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  • 1. qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopa sdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq Unit 2, Part B wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcv bnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyu iopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjkl zxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqw ertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrtyuiopasd fghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvb nmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjkl zxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqw ertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn Teaching and Learning Environments
  • 2. Keys to Effective Communication English teachers have a great responsibility and accountability for the academic progress of English language learners (ELLs). School administrators now realize that classroom teachers need to gain a better understanding of successful strategies for instructing new learners of English. It is the ESL teacher’s role to help them with this task. We can begin this effort by providing professional development on communication strategies. This can be done at staff meetings, in-service days or by simply putting this article in teachers’ mailboxes. Would these tips really work positively? Why or why not? The following tips are keys to good communication that all teachers need to keep in mind when teaching new learners of English. o Newcomers need visual and kinesthetic support to understand academic content material. Use drawings, chalkboard sketches, photographs, and visual materials to provide clues to meaning. Try mime, gestures or acting out the meaning of your message. Exaggerate emotions and vary your voice. Teach your mainstream students to do the same. If necessary, repeat your actions and rephrase the information. o Speak in a clear, concise manner at a slightly slower pace using short, simple sentences (subject-verb-object) and high-frequency words. Your students will not understand you if you speak too fast or run your words together. Use the names of people rather than pronouns. Pause after phrases or short sentences, not after each word. You do not want to distort the rhythm of the language. Avoid the passive voice, complex sentences, idiomatic speech and slang. o Smile and speak in calm, reassuring manner. Raising your voice does not facilitate comprehension. Your voice should not be too loud. Show your patience through your facial expressions and body language. Give full attention to your ELLs and make every effort to understand their attempts to communicate. o Allow your new learners of English extra time when listening and speaking. Many of your ELLs are translating the language they hear to their native language, formulating a response. And then translating that response into English. o It is important for you to check comprehension frequently. Don't ask "Do you understand?" This is not a reliable check since many students will answer "yes" when they don't really understand. Teach the phrases "I don't understand," "Slowly, please," and "Please repeat." Write down information so students have visual as well as auditory input. Print clearly
  • 3. o o o o o o and legibly on the chalkboard. Remember that many of your ELLs and their parents will not understand cursive writing. Accept one word answers, drawings and gestures. Do not jump in immediately to supply the words for students or insist that they speak in full sentences. Resist the urge to overcorrect which will inhibit newcomers so that they will be less willing to speak. If students respond in heavily accented or grammatically incorrect English, repeat their answer correctly. Do not ask the student to repeat your corrected response as this can be very embarrassing. Allow new learners of English to use a bilingual dictionary or ask for help from a same language buddy. If you have important information to convey, speak to the newcomer individually rather than in front of the class. The anxiety of being in the spotlight interferes with comprehension. Don't insist that students make eye contact with you when you are speaking to them. This is considered rude in many cultures. Help students to participate in your class by letting them know which question you are going to ask in advance. This will give your students the time to prepare a response. Use choral reading. Your ELLs will want to participate but being the focus of attention can be traumatic. Remember that your ELLs should understand what they are reading chorally. Write key words on the chalkboard so students have visual as well as auditory input. Emphasize these key words. Since many of your ELLs will not understand cursive writing, you need to print clearly and legibly. When writing notes home to parents, print your message and use a pen with black or blue ink. In some cultures red is the color of death. Knowledge of questioning strategies is essential in differentiating instruction for ELLs. Involving English language learners in the discussions in their content area classes can be frustrating if teachers do not develop strategies for asking questions. Below is a list of types of questions to ask from easiest to most difficult. 1. Ask newcomers to point to a picture or word to demonstrate basic knowledge. “Point to the penguin. 2. Using visual cues, ask simple yes/no questions such as “Are penguins mammals?” 3. Embed the response in the question using “either/or”. "Is a penguin a mammal or a bird?”
  • 4. 4. Break complex questions into several steps. Simplify your vocabulary. Instead of asking “What characteristics do mammals share?" say “Look at the mammals. Find the bear, the dog and the cat. How are they the same?" 5. Ask simple "how" and "where" questions that can be answered with a phrase or a short sentence. "Where do penguins live?" Do not expect your ELLs to answer broad open-ended questions. o Remember that there will be times when you will not be able to get an idea across to newcomers. Ask the ESL teacher in your school for a list of students who speak the newcomer's language. You will be able to call on these students to act as translators if necessary. Keep in mind that K-2 students do not make good translators. What conclusion can you reach about the roles of teachers related to the types of learners they have in their classroom? 2.2.2 Learning Styles A learning style is the unique way each person learns most effectively. Learning styles are different approaches or ways of thinking and learning. In other words, your student’s learning style means how your student is processing and learning the information. People not only learn at a different pace, but also in different ways. Today it has become widely accepted that every person is unique and has his/her own way to learn. While many students learn information best by reading, (they prefer their teachers write everything out on the board), others learn better through listening or observing. Some like to work in small groups and discuss a question while others like to see pictures related to the subjects they are learning. These learners need to see the teacher’s body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson.
