoli, o più semplicemente deve difenderli in unariunione interna o davanti al cliente, di solito dice che sono titoli aperti e che quindi il lettore puòriempirli di molteplici (ma quali?) significati. Sono titoli del tipo "Chi ha Philips, ha", "Saila sa","Martini, mah...". A volte, per rendere più aperta la loro apertura, sono fatti seguire dagli orribilipuntini di sospensione. Alla fine, pensi che siano più onesti i titoli light.PdE n° 13. "Non è la strategia con le rotelle?"Sei debitore di questa definizione a un tuo ex-direttore creativo, sotto cui hai lavorato comeapprendista copy e poi come copy junior. La strategia dice che il prodotto è buono e fa bene e iltitolo dice: "Oh, comè buono! Oh, come fa bene!". Apparentemente simile alla PdE n° 9, la n° 13entra in azione soprattutto quando lavori sui prodotti di largo consumo ed elimina certi titoli ad altorischio, quelli che hanno unaltissima probabilità di essere approvati, stampati e affissi per le vie diMilano. Come reason why e supporting evidence di questa PdE, pensi alleventualità di incontraresotto il poster che dice "Oh, comè buono! Oh, come fa bene!" il copy che più ti sta antipatico fratutti i copy, il quale ti chiede, con un sorrisino,"Scusa, per caso, quel titolo lhai fatto tu?". E,naturalmente, linfame conosce già la risposta.PdE n° 14. "Sorprende?"Se oltre a superare la PdE n° 1, supera anche la n° 14 (oltre, naturalmente, quelle che stanno inmezzo), allora, di solito, è un buon titolo. Se sorprende perché è intelligente, o perché dice conchiarezza una cosa inaspettata, o perché è violento ma giusto, o perché è ironico ma non di unironiagratuita, ecc. ecc. ecc. (secondo il prodotto e il brief) , allora forse ci sei. Se sorprende il suorapporto con il visual (se il titolo non è una didascalia, se il visual non è decorativo), se insiemepensi che spiazzeranno per un attimo le aspettative del lettore, allora forse ci sei. In fondo, fare untitolo è come tirare un calcio di rigore: è goal se chi tira, tira dalla parte opposta a quella verso cui silancia il portiere. Devi solo stare attento che il titolo non sorprenda, sì, ma per la sua stupidità.PdE n° 15. "Piacerebbe a Bill Bernbach?"Applicare questa PdE sarebbe invece fare autogoal. Per cui è importante sapere che cè, ma poi èfondamentale ignorarla, se non vuoi andare incontro a grosse delusioni. Del resto, Bill Bernbachnon conosceva litaliano.PdE n° 16. "Lo giudichi come se lavesse scritto un altro copy?"Fondamentale esercizio finale di cattiveria: guardare al titolo che ti convince come se lavessescritto un altro copy (magari gli dai anche un nome). E il modo migliore per eliminare certeautoindulgenze e per aumentare la severità del giudizio. Ed è il motivo per cui hai scritto questoarticolo usando la seconda persona singolare.
  • 43. Se supera tutte le PdE dalla 1 alla 16 (esclusa la 15 - ma ti aspetti che gli altri copy abbiano le loro,magari più numerose, e ti farebbe piacere conoscerle), allora il tuo titolo è presentabile in società.Affidato alla barchetta di carta del lay-out, deve ora affrontare, a diverse ondate, le riunioni interne,le riunioni a vario livello dal cliente, il pre-test, il post-test, ecc. ecc. ecc.: tante PdE che ignori,tante che non condividi. E spesso la barchetta torna indietro sotto forma di aeroplanino.
  • 44. Writing tools di Roy Peter Clark nella versione di Luisa Carradahttp://www.mestierediscrivere.com/testi/attrezzi.htmFERRI DEL MESTIERE1. Allinizio erano il soggetto e il verbo.Tutte le subordinate lasciamole alla nostra destra. Una frase può anche essere molto lunga, marisulta comunque più chiara quando soggetto e verbo anticipano subito tema e significato.Un attrezzo cui ricorrere quando siamo tentati di cominciare un periodo con una subordinata: nonarrivare al dunque è come lasciare il lettore con il fiato sospeso. Unoperazione allettante, che peròrichiede la perizia di uno scrittore di gialli anche in siti e brochure.2. Lenfasi che nasce dallordine.Le parole più importanti è meglio metterle allinizio della frase, oppure alla fine. Il punto fermo ècome un segnale di stop: ogni parola che viene dopo è come se ci dicesse "guardami". Se invece èlultima di un capoverso o di un intero testo, il suo ricordo resterà più a lungo con noi.3. I verbi, una concentrazione di energia.Preferiamo sempre i verbi alle nominalizzazioni, usiamoli alla forma attiva e abbondiamo con gliinfiniti, pieni di forza, di azione e di energia. Risparmieremo molte parole inutili e metteremosempre in evidenza il soggetto, ovvero noi stessi, i nostri prodotti, la nostra azienda. Come scriveAlessandro Lucchini "un verbo vale più di due nomi, quattro aggettivi e otto avverbi messi insieme,perché sa esprimere in una sola parola i nostri pensieri e i nostri sentimenti".4. La sindrome passivo-aggressiva.Se invece scegliamo il passivo, facciamolo sempre a ragion veduta, cioè per evidenziare conchiarezza "chi è la vittima" dellazione.5. Diluilmente lunghi.Attenzione agli avverbi. Troppo spesso diluiscono il significato del verbo e gli impediscono disprigionare tutta la sua forza. "Il palazzo è stato completamente distrutto", "sono assolutamentedaccordo" vanno bene nella cronaca in diretta e nel contesto di una riunione, meno nel testo di unarticolo o di un verbale.6. Scrivendo scrivendo...Il gerundio raramente serve davvero. Più spesso complica la sintassi, appiattisce il suono, introducequel sapore di burocratese di cui anche gli uffici pubblici fanno ormai volentieri a meno.7. Il fascino dei lunghi viaggi.Anche se nella scrittura professionale si raccomanda di scrivere frasi brevi, non bisogna affattotemere quelle lunghe. Sono le frasi che fanno viaggiare il lettore, approfondire linguaggio esignificato.8. Svolte improvvise.Creare parallelismi e simmetrie, nella sintassi e nel lessico, aiuta la comprensione, soprattutto pertemi e ragionamenti complessi. Ma il lettore, dopo le strade dritte e tracciate, ama anche esseresorpreso da una svolta improvvisa, un cambio di direzione.9. I ritmi e gli spazi della punteggiatura.La punteggiatura dà il ritmo e crea paesaggi per la lettura. Una lunga frase senza virgole che correverso il punto è come unautostrada, una con molti incisi è come una strada di montagna piena ditornanti. Ci affanniamo verso la cima, per goderci la sorpresa di quanto ci aspetta dopo il valico.
