www.aidsalliance.org

Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries




Keep the best, change the rest
Parti...
Tool A1
Acknowledgements
                                                                                       Establishe...
Contents
    Introduction                            Section B: Sex and relationships         Section D: Working together
...
INTRODUCTION



    About this toolkit
2
                                                                                 ...
What materials are needed to                What this toolkit contains                    Using this toolkit
    use this ...
INTRODUCTION
    INTRODUCTION


    Building support for your work
4
                                                     ...
Preparing the team
                                                                                             • providin...
INTRODUCTION         SECTION A



    Tool A1
    Preparing the team
6
                                                   ...
to discuss these with team members as
    Improving teamwork                           Ways to give each other feedback an...
INTRODUCTION       SECTION A



    Planning
    Tool A1 the work
8
                                                      ...
Making group sessions                      Building relationships with                 Planning how to progress the
    ac...
INTRODUCTION        SECTION A



     Planning
     Tool A1 the work
10
                                                  ...
Using the tools
                                                                                              are importan...
INTRODUCTION        SECTION A



     Skills for
     Tool A1 using the tools with groups
12
                             ...
Introducing each tool                       talkative, you can ask them to allow          Managing conflict
               ...
INTRODUCTION         SECTION A



     Skills for
     Tool A1 using the tools with groups
14
                            ...
group of agreements they have made           to follow these agreements, but to             messages of the toolkit, but a...
INTRODUCTION         SECTION A



     Skills for
     Tool A1 using the tools with groups
16
                            ...
Recording and monitoring your                   minutes at the end of every meeting
     Using drawings
                  ...
INTRODUCTION      SECTION A



     Example:
     Tool A1 Activity record sheet
18
                                       ...
4. Decisions made by the group




     5. Next steps for the facilitator (e.g. issues to cover in the next meeting)




19
SECTION A



     Introduction to Section A: Gender, sexuality and vulnerability and vulnerability
20
                    ...
• Choices: Some people are more                                                           • Some women feel a double
     ...
SECTION A



     Tool A1 Cartoon strip
22
                                                                               ...
2       3
     1




     4       5
23
SECTION A



     Tool A2 Scenes from life
24
                                                                            ...
Example 1
     ‘Scenes of life’ as a song


     ▼ Example 2
     ‘Scenes of life’ as a role-play




25
SECTION A



     Tool A3 But why?
26
                                                                                    ...
27
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
Gender Sexuality Toolkit
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Gender Sexuality Toolkit

