Building Creative Communities: Net Impact 2009


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A presentation (almost) given at the 2009 Net Impact Conference at Cornell University's Johnson School in Ithaca, NY. It's basically a "Creative Economy 101" presentation based on the research I did while a graduate student at the Yale School of Management and an intern with the Hewlett Foundation Performing Arts Program.

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Building Creative Communities: Net Impact 2009

  1. 1. Building sustainable creative communitiesNet impact North America ConferenceNovember 13 2009<br />Ian David Moss<br />
  2. 2. Where are we going?<br />Five most popular destinations for Yale SOM grads, classes 2003-07<br />Five largest metropolitan areas by population in US, 2007<br />New York<br />Los Angeles<br />Chicago<br />Dallas<br />Philadelphia<br />New York<br />Washington, DC<br />Boston<br />San Francisco<br />London<br />
  3. 3. Why?<br />Possible reasons:<br />My friends are there<br />Companies I want to work for are there<br />There are things to do around town<br />Lively culture<br />Diversity<br />It’s fun!<br />
  4. 4. Why?<br />Network Effects!<br />
  5. 5. Creative Class Theory<br />
  6. 6. Creative Class Theory<br />Central arguments of The Rise of the Creative Class<br /><ul><li>The nature of society and work is changing
  7. 7. Traditional notions of economic development are out of date
  8. 8. Creative Class areconsumers of place</li></li></ul><li>Creative Class Theory<br />Definition of Creative Class<br /><ul><li>“Super-creative core”
  9. 9. Computer and mathematical occupations
  10. 10. Architecture and engineering
  11. 11. Life, physical, and social science
  12. 12. Education, training, and library
  13. 13. Arts, design, entertainment, sports, media
  14. 14. Creative Class
  15. 15. Management, business, financial operations
  16. 16. Legal
  17. 17. Healthcare practitioners
  18. 18. High-end sales and sales management</li></li></ul><li>Creative Class Theory<br />“3T’s” of Economic Development<br /><ul><li>Technology
  19. 19. Tech-Pole Index
  20. 20. Talent
  21. 21. Creative Class concentration
  22. 22. Tolerance
  23. 23. Gay Index (+ Bohemian index)</li></li></ul><li>Creative Class Theory<br />Creativity Index, Top 9 Cities (2002)<br />San Francisco<br />Austin<br />San Diego<br />Boston<br />Seattle<br />Chapel Hill<br />Houston<br />Washington, DC<br />New York<br />
  24. 24. Issues with Creative Class Theory<br /><ul><li>Does Creative Class Predict Economic Development?
  25. 25. Survey says: yes, though it’s almost the same as human capital theory
  26. 26. Do the “3T’s” Predict Creative Class concentration?
  27. 27. Survey says: sort of, but not necessarily better than other measures
  28. 28. Does the “Creativity Index” mean anything at all?
  29. 29. Relative weights of components not backed by empirical data, so at best it’s a blunt instrument</li></li></ul><li>The Arts and Local Revitalization<br />
  30. 30. Williamsburg, Brooklyn<br /><ul><li>Light industrial waterfront community that came upon hard times
  31. 31. Large, affordable loft spaces available
  32. 32. Artists began colonizing in 1980s
  33. 33. Early pioneers:
  34. 34. Momenta Art Gallery, 1995
  35. 35. Galapagos Art Space,1996
  36. 36. free103point9, 1997</li></li></ul><li>Williamsburg, Brooklyn<br />That was then, this is now<br />More than 200 restaurants and bars<br />At least 600 small arts organizations<br />In 1996, median 1br cost $800/mo<br />$1600/mo by 2003!<br />
  37. 37. New Bedford, MA<br /><ul><li>Old New England whaling community decimated by changing economy
  38. 38. New Bedford Art Museum, 1996
  39. 39. UMass-Dartmouth College of Visual and Performing Arts Star Store campus, 2001
  40. 40. At least 90 visual artists working in city as of 2007
  41. 41. Highly visible support from mayor</li></li></ul><li>The Artist Colonization Process<br />
  42. 42. The Impact of Arts on Real Estate<br />
  43. 43. The Impact of Arts on Real Estate<br />
  44. 44. Conditions for Successful Artist-centric Development<br />Availability of large, affordable, interestingspaces<br />e.g. lofts, warehouses, factories, garages<br />Existing infrastructure<br />ease of access via roads, public transit systems<br />Proximity to other artists & other cultural hotspots<br />network/clustering effects for artists<br />Boston and Providence in the case of New Bedford<br />Use of storefront spaceto generate foot traffic<br />compare to Washington Heights<br />
  45. 45. The Impact of Arts on Communities<br />Social Impact of the Arts Project study found that areas high in cultural assets were four times as likely to see:<br /><ul><li>Population increase
  46. 46. Poverty decline</li></li></ul><li>The Impact of Arts on Communities<br />At least two justifications to support the arts from policy standpoint:<br /><ul><li>They create economic value (in the form of rising land values) that doesn’t get returned to them
  47. 47. They stabilize neighborhoods by attracting wealthier, more educated, more invested residents</li></li></ul><li>Outstanding Questions<br /> But what about gentrification?<br /><ul><li>If market is hot and longtime residents and/or artists don’t own their property,displacement is significant risk
  48. 48. Creative class indicators are negatively correlated with racial diversity and integration</li></li></ul><li>Outstanding Questions<br />Where to invest?<br /><ul><li>Two studies show that organizations with culturally specific programming are much more likely to reach poorest areas of city
  49. 49. But investing for cultural economic development is likely to privilege parts of the city that already possess certain assets</li></li></ul><li>Outstanding Research Issues<br />How do the artscompare?<br /><ul><li>Other industries
  50. 50. Other public investments (e.g., transportation)</li></ul>Establishing the causal link<br /><ul><li>Difficult to test counterfactual scenarios in practice</li></ul>Key success factors<br /><ul><li>Scale / Mix?</li></li></ul><li>How Mapping and Data Can Help<br /><ul><li>Local context for complex systems
  51. 51. Develop new metrics
  52. 52. Establish baselines from which to measure longitudinally
  53. 53. Pinpoint smart investment opportunities</li></li></ul><li>Mapping Cultural Participation<br />
  54. 54. Mapping Cultural Facilities<br />
  55. 55. Mapping Cultural Districts<br />
  56. 56. Mapping Cultural Assets<br />
  57. 57. Possibilities<br /><ul><li>Find correlation between storefront arts spaces and rising land values
  58. 58. Measure square feet of rehearsal space per capita, establish minimum effective level
  59. 59. Explore relationship between public transportation availability, car ownership, and cultural participation
  60. 60. Identify existing concentrations of artists for future live/work space developments</li></li></ul><li>The End<br />Visit<br /><br />for more<br />