  • 45. 10. Larte della potatura.La revisione è soprattutto questione di tagli. Come nel giardinaggio, prima si tagliano i rami, poi sirifilano le siepi e si sgrullano via le foglie secche. Dal lavoro più grossolano a quello più sottile.EFFETTI SPECIALI11. Meno tecnici, più semplici.Proprio dove il tema e i ragionamenti si fanno più complessi, ci aiuta ricorrere a parole, frasi,paragrafi semplici e brevi. Usare gerghi e tecnicismi significa adagiarsi sul già noto; sforzarsi ditrovare una parola semplice, ma ugualmente efficace, è un esercizio che ci costringe anche apensare, a far chiarezza prima di tutto nella nostra testa.12. Repetita iuvant.La ripetizione dà fastidio solo quando non è intenzionale. Scegliere invece di ripetere le parolechiave lungo un testo aiuta a "incatenarne" le diverse parti/frasi, ad attirare continuamentelattenzione sugli elementi e le informazioni più importanti.13. Giochi di parole.Proviamo a giocare con le parole, anche in testi molto seri. I luoghi migliori per giocare sono i titolie i sottotitoli, dove è lecito e raccomandabile sbizzarrirsi, andando ad attingere fin nei recessi delnostro vocabolario. Perché quando leggiamo è vasto come il mare e quando scriviamo si restringe auna pozzanghera?14. Qual è il nome del cane?Cerchiamo sempre di essere concreti e specifici: in un articolo di cronaca, il nome del cane che hamorso il bambino, in una brochure il nome del prodotto che stiamo illustrando.E se il nome del cane ci aiuta a immaginare e vedere la storia, il nome del prodotto è bene ripeterlofino alla nausea, senza sinonimi e senza scorciatoie.15. I nomi sono importanti.Nomen est omen, dicevano i romani: il nome è un presagio, un destino. Non trascuriamo il suono eil significato dei nomi. Sia quando citiamo dei nomi veri - di aziende, persone, prodotti -, siaquando sta a noi crearli e inventarli. Nominare, in tutte le culture, è come infondere la vita.16. Questa lho già sentita.Abbasso i cliché, viva le immagini e le espressioni originali. Se ci capita di scrivere in un articolo"una valanga di voti" e nella intranet aziendale "la squadra vincente", è ora di correre ai ripari:facciamo una lista di parole e sinonimi, lasciamoci andare alle libere associazioni, scartabelliamodizionari, facciamo qualche bel giochetto linguistico.17. Ripartiamo dalla creatività altrui.Per giocare con il linguaggio, leggiamo con gusto e curiosità quanto scrivono gli altri. Annotiamoquanto ci piace e ci stimola: liste di parole, neologismi, assonanze, soluzioni testuali sorprendenti dareinterpretare e riprorporre anche nei nostri testi.18. La chiarezza imposta dal ritmo.Se la frase è breve, il lettore si muove più piano. E si prende tutto il tempo necessario per pensare,assimilare, confrontare, imparare. Anche le frasi lunghe portano chiarezza, perché trascinanorapidamente il lettore verso la comprensione, ma devono essere perfette in quanto a scorrevolezza efluidità.
  • 46. 19. Pause per la mente e per gli occhi.Anche la lunghezza dei paragrafi è importante e non va lasciata al caso. Un paragrafo è una unitànarrativa a sé: può essere molto lunga, ma anche brevissima per inchiodare il lettore.Senza dimenticare leffetto visivo di pause e spazi: la forma e lequilibrio di testo e bianco non èsolo della poesia, ma anche della prosa.20. Uno, due, tre... quattro!Il numero degli esempi e degli aggettivi che utilizziamo fa la differenza: uno spiega, due divide, trecontestualizza, e a quattro siamo allinventario.21. Sul palcoscenico, dietro le quinte.Quanto e quando deve apparire la voce narrante, la personalità dellautore nel giornalismo e nellascrittura professionale? Meglio scomparire e lasciare che la storia si dipani da sé se il tema è serio,il racconto drammatico e ricco di colpi di scena (un reportage, un case study), meglio fare capolinoe strizzare personalmente locchio al lettore se il tema è leggero e giocoso.22. Su e giù per le scale.Descrivere e raccontare non basta, bisogna anche mostrare. Per questo cè la "scala dellastrazione",che va percorsa rapidamente in su e in giù. In basso ci sono gli oggetti e le cose, in cima le idee e iconcetti. In mezzo cè il regno del gergo e della burocrazia, delle "monete divisionali", delle "ampiegamme di prodotti", delle "firme in calce". Da saltare a pie pari, per mescolare invece con sapienzale cose e le idee.23. In viva voce.Date ai vostri siti, brochure, newsletter - insomma alla vostra azienda - una vera "voce", vivace einconfondibile. Chi legge deve avere la sensazione che state parlando proprio a lui, con unlinguaggio che gli è vicino. Rileggete tutto ad alta voce per convincervene. Se poi avete un blogaziendale, la voce è dobbligo: i mercati sono conversazioni.METODI24. Lindice di un buon progetto.Ogni buona storia ha un indice, che ne riassume landamento capitolo per capitolo. Titoli esottotitoli: tracciare il nostro indice ancor prima di scrivere ci aiuterà a tenere la rotta. Dopo, serviràal lettore, sia sulla carta sia sul web.25. La differenza tra un report e una storia.Da una parte le informazioni, dallaltra unesperienza. Il report per sapere, la storia per vivere erivivere. Se riusciamo a mescolare i due generi, arriviamo alla testa e al cuore. E allora possiamosciogliere così le 5 W del giornalismo:Who diventa il PersonaggioWhat diventa lAzioneWhere diventa lAmbientazioneWhen diventa i TempiWhy diventa la Motivazione del Personaggio.26. Il dialogo, forma di azione e fonte di informazione.Come nei romanzi, anche nella scrittura professionale il dialogo, il discorso diretto, fa progredire lastoria, e in più può:> aggiungere credibilità attraverso una voce umana> spiegare meglio qualcosa di importante> contestualizzare un problema