  1. 1. www.aidsalliance.org Supporting community action on AIDS in developing countries Keep the best, change the rest Participatory tools for working with communities on gender and sexuality
  2. 2. Tool A1 Acknowledgements Established in 1993, the International Final development and editing of This toolkit was inspired, developed HIV/AIDS Alliance (the Alliance) is a the toolkit was carried out by Sarah and produced through the support global partnership of nationally based Middleton-Lee. The communications and expertise of a large number of organisations working to support team at the Alliance secretariat co- individuals, groups and organisations. community action on HIV/AIDS. Our ordinated the design development, shared vision is to reduce the spread of production and dissemination of this Alan Greig was responsible for much of HIV and meet the challenges of AIDS. toolkit. the original design and development of For more information about our work, this toolkit. Input and guidance was also please visit our website: Many thanks for permission from provided by Sue Clay, Liz Dawn, www.aidsalliance.org Engenderhealth who manage the Men Gill Gordon, Lillian Kaoma, Chipo Registered charity number: 1038860 as Partners project in South Africa Chiiya, James Nowland, Andrew Mlewa to adapt and use activities from their and Simon Mutonyi. To order Alliance publications please go manual on male involvement in sexual to www.aidsalliance.org/publications health. Comments on the tools and key inputs or email publications@aidsalliance.org into specific sections were provided by © International HIV/AIDS Alliance, 2007 the participants of workshops, seminars This resource was made possible by © Illustrations by Petra Röhr-Rouendaal, and field experiences, particularly in the generous support of the American 2007 Chibombo, Kabwe, Kasama, Lundazi people through the United States and Lusaka in Zambia. Feedback on the Agency for International Development Published June 2007 tools was also provided by Thandizani (USAID) and its support of the Zambia Community-based HIV/AIDS Prevention Integrated Health Program (ZIHP). The ISBN: 1-905055-29-3 and Care, Kabwe Adventist Family contents are the responsibility of the Health Institute, and Development Aid authors and do not necessarily reflect Designed by Jane Shepherd from People to People. Peter Gordon the views of USAID or ZIHP. Printed by Dexter Graphics, UK facilitated a workshop with the above organisations to further develop and edit the toolkit. Many thanks to Nchimunya Hansonga and Dr Andrew Mukelabai for their contribution to the toolkit review workshop.
  3. 3. Contents Introduction Section B: Sex and relationships Section D: Working together About this toolkit 2 Introduction 42 Introduction 72 Building support for your work 4 Tools Tools Preparing the team 5 B1 Community timeline 44 D1 Speaking my truth 74 Planning the work 8 B2 If I knew then what I know now 46 D2 Maintaining energy 76 Using the tools 11 B3 Keep, change, stop 48 D3 Creating structure 78 Skills for using the tools B4 Agree-disagree 50 D4 Building leadership 80 with groups 12 B5 Sex and ‘goods’ 52 D5 Working with allies 82 B6 Money and HIV 54 Section A: Gender, sexuality and B7 Body mapping 56 Section E: Making a plan vulnerability B8 Turning it up, turning it down 58 Introduction 84 Introduction 20 B9 Condoms – safe and sexy 60 Tools Tools B10 Sex talk 62 E1 Deciding what to work on 86 A1 Cartoon strip 22 E2 Deciding how to do the work 88 A2 Scenes from life 24 Section C: Sexual violence E3 Deciding when to do the work 90 A3 But why? 26 Introduction 66 E4 Deciding who will do the work 92 A4 Chain of effects 28 Tools E5 Deciding how to monitor the work 94 A5 Walking in each other’s shoes 30 C1 Sexual violence and daily life 68 A6 Working day 32 C2 Taking action against violence 70 A7 Making decisions 34 A8 Caring for others 36 A9 Lifelines 38 A10 Gender boxes 40 1
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION About this toolkit 2 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability Who this toolkit is for Aim of this toolkit This toolkit is aimed at individuals This toolkit aims to support community and organisations that support groups to work in a practical communities to address HIV and AIDS and thorough way on improving and related issues. Examples include understanding and relationships training organisations, ‘intermediary’ between women and men. Through NGOs, NGO support programmes this, it aims to promote sexual well- and organisations implementing being, strengthen communities and interventions in communities. help them to prevent HIV.
  5. 5. What materials are needed to What this toolkit contains Using this toolkit use this toolkit? Introduction: Explaining what this This toolkit works best if it is used in toolkit is, who it is for and how it can be the order that it is presented – going This toolkit is designed to make used most effectively with community through sections A to E to identify maximum use of local resources. The groups. and explore issues and then deciding majority of the tools involve community how to work together and what action members holding discussions, doing Section A: Gender, sexuality and to take. It particularly suits on going role-plays or using the ground, sticks, vulnerability: Providing tools to explore work with community groups, involving stones, beans and everyday objects, general, everyday issues about gender regular sessions over several weeks or such as clothes and household items. and sexuality and how they affect months. A small number of the tools, particularly women’s and men’s vulnerability to HIV. those to develop an action plan in Section B: Sex and relationships: section E, benefit from the use of a However, it is also possible to ‘dip Providing tools to explore how gender blackboard and chalk or flipchart paper into’ this toolkit and select one or and sexuality affects people’s sexual and marker pens. more tools for a specific purpose. relationships and women’s and men’s As such, it can be used for one-off vulnerability to HIV. sessions with community members, Section C: Sexual violence: Providing such as awareness-raising meetings to tools to explore issues relating to build people’s interest in gender and gender-based and sexual violence and sexuality and assess their interest in how they affect women’s and men’s further activities. vulnerability to HIV. Section D: Working together: Providing tools to help community groups to work well together on issues relating to gender and sexuality. Section E: Making a plan: Providing tools to help community groups to make an action plan for working together on issues relating to gender and sexuality. 3