  • 5. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of the classroom to avoid visual obstructions (e.g. people's heads). They may think in pictures and learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated text books, posters, videos, flipcharts, flashcards and hand-outs. Auditory Learners (Learn through listening) These types of students learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meanings of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed and other nuances. Written information may have little meaning until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading text aloud and using a tape recorder. Tactile / Kinesthetic Learners (Learn through moving, doing, and touching) Tactile/Kinesthetic students learn best through a hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. They may find it hard to sit still for long periods and may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration. So, what is your learning style? IMPORTANT: 1. Go to https://s3.amazonaws.com/infographics/Type-of-Learner-800.png 2. Read the infographic. 3. Tell us what type of learner you are. 4. Tell us if you agree or disgree with the information in it. Also, tell us why you think so. In the next task we will provide you with a practical assessment that will give you a better idea of your own learning style. Read each one of the items and answer them in a quick and spontaneous form. Do not spend too much time thinking about the possible response. The following assessment will give you a better idea of your own learning style . Directions: A) Score each statement in the columns below by giving yourself the appropriate number. Do not spend too much time thinking about the possible response.
  • 6. 1 Very Little Like Me 2 A Little Like Me 3 Like Me 4 A Lot Like Me 1. I feel the best way to remember something is to picture it in my head _____ 2. I follow oral directions better than written ones _____ 3. I often would rather listen to a lecture than read the material in a textbook _____ 4. I am constantly fidgeting (e.g. tapping pen, playing with keys in my pocket) _____ 5. I frequently require explanations of diagrams, graphs, or maps _____ 6. I work skillfully with my hands to make or repair things _____ 7. I often prefer to listen to the radio than read a newspaper _____ 8. I typically prefer information to be presented visually, _____ 9. I usually prefer to stand while working _____ 10. I typically follow written instructions better than oral ones _____ 11. I am skillful at designing graphs, charts, and other visual displays _____ 12. I generally talk at a fast pace and use my hands more than the average person to communicate what I want to say _____ 13. I frequently sing, hum or whistle to myself _____ 14. I am excellent at finding my way around even in unfamiliar surroundings _____ 15. I am good at putting jigsaw puzzles together _____ 16. I am always on the move _____ 17. I excel at visual arts _____ 18. I excel at sports _____ 19. I'm an avid collector _____ 20. I tend to take notes during verbal discussions/lectures to review later _____ 21. I am verbally articulate and enjoy participating in discussions or classroom debates _____ 22. I easily understand and follow directions on maps _____ 23. I remember best by writing things down several times or drawing pictures and diagrams _____ 24. I need to watch a speaker's facial expressions and body language to fully understand what they mean _____ 25. I frequently use musical jingles to learn things _____ 26. I often talk to myself when alone _____ 27. I would rather listen to music than view a piece of art work _____ 28. I need to actively participate in an activity to learn how to do it _____ 29. I frequently tell jokes, stories and make verbal analogies to demonstrate a point _____ 30. I frequently touch others as a show of friendship and camaraderie (e.g. hugging) _____ Visual: 1, 8, 10, 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23, 24
  • 7. Auditory: 2, 3, 5, 7, 13, 21, 25, 26, 27, 29 Kinesthetic: 4, 6, 9, 11, 12, 16, 18, 19, 28, 30 Have you ever though how important it is to take your students' learning styles into account when you are teaching English language learners? I believe you have. The question is, how can you teach each style the best way? Explain. Teach to Students' Learning Styles It is especially important to take your students' learning styles into account when you are teaching English language learners. This section gives a brief description of each style and how you can teach to it. It is always important for teachers to teach to their students’ learning styles but this becomes crucial when teaching English language learners (ELLs). ELLs may be highly literate in their own language but experience difficulties when acquiring English because they are accustomed to learning through a different style. Most American teachers, especially in the upper grades, teach to students with an auditory learning style. This can be very difficult for the ELLs in your class. Auditory Learners Students with this style will be able to recall what they hear and will prefer oral instructions. They learn by listening and speaking. These students enjoy talking and interviewing. They are phonetic readers who enjoy oral reading, choral reading, and listening to recorded books. They learn best by doing the the following: interviewing, debating o participating on a panel o giving oral reports o participating in oral discussions of written material o Visual Learners
  • 8. Visual learners will be able to recall what they see and will prefer written instructions. These students are sight readers who enjoy reading silently. Better yet, present information to them with a video. They will learn by observing and enjoy working with the following: o o o o o o o computer graphic maps, graphs, charts cartoons posters diagrams graphic organizers text with a lot of pictures Tactile Learners Students with this strength learn best by touching. They understand directions that they write and will learn best through manipulatives. Try using the Language Experience Approach (LEA) when teaching these students to read. These students will also benefit from whole language approaches to reading. They'll learn best by: drawing o playing board games o making models o following instructions to make something o Kinesthetic Learners Kinesthetic learners also learn by touching or manipulating objects. They need to involve their whole body in learning. Total Physical Response is a good ESL method for them. They remember material best if they act it out. These students learn best by: o o o o o playing games that involve their whole body movement activities making models following instructions to make something setting up experiments Global Learners Global learners are spontaneous and intuitive. They do not like to be bored. Information needs to be presented in an interesting manner using attractive
  • 9. materials. Cooperative learning strategies and holistic reading methods work well with these learners. Global learners learn best through: o o o o o o choral reading recorded books story writing computer programs games group activities Analytic Learners Analytic learners plan and organize their work. They focus on details and are logical. They are phonetic readers and prefer to work individually on activity sheets. They learn best when: information is presented in sequential steps o lessons are structured and teacher-directed o goals are clear o requirements are spelled out o Reflect on your own teaching. What is the most noticeable style you adopt in your classes? Why? After this reflection, how would your teaching may be affected? Taken from Learning Style Analysis. 2001.
  • 10. Analyze this image and tell us wht you think about the content. Image taken from http://edudemic.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/7-styles-of-learning-730x877.jpg