  • 47. > aggiungere informazioni> rivelare il carattere di una persona> annunciare cosa viene dopo.27. Show, dont tell!Dettagli, dialoghi, scene, definiscono un carattere o una situazione meglio di tanti astratti aggettivi.Così è per il racconto di un progetto di successo sullintranet aziendale, per la letteradellamministratore delegato in apertura della relazione di bilancio, per un botta e risposta sul blogaziendale.28. Illuminanti contrasti.Serio e faceto, passato e futuro, astratto e concreto: i contrasti - di linguaggio, suoni, immagini -sono uno degli strumenti migliori per aiutare il lettore a capire e a ricordare.29. Un antipasto di conclusioni.I giornalisti anglosassoni lo chiamano il modello della "piramide rovesciata", che significaanticipare subito la notizia, la conclusione, per poi dare via via maggiori dettagli. Anche senzasvelare tutto subito, disseminare il testo di indizi fin dallinizio e far intuire dove stiamo andando èuno dei segreti per tenere viva lattenzione del lettore.30. Col fiato sospeso.I meccanismi di attesa possono essere inseriti lungo tutto il testo. Possono scandirlo di capitolo incapitolo, come le puntate di una soap opera. La storia di una soluzione felice per un cliente, senzasvelare subito il nome del prodotto. La corsa contro il tempo per partecipare a una gara raccontatasullintranet. In una presentazione powerpoint, lo scenario futuro... se lazienda prenderà una certadecisione piuttosto che unaltra.31. Una domanda come chiave di accensione.Tutte le storie hanno bisogno di un motore, una domanda chiave. Nella scrittura professionale ladomanda può essere esplicita, diventare un titolo, campeggiare sulla prima slide di unapresentazione, diventare la prima frase del discorso del presidente.32. Monete doro.Il sentiero narrativo va lastricato di monete doro, ovvero non giochiamoci allinizio tutte le cartemigliori, né lasciamole tutte alla fine. Dosiamo effetti, aneddoti e informazioni importanti lungotutto il testo, così che il lettore non sia tentato di saltare nemmeno un capoverso.33. Il ritmo della parola che ritorna.La poesia ce lo mostra, la retorica ce lo insegna: la ripetizione di una parola nei punti cruciali di untesto è uno dei principali elementi del ritmo, e quindi della memoria. Da Dante a Martin LutherKing.34. Scrivo, dunque filmo.La varietà crea sorpresa, assicura attenzione e fedeltà da parte del lettore. Meglio farlo da subito,con un incipit che cattura. Per esempio, facendo "vedere" un problema, un prodotto o unazienda daun diverso punto di vista, come attraverso una cinepresa. Invece che dalle frasi di rito, si puòcominciare con un dettaglio, una panoramica, uno zoom, un protagonista che parla.
  • 48. 35. Come a teatro.In un buon racconto, personaggi, ma anche aziende e prodotti, non vanno meramente descritti,magari con una bella dose di aggettivi e avverbi. E meglio farli agire come su un palcoscenico. Piùfacile per un giornalista, meno per uno scrittore di impresa. Eppure, basta non elargire al potenzialecliente solo la solita lista di prodotti e servizi, ma accompagnarla con un caso molto concreto, conproblema già risolto, la faccia simpatica e la viva voce di un professionista aziendale che si affacciasul sito o racconta la sua esperienza sul blog.36. Frullatore di stili.Un verso che apre una brochure, un bilancio che racconta lanno come un reportage, un sito che sisfoglia come un album, tutto foto e didascalie, la lettera aperta del presidente sul blog aziendale.Titoli calembour sugli articoli dellintranet. Mescolare gli stili diverte chi scrive e sorprende chilegge.37. Neanche una sillaba di spreco.I testi brevi, si sa, sono tra i più difficili da scrivere. E anche da rivedere. In tutti i microcontenuti -titoli, sottotitoli, parole chiave, abstract, alt text, didascalie - ogni parola deve avere la sua funzioneed essere proprio quella giusta. Se serve, la lucidiamo con cura. Se non serve la tagliamo via.38. Meglio gli archetipi degli stereotipi.Anche nella scrittura professionale, non dimentichiamo mai il mito, il simbolo, la poesia,profondamente radicati in ognuno di noi.I temi del ritorno a casa, del superamento degli ostacoli, della perdita e del ritrovamento, sonocomuni anche al giornalismo e in qualche misura anche alla scrittura di impresa. Acquisire unimportante contratto non è molto diverso dalluscire vivi dalla fossa dei leoni e anche un gelido"case history" può diventare una bella storia a lieto fine.39. Tutte le strade portano alla fine.Che la fine sia annunciata, anticipata, lasciata intravedere o assolutamente sorprendente, ogni testodeve chiudere in modo naturale, senza sbrodolare o lasciare qualcosa in sospeso. Si può chiuderecon: un payoff, una soluzione a un problema, una citazione, uno sguardo al futuro, una call toaction.BUONE ABITUDINI40. A ogni progetto, la sua mission.Per le aziende scriviamo spesso inutili mission. Molto più utile scriverla per noi quando iniziamo unnuovo progetto di scrittura, soprattutto se lungo e complesso. Ci aiuterà a tenere la rotta e a nondimenticare mai - tra mille stesure e ripensamenti - lobiettivo che dobbiamo raggiungere.41. La prova generale.Mentre stiamo ancora pensando al nostro testo, cincischiando con scalette e mappe mentali,lottando con parole che non vogliono saperne di uscire, proviamo intanto a "rappresentarlo" ametterlo in scena nella nostra testa. E la prima maniera di scriverlo.42. Presto e bene.Il processo e i tempi della scrittura sono diversi per ciascuno di noi. Cè chi ama scrivere un testocon molto anticipo per avere tutto il tempo per una revisione di fino e chi invece produce i testimigliori quando ha il fiato della scadenza sul collo. Trovare un equilibrio tra queste due strade cipreserva dagli imprevisti, sempre in agguato.