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Building support for your work 4 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability Building relationships with allies Getting permission from key Work with key stakeholders has to be ongoing, not ‘one-off’. They need to stakeholders Allies are people, groups and be regularly informed of the progress institutions whose support can help Before we start working on gender of the work, for example by having your work on gender and sexuality. and sexuality with a community, it is community members come to talk to The most obvious allies may be local important to build relations and trust them about the tools and their impact. service providers, such as health and work with the community to assess A good relationship with stakeholders clinics and HIV testing and counselling and agree on how looking at gender will make it more likely that they will centres. But, there may be others, such and sexuality can help to improve the support the Action Plan that comes as the media or local businesses, that lives of different groups of people and from the use of the tools when it is put you have not considered before. protect them from HIV. into action in the community. It is important to build good Getting permission from key relationships with allies from the stakeholders is an important step in this start. This process might involve: process. These are people who have a explaining your work to allies and particular influence, power or decision- identifying common interests; talking making role in a community. Examples about the contribution that allies can include chiefs, traditional teachers on make and identifying what they need gender and sexuality, teachers, health in order to make it; and maintaining workers, civil society organisations and regular communication with allies and religious and other local leaders. reviewing your relationship with them. The support of key stakeholders is particularly important for work on gender and sexuality because it involves addressing sensitive and controversial subjects. It is vital that they not only understand, but support the work.
  7. 7. Preparing the team • providing training to assist Creating the right team Using community volunteers volunteers who are interested in Work on gender and sexuality with Community volunteers often play a vital finding paid work community groups is usually best done role in work on gender and sexuality. • creating a team identity through by facilitation teams of staff and/or This can include facilitating activities, badges, materials or t-shirts. volunteers, rather than just one person. using the community languages, visiting A team can support each other and less visible community members to reach more people more quickly with invite them to meetings, arranging a better activities. place and equipment for meetings and doing follow-up after meetings. If possible, balance teams in terms of gender, age, social status, etc. Engaging community volunteers in the Members will have their own views and team and the activities makes the work experience of gender and sexuality. more credible if they are trusted and They should also all have: respected people. The presence of volunteers can also help the team be • good relationships with the more accountable to the community. community • a basic level of literacy It is important to find ways to value the • a basic understanding of HIV and work of volunteers – to avoid exploiting AIDS their interest and commitment. Good • enough time to do the work ways to do this include: • commitment to working together as • project staff visiting the communities a team and working alongside the • members should be willing to reflect volunteers to emphasise the on their values relating to gender and importance of their work sexuality and be willing to change as • providing incentives (such as food or they learn more. money) for the work of the volunteers 5
  8. 8. INTRODUCTION SECTION A Tool A1 Preparing the team 6 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability Preparing yourself matters. To prepare them to do this, it To prepare for this, it is helpful for the can be helpful for members to: team to: Before working with communities, it is important for all team members • choose someone they trust and who • decide on issues that they may to consider their own feelings about can listen and offer support discuss with the community and gender and sexuality, as these might identify those that some members • tell that person briefly about the affect how they do their work. It is vital feel uncomfortable discussing or experiences that they are concerned that members experience the tools for have strong views about about, sharing as little or as much themselves and are able to respond to information as feels comfortable • discuss situations in which what they learn before using them with discomfort or strong views might • tell that person how they think these others. If the team agrees as a group, make it hard for some members to experiences could affect their work they can support each other to change facilitate a discussion. Then make a • explain how they would like to and be good role models. plan for dealing with such situations be supported to deal with their • make time to practice facilitating experiences. One way to prepare to use the tools discussions of such issues and is to think about our own personal enable the members to get feedback Looking at discomforts and experiences of gender and sexuality. on how well they handled their strong views Some of these may have been, or discomfort or strong views Some team members may feel may still be, physically or emotionally • remember that it is right to have uncomfortable talking openly about harmful, such as experiences of strong views against harmful certain topics, such as masturbation. violence in personal relationships. behaviours such as rape, child abuse Some may have strong views on certain It may be hard to talk about certain and violence and we should always issues, such as sex before marriage. topics without being reminded of such challenge opinions that promote It will be difficult for a team member experiences. these. to facilitate an open discussion with community members if they feel This toolkit is based on the principle uncomfortable or have such strong that the process of change begins with views about the issues at hand. each of us as individuals. As such, it is important for the team to become used to talking openly about personal
  9. 9. to discuss these with team members as Improving teamwork Ways to give each other feedback and part of the preparation for their work. support An important part of preparing the team This discussion can help to: to use these tools with communities is It is important to help team members to • connect roles and responsibilities to look at what it needs in order to work support each other, especially because to skills and experience – to make well together. This might include: working on gender and sexuality can sure that the members are able to do raise painful personal issues, cause what is being asked of them resistance among people’s friends Training in the use of the tools • make clear agreements about how and family and make people feel Training for team members should team members will work together overwhelmed. Ways to provide support include: include: • ensure that responsibilities are • basic information about sexual distributed fairly across the team. • structuring mutual support. For health, including HIV and AIDS. example, group members can This toolkit does not include such regularly meet together in pairs Helping each other to ‘practise what information, but there are many other or small groups to offer each other they preach’ resources that do and that can be support It is vital that the team ‘practises what used to refresh members’ • helping members to get to know it is preaching’ and provides a good knowledge each other better – by encouraging example of the types of values that • opportunities to explore their own them to share their interests and by it is trying to promote, such as equal thoughts about gender and sexuality. allowing time for social activities and supportive relationships between Experiencing the tools themselves • having supervision sessions with men and women. To do this, it can be not only enables members to explore staff to identify further needs for useful to set clear, agreed standards their own feelings, but to understand support of behaviour that can be used to what it is like to be a participant and hold team members to account for • making it known what support to make any necessary adaptations inappropriate behaviour (such as sexist is/is not available and making clear to the tools jokes or sexual harassment). agreements about how team • time to practice and get feedback members can ask for it. in their use of the tools. The best way to learn about the tools is to use them (with the same materials that Clear roles and responsibilities will be available in the community) Teamwork is better when everyone and to exchange feedback with understands their own and each other’s peers. roles and responsibilities. It is important 7
