IPM Meets Laser Tag: Grower-Approved Techniques and Novel Intelligent Sprayers Win Big

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NurseryWorks 2013
(video: http://NurseryWorks.weebly.com/2013-content-archive.html)

Dr. Amy Fulcher, Assistant Professor, University of Tennessee
SPONSORED BY USDA NIFA IPM PROGRAM
Amy will cover low and high tech strategies growers can use to combat pests and save money. From scouting and other grower-approved IPM techniques to apps, iBooks, and more, Dr. Fulcher will discuss practical use of technology to your nursery. Dr. Fulcher's presentation will feature a revolutionary laser-guided sprayer being developed by the USDA-ARS and tested with partners at the University of Tennessee, Ohio State University, and Oregon State University. The sprayer “sees” plants and applies only the amount of pesticide necessary based on the plants’ size and shape. The economic savings and environmental benefits from this targeted application technology are impressive! You’ll hear more about how the Intelligent Sprayer gets pesticides on plants and keeps them out of the soil, water and air (and keeps dollars in your wallet)!

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  • Odds are that you are at least somewhat familiar with IPM. Im part of a group of nursery specialists- weed science, entomology, plant pathology. We decided to survey nursery growers to learn more about their pest mgt practices and challenges that are faced by growers to see where we need to place our efforts. In that process learned why the Green Industry uses IPM and why it doesn’t.
  • My hope I to show you that these issues do not have to be barriers.
  • My hope I to show you that these issues do not have to be barriers.
  • Scouting program was developed with funded and feed into the newsletter to share thescouting infor (anonymously) to all growers. It was a major part of the scouting program.
  • Scouting program was developed with funded and feed into the newsletter to share thescouting infor (anonymously) to all growers. It was a major part of the scouting program.
  • I share this to try to address that economic success is possible.
    Southern Woods Nursery, previously did calendar based cover sprays.
  • To addess the concern that nursery – specific IPM information is not readily available let’s take a closer look at IPM. First Im going to tel you a bit about some IPM practices and then I’m going to share some IPM resources with you.
  • So information-based…well having adequate information is going to be necessary.
  • Looking at IPM more specifically, the goal…
  • IPM is a quadrant 2 activity important but not urgent. Noone will take your trees away from you if you don’t scout, learn about pests, keep records of pest activity, etc.
  • IPM is a quadrant 2 activity important but not urgent. Noone will take your trees away from you if you don’t scout, learn about pests, keep records of pest activity, etc.
  • Scout for black knot of liners, keeps weeds out of production areas especially the potting areas, spray preventatively for borers
  • Scout for black knot of liners, keeps weeds out of production areas especially the potting areas, spray preventatively for borers
  • Scout for black knot of liners, keeps weeds out of production areas especially the potting areas, spray preventatively for borers
  • Scout for black knot of liners, keeps weeds out of production areas especially the potting areas, spray preventatively for borers
  • A resistant, immune?
  • Plants in dip dying out (cherries and pears)
  • Purdue has recorkeeping forms, Everyone has a map – maybe in their hea, maybe written down, Making everyone aware of it is a good way to ensure mishaps don’t happen. Also labeling the blocks within the field helps.
  • Not only do you not need to scout every plant you don’t need to scout for every pest every pest.
  • O=Scout for Overwintering life stage or sign of previous infestation
    X=Scout for active Life stages
    A=Scout to Assess damage/efficacy of controls, not prevent infection/spread
    P= Monitor Phenology to schedule applications
  • O=Scout for Overwintering life stage or sign of previous infestation
    X=Scout for active Life stages
    A=Scout to Assess damage/efficacy of controls, not prevent infection/spread
    P= Monitor Phenology to schedule applications
    E= monitor Environmental conditions for infection (for fireblight, use Maryblight software)
  • Schedule is included as a reference for you as to when to spray. Use traps and phenology to know for sure. Traps also tell pressure of that farm or region.
  • But wait there is more –t here is more IPM information in the fo m of the ibook/ book app etc..
  • But wait there is more –t here is more IPM information in the fo m of the ibook/ book app etc..
  • When these measures fail, tit boils down to applying pesticides. But can avoid the expense of pesticides and risk of loss of crop by doing some of thee things.