  • 49. 43. Lettori consapevoli.Abituiamoci a leggere (e a rileggere) tutti i testi in maniera consapevole. I nostri, ma soprattuttoquelli degli altri. Se un libro o un articolo ci piacciono particolarmente, cerchiamo di capire ilperché. Isoliamo ed esaminiamo quella soluzione testuale, smontiamola ben bene in modo da farlaanche nostra.44. Lo scrittore professionale non butta via niente.Tutto può tornare utile, soprattutto nei momenti difficili: le mille revisioni di una brochure, un testoche non è piaciuto, un progetto di comunicazione troppo audace, un titolo scartato, la versione lungadi un discorso. Quando il tempo stringe e lispirazione non arriva, nel nostro magazzino di testiriusciamo sempre a recuperare e a riconfezionare qualcosa di buono.45. Le tante piccole parti del grande.Ogni grande progetto testuale fa paura quando è ancora un progetto. 10 capitoli? 400.000 battute?Un set di 8 brochure? Non ce la farò mai. Il segreto è dividere ogni progetto in tanti progetti piùpiccoli, da abbordare e completare uno per uno, anche in ordine sparso, a cominciare da quello checonosciamo meglio o ci piace di più.46. Materie di confine, che passione!Le parole non vivono da sole: chi scrive per lavoro collabora inevitabilmente con grafici, webdesigner, correttori di bozze, traduttori, esperti di marketing. Senza cambiare mestiere,appassioniamoci anche al mestiere degli altri, per trovare nuove fonti di idee e creatività.47. Un editor per amico.Una rete di familiari, amici e colleghi disposti a rileggere, discutere e criticare i nostri testi è un verotesoro. Scegliamo i nostri editor con molta cura, preferibilmente sulla base della disponibilità e dellapignoleria.48. Rimandare le autocritiche.Essere iperautocritici è una buona cosa, ma solo prima di metterci al lavoro o subito dopo, a primastesura conclusa. Mentre si scrive, bisogna lasciarsi andare, altrimenti diventa impossibile anchebuttare giù una sola riga.49. Le critiche insegnano.Non ci piaceranno, ma ogni critica va accettata o almeno tollerata, anche la più feroce. Contienesempre un nucleo di verità da cui imparare qualcosa.50. I tuoi attrezzi sul bancone.Ora disponiamo i 49 attrezzi sul nostro personale bancone da lavoro e cominciamo a metterli nelloscaffale giusto per poterli ritrovare appena ci servono.A partire dalle etichette di base:> sniffare (il tema giusto)> esplorare (le idee)> raccogliere (i materiali)> trovare (un focus, un taglio)> selezionare (il meglio)> mettere in ordine (informazioni, dati, idee)> scrivere (la prima stesura)> rifinire (il testo finale).
  • 50. Come scrivere bene, di Umberto Ecohttp://www.mestierediscrivere.com/testi/eco2.htm1. Evita le allitterazioni, anche se allettano gli allocchi.2. Non è che il congiuntivo va evitato, anzi, che lo si usa quando necessario.3. Evita le frasi fatte: è minestra riscaldata.4. Esprimiti siccome ti nutri.5. Non usare sigle commerciali & abbreviazioni etc.6. Ricorda (sempre) che la parentesi (anche quando pare indispensabile) interrompe il filo del discorso.7. Stai attento a non fare... indigestione di puntini di sospensione.8. Usa meno virgolette possibili: non è “fine”.9. Non generalizzare mai.10. Le parole straniere non fanno affatto bon ton.11. Sii avaro di citazioni. Diceva giustamente Emerson: “Odio le citazioni. Dimmi solo quello che sai tu.”12. I paragoni sono come le frasi fatte.13. Non essere ridondante; non ripetere due volte la stessa cosa; ripetere è superfluo (per ridondanzas’intende la spiegazione inutile di qualcosa che il lettore ha già capito).14. Solo gli stronzi usano parole volgari.15. Sii sempre più o meno specifico.16. Liperbole è la più straordinaria delle tecniche espressive.17. Non fare frasi di una sola parola. Eliminale.18. Guardati dalle metafore troppo ardite: sono piume sulle scaglie di un serpente.19. Metti, le virgole, al posto giusto.20. Distingui tra la funzione del punto e virgola e quella dei due punti: anche se non è facile.21. Se non trovi l’espressione italiana adatta non ricorrere mai all’espressione dialettale: peso e! tacòn delbuso.22. Non usare metafore incongruenti anche se ti paiono “cantare”: sono come un cigno che deraglia.23. C’è davvero bisogno di domande retoriche?24. Sii conciso, cerca di condensare i tuoi pensieri nel minor numero di parole possibile, evitando frasilunghe — o spezzate da incisi che inevitabilmente confondono il lettore poco attento — affinché il tuodiscorso non contribuisca a quell’inquinamento dell’informazione che è certamente (specie quandoinutilmente farcito di precisazioni inutili, o almeno non indispensabili) una delle tragedie di questo nostrotempo dominato dal potere dei media.25. Gli accenti non debbono essere nè scorretti nè inutili, perchè chi lo fà sbaglia.26. Non si apostrofa un’articolo indeterminativo prima del sostantivo maschile.27. Non essere enfatico! Sii parco con gli esclamativi!28. Neppure i peggiori fans dei barbarismi pluralizzano i termini stranieri.29. Scrivi in modo esatto i nomi stranieri, come Beaudelaire, Roosewelt, Niezsche, e simili.30. Nomina direttamente autori e personaggi di cui parli, senza perifrasi. Così faceva il maggior scrittorelombardo del XIX secolo, l’autore del 5 maggio.31. All’inizio del discorso usa la captatio benevolentiae, per ingraziarti il lettore (ma forse siete così stupidida non capire neppure quello che vi sto dicendo).32. Cura puntiliosamente l’ortograffia.33. Inutile dirti quanto sono stucchevoli le preterizioni.34. Non andare troppo sovente a capo. Almeno, non quando non serve.35. Non usare mai il plurale majestatis. Siamo convinti che faccia una pessima impressione.36. Non confondere la causa con l’effetto: saresti in errore e dunque avresti sbagliato.37. Non costruire frasi in cui la conclusione non segua logicamente dalle premesse: se tutti facessero così,allora le premesse conseguirebbero dalle conclusioni.38. Non indulgere ad arcaismi, apax legomena o altri lessemi inusitati, nonché deep structures rizomaticheche, per quanto ti appaiano come altrettante epifanie della differanza grammatologica e inviti alla derivadecostruttiva – ma peggio ancora sarebbe se risultassero eccepibili allo scrutinio di chi legga con acribiaecdotica – eccedano comunque le competente cognitive del destinatario.39. Non devi essere prolisso, ma neppure devi dire meno di quello che.40. Una frase compiuta deve avere.tratto da: Umberto Eco, La Bustina di Minerva, Bompiani 2000