  10. 10. INTRODUCTION SECTION A Planning Tool A1 the work 8 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability Deciding what to work on Deciding which community Steps for focusing the work members to work with The starting point for work on gender and sexuality will usually be some Start with a general or specific Developing these tools showed that it sense of concern about particular concern is better to work with specific groups aspects of relationships between of people when addressing gender and women and men that are increasing sexuality, rather than offering an open Form groups of relevant the spread of HIV and/or worsening its invitation to everyone. For example, community members to discuss impact on the community. An example if the community aims to create an the concern might be many reports of husbands environment in a local school that beating their wives. Community leaders, prevents sexual violence, then it may officials or staff of non-governmental Use tools with this group to be important to work with Ministry organisations, or women and identify issues to work on and of Education inspectors, teachers, community members themselves might actions to take students, parents and legal bodies. voice these concerns. Overall, it is important to work with Your team may have identified some people who have: areas of concern as a result of working • most concern about the issue with the community to identify problems relating to gender and sexuality and concerns. This can help to reveal • most involvement in the issue problems that would otherwise be • most influence over the issue. hidden, such as rape within marriage. Selecting people who are able to attend The team and community can then a series of meetings over time makes bring relevant groups of community it easier to use the tools. It also makes members together to explore the issues it more likely that the work will be that underlie the concerns about an effective and long-lasting. aspect of gender and sexuality and identify actions to address it.
  11. 11. Making group sessions Building relationships with Planning how to progress the accessible participants work It is usually easier to work regularly To work on gender and sexuality, Planning how long the group work with community members who either it is vital that teams build trusting will last, how many sessions will be already belong to groups (such as relationships with the community required and which tools will be used micro credit groups) or are linked to a groups. Without this, participants will depend on the objectives of the particular institution (such as teachers may be unwilling to share their own project and the circumstances of the in a school). experiences and discuss what needs to participants. But, in general, it is helpful change. to plan group-work sessions so as to move: However, the most marginalised and • from describing problems to vulnerable members of communities Project staff and volunteers need to understanding them more deeply are often less likely to be members have something to offer groups and of such groups or institutions. So, to the broader community and keep their • from discussing less sensitive issues target these people, the team needs to promises. to exploring more sensitive ones think about how to do outreach – and • from addressing less controversial encourage them to participate fully in topics to dealing more controversial Participants at meetings may need food the group-work process. ones. or other incentives to travel to the site and spend time away from economic The team also need to consider activities. However, before doing so, the practical ways to make its group team should check with others in the sessions as accessible as possible. For area to discuss a common approach example, it will need to ensure that its to incentives, so that they do not harm work is carried out at a time and place existing agreements and relationships. that is appropriate, easy and safe for the relevant community members. 9
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION SECTION A Planning Tool A1 the work 10 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability Planning group sessions Before beginning a session, it is Typical group meeting important for the team members that Usually, it is important to work with the are involved to meet to plan it. The same group of people over time. How ✔ Welcome everyone, especially new team may decide to adapt particular to arrange a series of sessions will members. tools in order to better suit the group depend on local circumstances. But it ✔ Remind everyone about why the with whom they are working. can generally help to: group is meeting, what it is working • work with informal peer leaders and on and how it has agreed to work. ask them to convene meetings ✔ Agree on confidentiality issues. • work with key stakeholders to ensure that target participants can come to ✔ Invite group to recap on the previous the sessions meeting’s discussion, review actions • appoint some of the participants taken since last meeting and discuss as conveners and give them any issues. the responsibility for making sure ✔ Agree on the issues you will discuss participants come to meetings and use one or more tools to explore • arrange meetings at places and those issues. times where the participants already meet ✔ Agree on recommendations for action • think about offering some kind of arising from the discussion. incentives to motivate people to Summarise the key points from the attend discussion. • make any special arrangements ✔ Check on feelings about the meeting that may be needed to enable some and how to improve it. participants to attend, such as ✔ Make a plan for the next session. childcare for women with children. Fill in an Activity Chart to record the session.
