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This slide contains information regarding firstaid for drowning, snake bites, wasp and bee bites, leech bite etc

This slide contains information regarding firstaid for drowning, snake bites, wasp and bee bites, leech bite etc

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  • 1. First Aid http://creamslides.blogspot.in
  • 2. http://creamslides.blogspot.in
    • Water enters the respiratory tract causing broncho-spasm and lack of access to air.
  • 4. Causes of Drowning
    • Boating & Diving accidents
    • Fatigue or exhaustion
    • Inability to swim
    • Having no life preserver
    • Alcohol consumption, which impairs coordination and judgment.
  • 5.
    • Muscle and stomach cramps
    • Seizure, stroke, and heart attack while victim is in the water.
    • Suicide attempt
    • Unsupervised swimming
  • 6. First aid for Drowning
    • Put the victim on the ground face down.
    • Clear the airway
    • Elevate the middle part of the body with hands under the body
    • Do not try to force the water out from the stomach
    • Give artificial respiration until normal breathing is restored.
  • 7. Contd..
    • Remove wet clothes and put on dry clothes
    • Keep him warm with blanket and hot water bags
    • Do not allow him to sit up
    • Give him tea or coffee
    • Send to hospital
  • 8. CHOKING
    • Obstruction of the pharynx by a foreign body
    • Common foreign bodies are fish bones, artificial teeth, or coins .
  • 9. First aid for chocking
    • With the victim standing or sitting, position yourself at his side or slightly behind him.
    • Place one hand over the chest for support
    • Bend the victim down
    • Deliver sharp blows with the heal of your hand between the shoulder blades
    • Administer the blows as rapidly as possible.
  • 10. ABDOMINAL THRUST ( Heimlich Maneuver)
    • Stand behind the victim
    • Wrap your arms around the waist
    • Place the thumb side of the fist against the victim’s abdomen, slightly above the navel and below the Xiphoid process
    • Grasp the fist with other
    • hand and press it into the
    • victim’s abdomen with
    • four quick upward thrust .
    • Turn the victim on to her back
    • Open Airway
    • Kneel astride her thighs
    • Place the heel of one hand in the center of the victim’s upper abdomen and cover with your other hand, keeping fingers clear of her abdomen.
    • With both arms straight, press into the abdomen with a quick inward and upward thrust.
  • 12. http://creamslides.blogspot.in
    • A) Bees and wasps:
  • 14.
    • Severe pain locally
    • Itching and swelling around the central reddened puncture point
    • Sting may be found in the wound
    • Hypersensitivity reaction (laryngospasm, fall in BP)
    • Loss of consciousness
    • Anaphylactic shock
    Clinical features: http://creamslides.blogspot.in
  • 15. First aid for bee or wasp bite
    • Remove the sting with tweezers.
    • Do not squeeze the poison sac because this will force the remaining poison into the skin.
    • Apply ammonia, soda or methylene blue locally as antidote for bee venom.
    • Apply vinegar or lemon juice locally as antidote for wasp venom .
  • 16. CONTD..
    • Apply cold compress and spirit locally to relieve the pain and swelling.
    • For treatment of swelling caused by insect stings inside the mouth or throat, give ice to suck.
  • 17. CONTD..
    • Ask the victim to rinse the mouth with cold water or solution of water and bicarbonate soda.
    • Place the victim in recovery position if breathing becomes difficult. Shift him to the hospital immediately.
  • 18. B) Ticks and mites:
    • Ticks are small insects with a capacity to stick to the body and suck blood.
  • 19.
    • A tick or mite stuck to the skin should not be pulled out forcefully as that may result in its mouthparts remaining behind and cause severe inflammation. Touch it with the end of a burning cigarette. Or apply kerosene, turpentine, or some oil.
    • Wash the wound well with soap and apply dressing to it.
  • 20. Scorpion bite: http://creamslides.blogspot.in
  • 21. Signs and symptoms:
    • Burning pain at the site of the sting
    • Itching and swelling
    • Sensation may be altered near the site.
    • Restlessness.
    • Lacrimation and salivation. Nausea vomiting and profuse sweating develop 4 to 6 hours after bite.
  • 22. First aid for scorpion bite
    • Apply ice locally if the sting is on a limb , apply a tourniquet proximal to the site of sting. Release it every 20 minutes for 5 minutes to prevent development of gangrene.
    • Apply freshly prepared potassium per magnate solution.
    • Shift him to hospital immediately.
  • 23. Spider bite: http://creamslides.blogspot.in
  • 24. Clinical features
    • Severe pain locally
    • Redness and swelling at the site of the sting.
    • Small blisters
    • Swelling on face and limb.
    • Abdominal cramps
    • Muscles become hard.
    • Breathlessness and shock
  • 25. FIRST AID
    • Place the victim in a comfortable position
    • Cover him with a blanket or bed sheet
    • If bite is on a limb, tie a tourniquet proximal to the site of bite to prevent absorption of its poison and spread to other parts of the body.