  • 51. Top 10 naming factors for product company service names trademarkshttp://www.brighternaming.com/Top_10_Naming_Factors.htmlProfessionals agree that these are the top 10 characteristics of a good name:1 Short, sweet and easily pronouncedThe ideal name for customers to remember, and for you to use to cut through the industry noise, is probably short andsweet and easily pronounced. This means it will have two or three syllables (or even one), and it will work on the phoneor internet even if people have never seen or heard it before. If they have to be told how to spell it once, that is OK (andmay even help with recall). But if they have to be told a second time, that is a problem. One of the sticky consonants(k,q,x,z) can help with recall.2 Unique within its industryYour name doesnt need to be weird or clunky, but it does need to not sound like all the rest of your direct competitors.HotJobs.com, BAJobs.com, Careers.com, CareerJunction.com, LocalJobs.com are all easily lost in the crowd. ButMonster.com stands out dramatically- even though it does not describe what they do! In practice, it has become brandshorthand for job searches, just like Starbucks has become shorthand for coffee.3 Legally available and defensibleYour lawyers think this should be item one of course. Regardless, what is the point of starting any company ormarketing campaign if you cannot have full rights in the name? Your best defense is always a magic ® - which only canbe issued by the USPTO (or equivalent agency in other countries). If the USPTO wont issue a registration certificatebecause they judge it to be generic, then you have problem (2) above anyway. Common law trademark searches are alsocritically important.4 Good alliteration, especially if a longer nameSometimes a longer name does have a place in marketing. After all, the most famous brand in the world, CocaCola, isfour syllables. But notice how smoothly it rolls off the tongue. Linguists will tell you it has good alliteration.5 Does not lend itself to abbreviationsIf you have a long descriptive name, people will abbreviate it quickly. OK, we know it worked for IBM, AT&T, CBSetc., but how many years and how many branding dollars do you have? For a small company, this means you quicklybecome YASI (Yet Another Set of Initials) and drown in the initial bit bucket. At least make sure the trademark part(brand part) of your trade name is a name and not initials. E.g. Ford is the trademark for Ford Motor Car Company.Leave FMCC etc. to the legal documents only. But who or what are AMA, CCI, etc.?6 Flexible and expandableToo many people try to describe their company rather than name it. Copyland, Copydata, Copyshop, QuickCopy alldefine what they do -and are barely distinguishable from one another. But Kinkos stands out dramatically and did notpigeonhole them into only copy services. Today, of course, they are Fedex Kinkos, and can offer a raft of serviceswithout needing to update their name, unlike Texas Instruments that doesnt even make instruments.7 Linguistically cleanWhat are the root origins of the name? How is it pronounced by a Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese or Frenchnative speaker? What does it mean in these languages? You need to support these languages just to do business in NorthAmerica nowadays, especially in the populous areas of California, New York, Texas, Illinois, Florida and Canada.8 Will not age quicklyIs your name hip and topical? If you are in the fashion trend business this might be fine. But otherwise, be very carefulof "in" words or expressions. They will be superseded sooner or later. They may also not play well across alldemographics. Many markets have their own"industry-speak" and slang. The worst of these are in "geekdom" Nameswith classical roots tend to endure more easily.9 Embraces company personalityTwo competitors, entering the same market at the same time with directly competing products, will pick different namesbecause every company and management team has its own personality. This means the executives must be involved inthe decision making process. Your agency can tell you if the name fits, not if you are comfortable with it.10 Fits within companys brand portfolioThe company name, division names and product names are all part of your brand portfolio. Do these sound like they allcome from the same family? While this is a specific problem with merged companies, everyones naming architectureneeds to be properly managed to maximize your brand power and intellectual property portfolio.
  • 52. Naming: Ten crucial questions when naming your business, product, web sitehttp://www.rhymer.com/questions.html1. Who are my consumers?You cant expect to sell to everyone, so define narrowly who you want to sell to and make the name appealto that group. You need to know how the members of that group think. You will make your best guesseswith your current knowledge, but you must be willing to discard some personal favorites when later testingshows that they dont work. Unfortunately, your first inclinations are seldom your best. Trust your testing.2. What am I naming?The goal here is to give the product a name that has appealing associations. In all types of naming it isimportant that the name evokes the right emotions, associations, and images. In addition, if you arenaming a product that will be on a retail shelf, the name should be short enough to fit on the retail box andbe legible from several feet away. If your business, product, or service is altogether new, you will generallywant its name to communicate at a glance what it concerns. For example, business names (trade names) suchas GENERAL NUTRITION, SPORTSMANS WAREHOUSE, BURGER WORLD, and PETSMARTcommunicate immediately what is at issue. On the other hand, if you are naming an additional product in anestablished business, the product name need not necessarily communicate what it is. For example, it is notnecessary for names such as Mustang, Thunderbird, Marboro, and Camel to communicate that they are carsand cigarettes, because the consumer knows what they are from the company names.4. What type of name do I want?Names can be categorized in various ways. Some are surnames like Anderson Lumber Company, or CoveyLeadership. Others are ordinary words combinations such as New Balance Shoes, or First Security Bank.Some names are coined words like Kodak, Nu Skin, Nytol, or Intel. Others such as Taurus and Nike havebeen borrowed from Greek mythology. Below are some of the types of names that you may consider:Coined names:The trend to coin business and product names is increasing, largely because they are quite easilytrademarked. Names such as Nu Skin, Computune, and Envirocare are all recent coinages thatcommunicate the types of businesses they are. Pentium is a well-known product name for Intels fifthgeneration product. A recent trend in coining names for cars has been to select a prestige two-syllablebeginning, and end the name with "a." Consider "Maxima, Accura, Altima, Integra, Lumina, and others.Observe how the names of medicines tend to end in in, possibly to evoke an association with the wordmedicine: aspirin, penicillin, herpecin, corracidin, pamparin, and cholestin. And, we are all familiar withtwo-word names written as single words as in WordPerfect, Microsoft, and WriteExpress. Thus, coiningnames may be done in a number of ways, and coinages often follow trends. WriteExpress PowerNaming isespecially designed to help you in this creative process.Common Words with a Twist:New Balance Shoes, WriteExpress Easy Letters, Outn Back, All a Dollar, Wallpaper Warehouse, and FourSeasons Flowers are all business and product names that consist of common words in short, meaningfulphrases. Each name is memorable because of the associations it evokes. Such traditional names are goodbut sometimes difficult to trademark.Surnames and First names:The current trend is to avoid the use of surnames unless they are well known or you have the means tomake them well known through advertising. As a general rule, they are difficult to trademark. Successfulsurnames include Smuckers, Fudruckers, Albertsons, Covey Leadership, and Franklin Quest. Successfulnames that include first names include Oscar Meyer, Fred Meyers Mama Marias, and Tony Romas. The useof first or surnames often works well when linked with another identifying word. For example, Jones Paintand Glass, Peggys Bridal, Crawford Electric, and Knighton Optical. Be aware that such names often worklocally, but not internationally, unless they are widerly recognized.