  13. 13. Using the tools are important for any group process, Composition of the group feel more comfortable with each other. but especially when discussing sensitive This can involve thinking of fun ways The facilitation team and community will subjects, such as gender and sexuality. for group members to get to know each need to decide about the composition other better, such as games. of the groups for each of the tools. For example, will they facilitate the tool with Confidentiality single or mixed-sex groups, married Making working agreements Making a clear working agreement on or unmarried people, or people of the confidentiality is essential. Participants It is important to create working same or different age groups? should not tell people outside the group agreements with the participants. These details of what specific individuals in are the ‘ground rules’ that people make In particular, experience has shown that the group say. However, this agreement about how they will work together. They exploring problems relating to gender cannot be enforced and people should Examples of working agreements and sexuality benefits from some work be careful about what they are willing to in single sex and age groups. So, in share and with whom they share it. It is ✔ Listen to everyone. the ‘how to use it’ instructions for the safer to talk about ‘people like us’ rather ✔ Participate fully. tools in this toolkit, it is often suggested than disclosing an event as a personal ✔ Stick to the point. that the work is carried out by single- experience. sex groups and, in some instances, ✔ Respect everyone’s ideas. that those groups are further divided Energy and humour ✔ Challenge each other, but do it according to age. After working in Maintaining the energy of participants respectfully. separate groups, the groups can share during group work is important. ✔ Try to speak up if you are quiet. their ideas as they wish so that people Members may feel overwhelmed by ✔ Try to listen more if you speak understand each other’s point of view. difficult issues, reducing energy levels. a lot. However, humour is a useful learning ✔ Be as honest as you can. Introductions tool. People learn better when they feel ✔ Keep confidentiality. Some groups may know each other more comfortable and relaxed. Ways to well, while others may not. Whatever maintain the energy and humour of the ✔ Take care of yourself and others the case, it is helpful to begin any group group include using energisers and ice- in the group. work with activities that help people breakers. 11
  14. 14. INTRODUCTION SECTION A Skills for Tool A1 using the tools with groups 12 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability Key skills • asking probing questions that follow • summarising the discussions to people’s answers with further check understanding of what has A critical part of the process of using questions that look deeper into the been said. tools on gender and sexuality is helping issue or problem a group of people to work together • asking clarifying questions by re- productively. To do this, Facilitator’s Participants also need listening skills in wording a previous question particularly need skills in: order to gain the most benefit from this • asking questions about personal toolkit. From the start, it is important points of view by asking about how to make it clear that the purpose of the Active listening people feel and not just about what tools is to encourage discussion among This means more than just hearing they know. participants, rather than between what is said. It means letting people participants and the facilitator. Again, this skill is as important for know that they are being heard participants as Facilitator’s and is an and understood. Active listening important idea to introduce early in the Effective questioning encourages people to be more open in process. sharing their experiences, thoughts and Effective questioning involves: feelings. This is crucial when it comes • asking open-ended questions, for to encouraging groups to talk more Facilitating group discussions example using Why? What? When? openly about gender and sexuality. Facilitating discussions is another basic Where? Who? and How? Active listening involves: skill for using this toolkit. It is needed to increase the participation of people in • using body language and facial Why do you their group discussions and to ensure expressions to show interest and think that that members are given the opportunity understanding happened? to express their range of views and • listening not only to what is said, interests. Good facilitation helps to but also to how it is said – by improve the quality of discussions and paying attention to the speaker’s problem-solving. It also helps groups to body language agree on changes that are needed and • asking questions of the person commit to taking action on them. who is speaking – to show a desire to understand
  15. 15. Introducing each tool talkative, you can ask them to allow Managing conflict others to take part. Encourage the Facilitator’s need to provide an Talking about gender and sexuality group to share responsibility for group introduction and explanation for each may give rise to disagreements in the dynamics. One way to encourage full tool that they use. This should be clear group. Facilitator’s need to welcome participation is to ask every member and concise and followed by simple this. But they also need to anticipate it, to say something in turn or else to instructions. identifying safe ways to respond and break into pairs or very small groups. move forward. Also provide a minute or two for quiet It is important to check that the reflection before asking people to speak participants have understood what you Often it is through disagreement as this helps people to increase their have said and whether they have any with others that we come to better confidence. questions. If there are specific tasks to understand our own thoughts and be completed in small groups, take time feelings. But there may be situations Guiding the discussion at the beginning – before they have when disagreement turns into conflict. immersed themselves in the task – to The key tasks of a facilitator are to When this is the case, people put go around to each group and check open up discussion and encourage their energy into defending their own that they are clear about what to do. full participation by using the tools. positions rather than exploring the They should also help the group to issues with each other. Helping the explore the issues raised in more group to manage conflict is a key role Involving everyone depth by asking probing questions and for the facilitator. Examples of how to Helping all participants to take part encouraging the expression of different do this include: in discussions is an important part of points of view. Finally, they should • getting people to state clearly their facilitating meetings. It involves paying summarise the discussion (checking for concerns and the reasons for them – attention to each member’s level of areas of agreement and conflict) and to reduce the danger of other people participation. There may be many note any action points that have arisen. making assumptions reasons why someone is quiet during a • getting people to listen to others discussion. For example, they may be A key task for a facilitator is to help the carefully and, if necessary, repeating shy or ill or just thinking deeply. group stay focused. If the group seems what others said to make sure they to be losing its focus, it is important to heard it correctly In general, it is a good idea to try to remind its members of the objectives • helping people identify areas bring quiet group members into the for the activity and the issues that are of agreement and shared concern – discussion, for example by asking them being looked at. This will help to get to create common ground to come direct questions. If someone is very them back on track. together to work out a conflict. 13