  • An easy way to
  • IPM Meets Laser Tag: Grower-Approved Techniques and Novel Intelligent Sprayers Win Big

    1. 1. IPM meets Laser Tag: Grower-Approved Techniques and Novel Intelligent Sprayers Win Big Amy Fulcher, UT Department of Plant Sciences NurseryWorks, July 17, 2013
    2. 2. Presentation • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) • Mobile Resources • Laser Tag
    3. 3. IPM for Nurseries • • • • What is IPM (cliff notes) Why IPM isn’t used IPM for nurseries Conclusion
    4. 4. IPM for Managing Pests in NurserieS • IPM • Information-based • Carefully weighing costs and benefits of pest management strategies • Only controlling pests at a time when it can be effective (as needed) • And when at a damage population level • What you probably aim for right now! • If you are a nursery, landscape may pay to spray
    5. 5. Survey Says… • Green Industry indicates that they use IPM practices, • But, not all components to IPM because: • Success needs to be demonstrated • Ornamental-specific IPM info isn’t available • IPM takes too much time/money Hoover et al. 2004 and LeBude et al. 2012
    6. 6. Survey Says… • Nursery growers indicate that they use IPM practices, • But, not all components to IPM because: • Success needs to be demonstrated • Ornamental-specific IPM info isn’t available • IPM takes too much time Hoover et al. 2004 and LeBude et al. 2012
    7. 7. Survey Says… • Nursery growers indicate that they use IPM practices, • But, not all components to IPM because: • Success needs to be demonstrated • Ornamental-specific IPM info isn’t available • IPM takes too much time Hoover et al. 2004 and LeBude et al. 2012
    8. 8. Nursery Crops IPM Programming Scouting Site visits Educational Materials Kentucky Nursery Update #70   Peachtree Borer traps average 25. Flatheaded Appletree borer emerging Workshops Success!
    9. 9. Nursery Crops Scouting • Developed scouting program
    10. 10. Economic benefits • Scouting - $20,000 in maple sales protected - detection of a new scale infestation and precisely timed applications. • Site Visits - trees which were once not marketable could be sold ~ $150 each, total income savings of $15,000. • Newsletter - $5,750 per redbud crop due to advanced warning /control timing for Calico Scale in newsletter (scoutinggenerated info) • NZ – nursery reduced pest mgt. costs by 1/3. Graphic Credit: Sarah White
    11. 11. Survey Says… • Nursery growers indicate that they use IPM practices, but some components to IPM are not widely adopted because:  Demonstrated success • Ornamental-specific IPM information is not readily available • IPM takes too much time to implement Hoover et al. 2004 and LeBude et al. 2012
    12. 12. Survey Says… • Nursery growers indicate that they use IPM practices, but some components to IPM are not widely adopted because:  Demonstrated success • Ornamental-specific IPM information is not readily available • IPM takes too much time to implement Hoover et al. 2004 and LeBude et al. 2012
    13. 13. Survey Says… • Nursery growers indicate that they use IPM practices, but some components to IPM are not widely adopted because:  Demonstrated success • Ornamental-specific IPM information is not readily available • IPM takes too much time to implement Let’s take a closer look at IPM! Hoover et al. 2004 and LeBude et al. 2012
    14. 14. IPM for managing pests in Nurseries • Information-based, carefully weighing costs and benefits of pest management strategies with the potential for damage/missed sales
    15. 15. What is IPM? • Goal is not eradication, but managing pests • Spend time, money, and labor only on destructive pests at relevant population levels and susceptible stage in lifecycle. • Trade off: Cost is gaining information • Weigh cost of damage Vs. cost/efficacy of control • A challenge because sold for appearance • Green is “in” -Customers may pay for your scouting and only as needed rather than calendar-based sprays • A new business model • Different thresholds in year prior to sales
    16. 16. Components of an IPM Program • Prevention • Mapping, Scouting, Record keeping • Pest Identification • Action/Economic Thresholds • Selecting an Appropriate Control • Assessing Control
    17. 17. Components of an IPM Program • Prevention • Mapping, Scouting, Record keeping • Pest Identification • Action/Economic Thresholds • Selecting an Appropriate Control • Assessing Control
    18. 18. Prevention Covey/Eisenhower quadrant Urgent Important Urgent, important Putting out fires, broke irrigation, mad customer Important, not urgent Planning, preparing Urgent, not important Not urgent or important Distractions, pesky sales calls Timewasters, texting to excess
    19. 19. Prevention Covey/Eisenhower quadrant Important Urgent Important, not Urgent, important urgent Learning, planning, scouting, reviewing records Urgent, not important Distractions Not urgent or important
    20. 20. Boxwood blight A single infected replacement plant served as source of infection for entire landscape. Dr. Sharon Douglas http://www.ct.gov/caes/lib/caes/documents/publications/fact_sheets/plant_pathology_and_ecology/boxwood_blight-_a_new_disease_for_connecticut_and_the_u.s.__12-08-11.pdf
    21. 21. Prevention Nutsedge Japanese Maple Scale
    22. 22. Prevention
    23. 23. New Plants? • • • • • Inspect closely before getting off of the truck! Place in Holding/Quarantine area Do not spray Observe Then, introduce into inventory
    24. 24. Typhoid Mary
    25. 25. Prevention Store pots out of dirt, water puddles Photo credit: Alan Windham
    26. 26. Prevention Hose nozzle off of ground!