  • 53. Telescoped or Alpha-Numeric names:Some persons refer to names that combine numbers and letters as Alpha-Numeric names. Such nameshave worked well for companies such as Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company that telescoped itsname to be the 3M Company. Other good examples are Food 4 Less, A-1 Steak Sauce, 9-Lives Cat Food,and 7-UP. (Other examples???) Many such names are successful because the numbers carry importantmeanings in clever ways.Names with deviant spellings:Nite skool, Krazee Kids, Kandy Korn, Peteet Neet School, tuff skins, Xtreme are all examples of deviantspellings that play with sounds. The rhyming and alliteration features of WriteExpress can help you findwords with the desired sound combinations, but you provide the innovative spellings. Be sure that thedeviant spelling appeals to your target consumer. What appeals to one group of consumers may just be sillyto another. The advantage of such names is that they are memorable, but you may find them difficult totrademark if there is a similar-sounding trademark with a more conventional spelling.Acronyms and Abbreviations:Acronyms and abbreviations are effective ways to shorten otherwise long names and make them uniqueand memorable, particularly when the name is already known. Thus NRA is recognized as National RifleAssociation, aol is America on line, and KFC is Kentucky Fried Chicken. Otherwise, the acronym orabbreviation must contain other information to carry its message. For example IHC Health Care, CNN News,or M & L Rentals. In some cases a clever acronym is introduced with the product as in US Wests DirectoryExpert called DEX.Place names:The key is for the place name to carry the right associations. New York Deli, Philadelphia Cream Cheese,Chicago style pizza, San Francisco Sourdough, Kentucky Fried Chicker. Ficticious place names can alsowork if they have the right associations and are therefore memorable. Consider The Olive GardenRestaurant, The Attic, and The Terrace. If the nature of the business, service or product is not obvious fromthe name, you still have an advertising problem.Alliterative or rhyming names:Names with alliteration are those that have the same sound at the beginning of two or more successivewords. Roto Rooter, Cellular Source, Peter Piper Pizza, Water World, and Bargain Basement are words thatare memorable largely because they contain alliteration. The WriteExpress rhyming and alliteration featuresmake up the worlds most powerful tool for finding such names. While this is a very positive feature, dontlet it lure you into being so creative that the name is counter productive.Prestige names:Names such as Nike, Sundance, Lady Di, and Pierre Cardin are all prestige names. Some are from foreignlanguages; others are the names of celebrities. One may expect that such names are rarely trademarkable.It is generally good advice to avoid them unless you have some legal control over the name.4. How long should the name be?In naming businesses and services, lengthy names with three or more syllables in more than one wordshould probably be avoided. Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company was wisely reduced to 3M, andInternational Business Machines was reduced to IBM. If you are naming a product that will be on a retailshelf, the name should be short enough to fit on the retail box and be legible from several feet away.Selecting a name that tells the customer what the product is in only a few syllables is daunting butabsolutely essential. After selecting possible names, test them with potential buyers to see whether theyunderstand from the name what the product is. If they dont, find another short name until they do.
  • 54. 5. Do the sounds in the name have the right appeal?Your name should be easy to read, spell, and pronounce, and should reflect the quality of the thing named.It is best to avoid names with uncertain pronunciations. Part of the meaning of a word is colored by itssounds. Words that rhyme or have alliterative initial sounds may work well for some products but not forothers. "Tiny Tots Toys" may work well for childrens products but such alliteration may not work well formedical supplies. Would you want to buy "comfy coronary catheters?" Certain sounds such as the vowels intipsy and teenie weenie carry light, diminutive impressions, while the sounds in crunch and plop seemmuch heavier. Similarly, the sounds p,t,k,ch, j, a,u,o seem harder and more masculine than do l,m,n, ng,sh,s, i,e. The sounds v,f,z,s are generally associated with speed more than sounds such as p,t,b,d,l, and m.Some experts feel that the letters q,x,z,f, and u tend to evoke negative feelings. Of course Fudruckers andCompaq have used the sounds to their advantage. On the positive side, the letters a,b,s,t and m arereported to evoke very positive feelings. Being aware of such subtleties may help you narrow your choices.6. What associations should the name evoke?Would "Bud Light" be as appealing if it were "Tiffany Light?" "Bud" evokes masculine associations and"Tiffany" evokes feminine ones. Notice that the difference is communicated as much by the sounds of thewords as by the meanings. The sounds in "Bud" seem heavier than ones in "Tiffany." A recent fat substitutewas given the name "olean," negating any notion of fat. Consider the positive associations with a namesuch as "Sunkist Oranges." Some names like Ajax or Mercury evoke powerful images from mythology.Others like Castmaster or Power Bait clearly appeal to the sport of fishing. The associations that your nameevokes are extremely important and should appeal to the specific consumer you have in mind.7. What are the foreign language implications of the name?Without checking foreign language associations of the word, someone at GM chose "Nova," for a Chevroletmodel, probably hoping to evoke a star-like association. Only later did they realize that In Spanish, "no- va"means "it doesnt go." The incident has been a lesson for all who would name products for globalconsumption. Successful names with good foreign language meanings include "Nike," referring to the Greekgoddess of victory, and "Taurus," meaning "bull," the second sign of the zodiac. Before settling on a name,be sure to check its possible meanings and associations in foreign languages. Foreign language dictionarieswill help but will not suffice. Generally they will not contain profanity. Be safe by checking with nativespeakers.8. How will I test the name?As you narrow your name choices, involve only persons from the group who will be the consumers. Askthem what they think of when they hear the word you have chosen. You may also tell them what you thinkthe name of your product or service, but dont dwell on it. Contact them on the following day and ask themwhat the name was. If several remember it, you probably have a good name. If virtually no one does, itsback to the drawing board. Other techniques include surveying consumers with a list of possible names forthem to rank, interviewing consumers in the market place, and placing lists on bulletin boards andrequesting responses. Also test your names for political incorrectness, negative associations, questionablemeanings in foreign languages, and other connotations or associations that may render a name unwise.Remember, the name must be unique, distinctive, and memorable. And, before you use it be sure that thename will be free from legal problems.9. How will the name appear in directories?If you anticipate that much of your business will come from listings in the Yellow Pages, the Internet, orother directories, it will be to your advantage to have a business name that will be listed close to the startof the alphabet, because these lists appear in alphabetical order. Of course, highlighting, adding pictures,and using other attention-getting devices can help, but their effectiveness seems to be less when placednear the end of a list.