    • Clean and dress the bitten area.
    • Shift him to the hospital
  • 26.
    • Leeches are generally found in water tanks, moist and muddy places, and rivers.
    • Leeches suck blood from the victim hence they should be removed quickly.
    LEECH BITE : http://creamslides.blogspot.in
  • 27.
    • First aid for leech bite
    • A leech should not to be pulled off the skin as it is quite delicate and can break.
    • Remove it by the application of the burning end of the cigarette or stick to its back
    • Place a dressing on the wound after its removal
  • 28. Snake bite http://creamslides.blogspot.in
  • 29. How to diagnose snake bite?
    • History of snake bite.
    • 2 fangs mark, a finger breadth apart.
    • Intense pain at the site of the bite.
    • Swelling and black discoloration.
    • Bleeding.
  • 30.
    • Contd…
    • Vomiting
    • Collapse and coma.
    • Neurotoxin effects (e.g., giddiness, lethargy, muscular weakness and spreading paralysis.)
    • Breathing becomes slow and labored.
  • 31. First aid for snake bite
      • Place the person on a flat surface comfortably.
      • Reassure him
      • Tie a tourniquet between heart and the bitten area to avoid absorption of poison into the venous blood. Loosen it for few second s for every ten minutes.
      • Immobilize the affected limb
  • 32. Contd…
      • Wash the wound gently with running water.
      • Apply icepacks on the wound if the area on a limb
      • Treat shock.
      • Shift the patient immediately to the hospital.
  • 33. Household emergencies http://creamslides.blogspot.in
  • 34. Clothing on fire:
    • Lay the victim down and quickly put out the flames by dousing the victim with water.
    • Wrap the victim tightly in a coat, curtain, blanket, rug or other heavy fabric, and then lay him or her flat on the ground.
    • If your own clothes catch fire and help is not immediately available, extinguish the flame by wrapping yourself up tightly in suitable material.
  • 35. Chemical burns:
    • Signs and symptoms :
    • The victim may complain that skin is stinging
    • Skin appears stained or reddened
    • Blistering and peeling of skin
  • 36. First aid for chemical burns
    • Flood the affected area with running cold water for at least 10 minutes.
    • Arrange for transfer to hospital.
  • 37. Chemical burns in the eye:
    • Signs and symptoms:
    • Intense pain in the affected eye
    • Damaged eye cannot tolerate light
    • Affected eye may be tightly closed
    • The eye may be reddened, swollen or watering excessively.
  • 38. FIRST AID
    • Flush the eye with running cold water
    • Lightly dress the eye with a sterile eye pad or, if this is not available, a pad of clean, non-fluffy material.
    • Arrange for transport to
    • hospital.
  • 39. Electrical burns :
    • Signs and symptoms:
    • Redness, swelling, scorching or charring of the skin at both the entry and the exit points
    • Possible unconsciousness
    • Signs and symptoms of shock
  • 40. FIRST AID
    • Place a sterile dressing or pad of clean, non-fluffy material over the burn
    • If the casualty becomes unconscious check for ABC and place her in Recovery Position
    • Arrange for transport to hospital.
  • 41. Burns and scalds:
    • General signs and symptoms:
    • Severe pain in and around the injured area
    • Redness and possible swelling of the area, and sometimes peeling of the skin and blisters
  • 42. Contd…
    • In deeper burns the skin may appear grey, pale or waxy, or may be charred, there may be areas of numbness
    • Signs and symptoms of shock
  • 43. FIRST AID
    • For minor burns and scalds:
    • Reassure the victim
    • Place the injured part under slowly running cold water for 10 minutes
    • Remove ornaments and constricting clothing
    • Dress the area with clean, preferably sterile, non-fluffy material.
    • Seek medical aid.
  • 44. For severe burns and scalds:
    • Lay the victim down. Protect the burnt area from contact with the ground
    • Gently remove any rings, watches, belts, shoes or other constricting clothing from the injured area before it starts to swell.
    • Carefully remove any clothing soaked in boiling fluid after it has begun to cool
    • Cover the injured area with a sterile dressing or similar non-fluffy material.
  • 45. Contd….
    • For facial burns indoors, cool with water until pain is relieved
    • Immobilize a badly burned limb
    • If the victim becomes unconscious, check for ABC and place him in the recovery position
    • Arrange for urgent transfer to hospital.
  • 46. Burns in the mouth and throat
    • Signs and symptoms:
    • Severe pain in the injured area
    • Damaged skin around the mouth
    • Difficulty in breathing
    • Possible unconsciousness
    • Signs and symptoms of shock
  • 47. FIRST AID
    • Reassure the victim
    • If conscious, give sips of cold water at frequent intervals
    • Remove any constricting clothing or jewellary.
    • If unconscious, check for ABC and place in Recovery Position
    • Arrange for immediate transfer to hospital.
  • 48. http://creamslides.blogspot.in