  16. 16. INTRODUCTION SECTION A Skills for Tool A1 using the tools with groups 14 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability Achieving agreement Dealing with challenges Dealing with distressed It will often not be possible or desirable individuals Facilitating a group meeting will almost to achieve agreement among group certainly mean dealing with negative or Facilitator’s need to consider how they members. It is helpful to ask people to disruptive behaviours, such as chatting will respond to group members who reflect on areas of ‘common ground’ between participants or domination of become distressed. Participants can for the group, as well as points of discussions by a few vocal individuals. form ‘support pairs’ or small groups – difference that need further discussion agreeing to meet regularly throughout or people can agree to differ. the programme (and perhaps in the Reminding the group of its working months afterwards) to provide each agreements and asking everyone to be other with support. The facilitator or group should also sum responsible for maintaining them is a up the main points of the discussion good way to deal with such disruptions. and any action points that they have It is important to try and involve the When it is not possible to support agreed. Encourage people to thank group when asking a disruptive group people in this way, the facilitator may each other for their contributions and member to help, rather than hinder, need to take time after a session to talk to celebrate the achievements of the the work that the group is trying to do. to the individual one-to-one and either meeting. In the most extreme circumstances, provide support or refer them to a local when a participant continues to be service. disruptive, the group (or the facilitator acting on their behalf) may need to ask Personal disclosure them to leave the group session. In this Over the course of the sessions, situation, it is important to arrange to participants may reveal personal talk with this person later in order to information about themselves and their understand their position and work with lives, for example disclosing their HIV both them and the other participants status. Acknowledge those who do to reach a decision about whether they so for their courage in sharing such should continue to participate in the information. Remember that stigma and programme. discrimination towards those of us living with HIV is still a problem and the costs of disclosure can be high. Remind the
  17. 17. group of agreements they have made to follow these agreements, but to messages of the toolkit, but also to about confidentiality. remind them that they cannot be give the person a chance to think more enforced. deeply about their point of view and the impact that it has. The facilitator should Those of us who are living with HIV may also encourage everyone to listen more decide to talk about our own personal Group members may talk about closely to different points of view in the experience when we facilitate. We may personal concerns because they are in group. This can be difficult, but it is vital decide before the session about how a crisis and urgently need help. In such in helping members to work towards disclosure could help the group to a situation, the facilitator may need positive change. achieve its objectives or we may use an to take time during a break or, in the opportunity that arises naturally from most serious cases, during the session the content of a discussion. itself, to deal with it. This will involve A common example of a harmful assessing the group member’s situation point of view is blaming the victims of and making a referral where relevant violence. For example, a group member Creating the right environment services exist. might say: “If a woman is wearing a and dealing with crises short skirt and gets raped, it is her own The first task for any facilitator is to fault”. The following is one suggested Dealing with harmful points of try to create a safe and supportive way to deal with such a group member: view environment within the group. This will 1. Ask for clarification. For example, help members to decide for themselves Members of the group are likely to have say: “I appreciate you sharing your whether and when to talk about any strong views about the issues in this opinion with us. Can you tell us why you personal issues. toolkit. It is important for the facilitator feel that way?” to welcome disagreement, but there 2. Seek a different point of view. For may be some members whose views Creating such an environment begins example, say: “Thank you. So at least make the problems worse. at the point of telling people about the one person feels that way. What do the group and recruiting people to join it. At rest of you think?” this point, it is important to encourage Everyone has a right to their opinion, 3. If another point of view is not offered, people living with HIV to participate. but it is the role of the facilitator to provide one. For example, say: “I know see that harmful points of view are that a lot of people disagree with that challenged - ideally by participants The group’s working agreements also statement. Most women and men I themselves, but, failing that, by the play an important role in creating a safe know feel that the only person to blame facilitator. The best way to do this is environment. One of the tasks of the for a rape is the rapist.” not only to repeat the core values and facilitator is to encourage participants 15
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION SECTION A Skills for Tool A1 using the tools with groups 16 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability • being aware that role-plays can bring are such a key part of who we all are as 4. Offer facts that support a different up a lot of emotions for those playing people. point of view. For example, say: “The the roles and those watching – and facts are clear. The law states that every being prepared to stop the process if individual has a right to say ‘no’ to sex. Dealing with HIV and AIDS calls people appear to be upset Whatever a woman wears or does, she for people to have new skills. For has a right not to be raped. The rapist is • ensuring that people do not get example, people need skills in talking the only person to be blamed.” ‘stuck’ in the role they have been to sexual partners, using condoms and playing and ‘de-role’ participants. It is important to remember that preventing sexual violence. To develop For example, after the role-play changing deeply held views is difficult. these skills, people need to practice is complete, you can ask them to Even after the facilitator has used and get feedback – and role-play can state their real name and some trivial these four steps, it is unlikely that the be a good way to do this. personal facts – to remind group member will openly change themselves and the others about their opinion. But, by challenging the Ways to ensure that role-plays are who they really are and to separate statement, the facilitator has provided useful and effective include: them from their role. another point of view that the member • staying aware of not only what is will be more likely to think about and, it happening in the scene, but how the is hoped, adopt later. rest of the group is reacting • pausing a role-play when there is Using role-play an opportunity to discuss a key Role-play – including acting, singing issue. Then asking questions of the and dancing – is involved in many of actors and the other participants the tools in this toolkit. It is a good way about what is happening, why it is to reveal thoughts and feelings about happening and the implications – gender and sexuality. Playing a role and using those questions to make demands more from people than just key learning points talking about an issue. It involves going • supporting humour as a way to relax deeper into what they think and feel. people, but ensuring that it does not This is critical because our beliefs about take over and lose the point of the gender and sexuality go very deep and role-play