  • 55. 10. Can I trademark the name?You will probably experience some frustration when you find that your favorite name is not legally available.Be sure you have three or four alternatives when you start your search from trademark availability. Initially,you may want to check trade journals, and directories such as the Yellow Pages to be sure your name is notbeing used. Most university libraries offer searching services so you can determine whether your name isalready listed as a trademark. This initial search may save you time and money before you engage legalcounsel. Be sure to check various similar or optional spellings for your name, because it can be denied if itis too similar to another established trademark. Large libraries will generally have books that deal withstate and federal trademark laws. Trademark law can be complicated so you must get good advice on howto proceed.Fonte: http://www.brighternaming.com/name_styles.html
  • 56. 37 way to name a company di Alan Sharpewww.brampton-business.com/pdfuploads/37waystonameyourcompany.pdf1. Make a name for yourself – Macey’s2. List your partners – Sears, Roebuck and Co.3. Combine your name with your product – Hakim Optical4. Link your product with a rare virtue – Virgin Records5. Say what you do – Bonus Rent-a-Car6. Say what your customers should do – Color Your World7. Dominate the category – Toys ‘R Us8. Enunciate your niche – Big, Bold and Beautiful9. Link benefit with product with superiority – Speedy Muffler King10. Link what with where – Air Canada11. Say it with initials – IBM12. Abbreviate your current name – FedEx13. Be first in the book – AAAAAAAAAAAA Abba Movers and Storage14. Be last in the book – Zurich15. Salute your street – The Wall Street Journal16. Nominate your neighborhood – Village Voice17. Tell of your town – Moose Jaw Times – Herald18. Promote your province – Yukon News19. Name your nation – The Scotsman20. Publicize your planet – The Globe and Mail21. Be a verb – Sprint22. Be a noun – Time23. Be an adjective – Mad24. Be a suffix – Inc.25. Be an exclamation – Yahoo!26. Be a metaphor – Jaguar
  • 57. 27. Make something up – Kodak28. Link your name with your benefit – Tilley Endurables29. Alter a familiar word – Compaq30. Give a subtle hint – The Second Cup31. Echo your marketing plan– America Online32. Think animal – Beaver Lumber33. Think vegetable – Sask Wheat34. Think mineral – Hard Rock Café35. Differentiate yourself from the competition – Honest Ed’s36. Keep it in the family – Saatchi & Saatchi37. Just say it twice – Pizza Pizza
  • 58. 10 company name types on TechCrunch: Pros and conshttp://www.thenameinspector.com/10-name-types/Every once in a while The Name Inspector likes to step back and look at the big picture. This post illustratesten name categories that account for all the names in the TechCrunch company/product index. Well, almostall of them. The name 1 800 Free 411 would have required its own category, and that would have madeeleven categories instead of the magic ten. So let’s just ignore that name for now. Though most of theTechCrunch names are “Web 2.0•• names, there’s nothing particularly Web 2.0 about the categories. They allrepresent linguistic naming strategies that can be used for companies or products of any kind.Of course, there are different ways to categorize names. You can use phonetic properties like sonority ornumber of syllables. You can use semantic criteria, such as whether they are metaphorical, metonymic, orliterally descriptive. The categories below are based on the morphological structure of names: what kinds ofmeaningful pieces they have and how the pieces fit together. They’re listed in descending order of frequency.The number of names in each category is in parentheses.1. Real Words (34)Names that are simply repurposed words. Such names can’t be generically descriptive, because then theywouldn’t be protectible trademarks, so they usually work through metaphor or metonymy (indirectassociation).Pros: These names are short and come ready-made with rich, often multiple associations.Cons: Expect to pay money–possibly a lot–to secure the URL. Trademarking can be tricky too.AdobeAmazonAppleDapperEtherExpoFlockFoxGrouperIndeedInform.comLive.comMultiplyPandoraPluckRevverRiffsShadowsSphereWinkYahoo!YelpMisspelled wordsThese are simply words that have been misspelled to make them more distinctive. This addresses theURL/trademark issue.del.icio.us (delicious)Digg (dig)flickr (flicker)Google (googol)
  • 59. Goowy (gooey or GUI)Snocap (snow cap)SoonR (sooner)Topix (topics)Zooomr (zoomer)Foreign wordsRenkoo (Japanese renku, a type of poetry)Rojo (Spanish ‘red’)Vox (Latin ‘voice’)2. Compounds (31)Each of these names consists of two words put together, with the first word receiving the main emphasis inpronunciation. (It doesn’t matter if there’s a space between words). In most cases both words are nouns.Names with verbs in the second position are Bubbleshare, Google Talk, and possibly Tailrank (share, talk,and rank can all be nouns, but they’re verbs under the most natural interpretation). Names with non-nouns inthe first position are BlueDot, SocialText, JotSpot, Measure Map, and possibly Jumpcut, Rapleaf, andSearchFox. Again, the first words here can all be nouns, but they’re more naturally treated as two adjectives(blue and social) and a bunch of verbs. Compounds are a simple way to create new words and are verycommon in English (and other Germanic languages), so it’s not surprising to find them high on the list.Pros: The practically limitless number of possible combinations makes it easy to create a unique name.Interesting meanings can be created through the combination of words.Cons: There are no huge drawbacks, which is one reason that compounds arepopular, but they are longer than many other kinds of name.Attention TrustBloglinesBlueDotBubbleshareFacebookFeedBurnerFilmloopFirefoxGoogle TalkJotSpotJumpcutMeasure MapNetvibesNewsgatorOPML EditorPageflakesPhotobucketPowersetRapleafSalesforceSearchFoxSocialTextSongbirdTagJagTagworldTailrankTechMemeWebshotsWordpress
  • 60. Video EggYouTube3. Phrases (25)These are names that follow normal rules for putting words together to make phrases (other thancompounds).Pros: They sound linguistically natural and have clear meanings because they follow regular rules.Cons: Phrase names can be long, and they can also sound awkward when used as nouns if they are notalready noun phrases (e.g. Have you tried iLike?)37 SignalsAdaptive PathAllofMP3AllPeersAmie Street (could be a compound, but __ Street is such a common pattern)CollectiveXiLikeLast.fmLinkedInMyBlogLogMySpacePayPerPostPlanet Web 2.0rawsugarSecondLifeSimplyHiredSixApartStumbleUponTheVeniceProject (could be a compound, but the the makes it phraselike).TopTenSourcesIncluded in this category are names that consist of a company name or prominent brand name followed by ageneric noun. In these names, the first word functions as a kind of modifier of the second.AIM PagesGoogle ReaderGoogle VideoMicrosoft ExpoYahoo AnswersNotice the Google Talk is not here–it’s on the compound list. That’s because Google Talk is pronounced withthe emphasis on Google, which means that the whole thing is treated as one word. As far as The NameInspector knows, all the names immediately above are pronounced with some emphasis on each word, andthe main emphasis on the second. Does anyone disagree?4. Blends (12)Each of these names has two parts, at least one of which is a recognizable portion of a word rather than awhole word.Pros: When they work, blends can be short and elegant and have all the advantages of compounds.Cons: When they don’t work, blends can be awkward and/or have obscure meanings.
  • 61. Maxthon (max + marathon)Microsoft (microcomputer + software)Netscape (net + landscape)Newroo (new + kangaroo)PubSub (publish + subscribe)Rebtel (rebel + telephone)Rollyo (roll + your own, or roll + your own)Sharpcast (sharp + broadcast)Skype (sky + peer-to-peer)Technorati (technology + literati)Wikipedia (wiki + encyclopedia)Zillow (zillions + pillow, with overlap of -ill-)5. Tweaked words (11)Some names are just words that have been slightly changed in pronunciation and spelling–usually with aletter replaced or added.Pros: As long as people recognize the word, you get all its rich meaning while still having a distinctive name.Cons: People might not recognize the word, and some of these names can be a little cheesy and gimmicky.Attensa (attention)CNet (might stand for computer network, but who thinks of it that way?)ebayedgeioeSnipsiPhoneiTunesWikiaZoho (Soho)Zune (tune)Zvents (events)6. Affixed words (10)These are all novel forms consisting of a real word and a real prefix or suffix. Notice how common the -stersuffix is.Pros: These names can be distinctive and meaningful while remaining relatively short.Cons: Sometimes these names sound contrived. The meanings added by affixes are limited in variety andusually abstract (which means not very vivid).BrowsterCoCommentDogsterFeedsterFindoryFriendsterNapsterOmnidrivePerformancing (performance isn’t a verb, so doesn’t normally take -ing ending)PostSecret (post can also be a noun or a verb, making this a compound)
  • 62. 7. Made up or obscure origin (8)These are short names that are either made up or whose origins are so obscure that they might as well bemade up.Pros: Made-up names can be short, cute, and very distinctive (and therefore easy to trademark).Cons: Made-up names don’t provide much ready-made meaning to work with (all the meaning has to comefrom sound symbolism). Good ones are hard to think of, and when they’re short the URLs are likely to betaken.BeboMeeboOdeoOoklesPlaxoQumanaSimpyZimbra (taken from a Talking Heads song based on a nonsense Dada poem)8. Puns (8)These names are words or phrases that have been modified slightly to evoke an appropriate second meaning.They’re similar to blends, but they involve a coincidental similarity between part of the main word and thesecond evoked word.Pros: Pun names can be fun and memorable.Cons: Nothing sounds dumber than a bad pun.Automattic (automatic, mat –> matt, the guy who started the company)Consumating (consummating, consumm –> consum(e))Farecast (forecast, fore –> fare)LicketyShip (lickety split, split –> ship, the verb)Memeorandum (memorandum, mem –> meme)Meetro (metro, met –> meet)Meevee (teevee/TV, tee –> me(e), the pronoun)Writely (rightly, right –> write)9. People’s names (real or fictitious) (5)Some names are either pitched or recognizable as people’s names. If the audience for a name doesn’t see theconnection, the name is just like a madeup one.Pros: These names are short and give personality to a company (or product or service).Cons: Aside from personality, these names don’t provide meaning to work with. As with made-up names,good, short ones might not be available as URLs.Bix (e.g. Bix Beiderbecke)Jajah (F. Jajah Watamba seems to be their fictitious spokesperson)Kiko (a name in Japanese and other languages)Ning (a Chinese name)Riya (the name of a founder’s daughter)
  • 63. 10. Initials and Acronyms (3)These are names made up of the first letter of each word in a much longer phrase name. Sometimes theletters are pronounced individually, in which case we can just think of them as initials, and sometimes thecombination of letters is pronounced as a word, in which case it’s an acronym.Pros: These names provide short mnemonics for long, descriptive phrases.Cons: Zzzzzz. Also, sometimes initials are short when written but long when spoken. For example, theinitials www have nine syllables when spoken, while the phrase world wide web has three.AOL (America Online)FIM (Fox Interactive Media)Guba (Gigantic Usenet Binaries Archive)The Name Inspector hopes that these name categories will be useful to people struggling with their ownnaming problems. They might suggest naming strategies or spur name ideas that wouldn’t otherwise comeup. Good luck in your naming endeavors!