  19. 19. Recording and monitoring your minutes at the end of every meeting Using drawings to ask each participant to answer work Drawing is also involved in many of some basic feedback questions the tools in this toolkit. Again, this is One role of the facilitation team is to • interviewing the friends and family because it is a good way to encourage take responsibility for recording the of participants at the beginning people to reveal their real thoughts and work that it supports in the community. and the end of the process to assess feelings about gender and sexuality. One way to do this is to fill in an Activity what difference the discussions have Record Sheet after each meeting. made to the members’ behaviours This provides a brief and simple way Drawing can be carried out on the and attitudes to document the key facts about a ground, a blackboard or paper, • asking participants to keep a session, such as where it was held, who depending on the materials available daily/weekly diary of their thoughts attended, what issues were discussed and the preferences of the participants. and feelings during the process and and what decisions were reached. then asking them to use the It is important for facilitator’s to help information in these diaries to assess An example of an Activity Record Sheet participants to feel relaxed about what difference the work has made is provided on the following page. drawing. This involves explaining that • holding group discussions with Activity Record Sheets, or similar tools, the quality of the drawing does not some or all of the group members are vital for monitoring the work that matter – as it is the issues that are before the beginning and after the is being carried out – as they tell the raised that are important. end of the process and comparing ‘story’ of what it has involved and how the findings from these discussions. it has progressed. Other ways to assess the impact of your work on gender and sexuality include: • asking for regular feedback from participants on their thoughts and feelings about the group work process and how it is affecting their lives. Ask them for their suggestions on improving the meetings. A very simple way to do this is to take 5-10 17
  20. 20. INTRODUCTION SECTION A Example: Tool A1 Activity record sheet 18 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability Activity record sheet: Group meeting on gender and sexuality 1. Details of group meeting Date of meeting Location of meeting Number of participants Type of participants (e.g. men/women, younger/older people) 2. Tools used and issues covered during the meeting Tools used during the meeting Issues covered during the meeting 3. Areas of agreement and disagreement among the group Areas of agreement among the group Areas of disagreement among the group
  21. 21. 4. Decisions made by the group 5. Next steps for the facilitator (e.g. issues to cover in the next meeting) 19
  22. 22. SECTION A Introduction to Section A: Gender, sexuality and vulnerability and vulnerability 20 Gender, sexuality Vulnerability relates to the risks of HIV Overview Gender, sexuality and and AIDS that are faced by different vulnerability This section of ‘Keep the best, kinds of people in different kinds of change the rest’ provides tools to Gender refers to the social, cultural situations. It helps in understanding explore general, everyday issues and economic roles, characteristics, the reasons behind those risks and about gender and sexuality and opportunities and expectations that the extent to which people do or do how they affect women and men’s are linked to being female or male. not have control over them. Looking at vulnerability to HIV. The situation in relation to gender people’s vulnerability is a good way to varies widely in different societies. But, see how issues of gender and sexuality because it is ‘constructed’ (made) by a This section includes ten tools: affect HIV and AIDS. society, gender can be changed over time – to make that society more just A1 Cartoon strip What influences vulnerability? and equal. A2 Scenes from life Vulnerability involves a combination of A3 But why? several different factors: Sexuality is a key aspect of being a human and affects people • Bodies: Some people are physically A4 Chain of effects throughout their life. It involves more vulnerable to HIV than others. A5 Walking in each other’s shoes issues relating to gender, sex, sexual For example, girls and young women A6 Working day orientation, pleasure, relationships are more vulnerable because the A7 Making decisions and reproduction. Sexuality can be genital tract is not as developed expressed by some or all of a person’s (strong) as it is in older women. A8 Caring for others thoughts, beliefs, desires, fantasies, Meanwhile, women or men with A9 Lifelines attitudes, values, behaviours, practices, other sexually transmitted infections A10 Gender boxes roles and relationships. It is influenced (STIs) may be more vulnerable, if by the relationship between a wide they have cuts in the skin that make range of different factors, including it easier for HIV to enter. Research those that are social, biological, has shown that uncircumcised men psychological, economic, political, are more vulnerable to HIV infection cultural, ethical, legal, historical, than circumcised men. religious and spiritual.
  23. 23. • Choices: Some people are more • Some women feel a double Changing gender roles – keep vulnerable to HIV because they pressure – to conform to traditional the best, change the rest have fewer choices than others when roles when back home in their This section of ‘Keep the best, change it comes to their sexual behaviour village, and to be independent the rest’ focuses on women and men’s and dealing with the risk of infection. modern women when at work in the social and sexual lives, how they are For example, some women town. changing and how they are affected by exchange sex for money due to their HIV and AIDS. economic needs and may not ‘Keep the best, change the rest’ is an be able to choose whether to use a important principle of this toolkit. It It helps communities to look at how condom with their sexual partners. is based on the view that people can changes in gender roles are creating • Abilities: Some people are more make choices about which of their both opportunities and confusion for vulnerable to HIV because they have values, beliefs and practices they want people today. As just some examples: fewer abilities to deal with their risk to keep and which they want to change. • Children learn from school and the of infection. For example, if a woman The tools are designed to help people media about human rights and has experienced sexual violence, to make these choices for themselves. girls can see women moving into she may have low self-esteem and positions of authority. But, at the confidence and not be able to same time, young people are also negotiate safer sex with her under pressure to follow the culture husband. of older generations. • Pressures: Some people are more • There are signs that changes in vulnerable to HIV because they face women’s roles are creating a more pressure than others to take negative response from some risks. For example, young men women and men, putting pressure might feel under pressure to have on people to return to more many different sexual partners and traditional ways. not use condoms to ‘prove’ • Men are under pressure to live up to that they are men to their peers. their traditional roles as provider and head of the house. But, where there is rising male unemployment, this can become a problem for those who lack the economic means to play this role. 21
  24. 24. SECTION A Tool A1 Cartoon strip 22 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability What is it? How to use it This tool involves acting out a ‘cartoon 1 Explain the purpose of the tool to participants. strip’ – a series of scenes about an issue or 2 Ask the group to identify four issues or problems relating to gender and situation relating to gender and sexuality. sexuality in their community. Examples might include ‘young people are starting to have sex at a young age’ or ‘there are many cases of husbands beating their wives’. Why use it? 3 Divide the participants into four small groups. Ask each group to choose a To explore people’s real life experiences in different one of the issues to work on. Ask each one to: relation to gender and sexuality. • think of a story about this problem, based on their knowledge and experience of the local community Facilitator’s notes • tell the story by acting out a ‘cartoon strip’, involving a series of five • Encourage the participants to think scenes. of stories that are realistic for their local Inform them that the final scene (picture 5) should show an ‘incident’ of community, rather than ones that are too the problem (such as a couple having unsafe sex or a wife being beaten exaggerated. by her husband). The previous scenes (pictures 1-4) should show the • Inform the participants that ‘cartoon steps that lead up to the ‘incident’. strips’ work best when the story leading 4 Bring all of the participants back together. Ask each group to act out its up to the ‘incident’ (picture 5) takes ‘cartoon strip’. Encourage everyone to discuss the stories and support place over quite a short space of time them to draw up a list of the most common issues, events and (hours/days) rather than a longer period experiences that lead up to the final scenes. (months/years). 5 At the end, fill in an Activity Record Sheet. In particular, note any decisions and action points made by the group and identify next steps. For example, people might want to identify ways to prevent these situations occurring.
  25. 25. 2 3 1 4 5 23
  26. 26. SECTION A Tool A2 Scenes from life 24 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability What is it? How to use it This tool involves performing ‘scenes from 1 Explain the purpose of the tool to participants. life’ – role-plays, songs or poems about 2 Ask the group to identify four issues or problems relating to gender and situations relating to gender and sexuality. sexuality in their community. 3 Divide the participants into four groups. Divide by age and gender. Ask Why use it? each group to choose a different one of the issues to work on. To explore the underlying causes of 4 Ask each group to prepare some ‘scenes from life’ – a role-play, song or problems relating to gender and sexuality – poem about the issue that is based on characters, events and attitudes helping people to ‘go deeper’ and express that are similar to those in their community. what they really think and feel. 5 Bring all of the participants back together. Ask each group to present its ‘scenes from life’. Ask the actors to talk about what it was like to perform Facilitator’s notes the role-play, song or poem and what they learned from it. Ask the other participants to talk about how they felt watching the performance and what • Be aware that this activity can bring they learned from it. Encourage discussions about: up strong feelings – as it might remind people of painful experiences in their own • What was happening in the ‘scenes from life’? Does this happen in the lives. Encourage the participants to take community? care of themselves and each other. • Why did each character behave as they did? • Inform the participants that ‘scenes from • What power did each character have in the situation, and why? life’ work best if they are typical of their • Who was most affected by the situation, how and why? community, rather than too dramatic. • How were the different people vulnerable to HIV? • Ensure that the role-plays, songs or • What could each of the people do to reduce their vulnerability to HIV? poems keep to the point of the activity. 6 At the end, fill in an Activity Record Sheet. In particular, note any decisions • This tool can be used in a number of and action points made by the group and identify next steps. different ways. For example, you can: present some ‘scenes from life’ showing a problem that the participants might feel uncomfortable to talk about.
  27. 27. Example 1 ‘Scenes of life’ as a song ▼ Example 2 ‘Scenes of life’ as a role-play 25
  28. 28. SECTION A Tool A3 But why? 26 Gender, sexuality and vulnerability What is it? How to use it This tool involves creating a ‘but why?’ 1 Explain the purpose of the tool to participants. diagram – by drawing a problem relating 2 Ask the group to identify four issues or problems relating to gender and to gender and sexuality in the centre, sexuality in their community. repeating the question ‘but why?’ and 3 Divide the participants into four groups. Ask each group to choose a drawing the answers in circles around the different one of the issues to work on. problem. 4 Ask each group to draw a ‘but why?’ diagram. Ask them to start by drawing or writing their issue in a circle in the middle of a space on the Why use it? floor, blackboard or sheet of flipchart paper. To explore the underlying causes of 5 Ask each group to: problems relating to gender and sexuality. • Discuss ‘but why does this happen?’ Then write each of the immediate answers in separate circles around the problem. Facilitator’s notes • Look at the first of the immediate answers and again discuss ‘but why • Be aware that this tool can be quite does this happen?’ Then write the answer in a new circle and join it to complicated. Support the participants the first circle with a line. Repeat this a few times. to use it by giving them clear, step-by- 6 Ask each group to repeat the activity for each of the other immediate step instructions and explaining how the answers and to keep asking ‘but why does this happen?’ until they can end result shows the different ‘levels’ of think of no more answers. reasons for the main problem. It may help to put arrows on the lines that link the 7 Bring all of the participants back together. Ask each group to share their circles – with them all pointing inwards to diagram. Support the participants to develop a list of the most common show how they contribute to the central reasons for problems relating to gender and sexuality and to discuss why problem. they are the most common. • Encourage the participants to allow 8 At the end, fill in an Activity Record Sheet. In particular, note any decisions plenty of space for this tool – so that the and action points made by the group and identify any next steps. For diagram can spread out as much as is example, discuss what the group and others can do about each cause. needed.
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