    27. 27. Prevention Borer control must be preventative Weeds going to seed near pots, substrate
    28. 28. Sanitation is an element of prevention
    29. 29. Sanitation is key to prevention • Is sanitation practical? http://blogs.wickedlocal.com/newton/files/2008/03/leaf-blowing-424.jpg
    30. 30. Sanitation • Is sanitation practical? • Is spraying every 2 weeks practical
    31. 31. prevention • Sterilize pruners
    32. 32. Slide: J. Hartman, L. Vaillancourt, J. Flowers, A. Bateman, and P. Bachi
    33. 33. Cultural • Easiest but takes homework, can you sell it • Resistant varieties • Appalachian Series Photo Credit: Alan Windham
    34. 34. Flatheaded appletree borer • 42/100 Red Sunset • 0/100 Autumn Blaze
    35. 35. Cultural • Prune Properly • Large entry wounds, large reduction in stored carbohydrates stress trees and create entry points for borers
    36. 36. Cultural • Proper fertilization • Over-fertilization increases susceptibility to some diseases and insects
    37. 37. Cultural • Pythium infects saltdamaged (fertilizer) roots • Healthy plants grow faster and are more disease resistant • Not over-fertilized onessusceptible • More is not better!
    38. 38. fertilization and Insect Resistance • Fertilizing woody plants with nitrogen favored: • Aphids • Mites • Adelgids • Scales • Psyllids • Plant bugs • Lacebugs • Spider mites • Reproductive rate • Body size • Survival • Why? N2 is often most limiting nutrient
    39. 39. Mapping, Scouting, & Record Keeping • Map • Full advantage of IPM requires scouting 1x per week • Setting and checking traps • Monitoring pest populations • Monitor nutrition • Monitoring results of controls
    40. 40. Mapping, Scouting, & Record Keeping http://www.ptlcatlanta.com/images/residential.jpg
    41. 41. Scouting • Heart of IPM. Prevention important but scouting saved growers money • Monitoring pest population • Requires knowledge
    42. 42. Scouting • Does scouting increase the amount of spraying? • Scout = Find “more” problems (when isolated, spot spray) • Don’t scout = Find all problems later (spray whole nursery) • Why scout? I know about when major pests occur…
    43. 43. Scouting • Why? • Quantify pest population • To know if/when to spray to optimize control or if spraying is necessary/effective. • Year-to-year variation • Scouting provides “real-time, site-specific” information
    44. 44. Scout Every Plant? NO!! http://www.sitescapesinc.com/images/residential_1.jpg
    45. 45. Scout the Most Susceptible Plants • Why? • If you have the pest that is where it will show up, more to see. Maple tip moth Maple tip moth
    46. 46. Use Information Red Maples Burgundy Belle % FHAB Infested 37.5 October Glory 20.0 Northwood 18.6 Red Sunset Sugar Maples % Infested Green Mountain 20.0 Crescendo 11.8 Commemoration 11.8 Legacy 0.0 Freeman Maples 15.8 Autumn Fantasy Sienna Glen 10.0 5.0 Sun Valley 15.0 Autumn Blaze 0.0 Somerset 15.0 Misc. Maples Brandywine 10.0 A. truncatum 10.5 Autumn Flame 0.0 A. campestre 0.0 Source: Bonny Lou Seagraves, M.S. Thesis, Univ. Ky.
    47. 47. Use Information Red Maples Burgundy Belle % FHAB Infested 37.5 October Glory 20.0 Northwood 18.6 Red Sunset Sugar Maples % Infested Green Mountain 20.0 Crescendo 11.8 Commemoration 11.8 Legacy 0.0 Freeman Maples 15.8 Autumn Fantasy Sienna Glen 10.0 5.0 Sun Valley 15.0 Autumn Blaze 0.0 Somerset 15.0 Misc. Maples Brandywine 10.0 A. truncatum 10.5 Autumn Flame 0.0 A. campestre 0.0 Source: Bonny Lou Seagraves, M.S. Thesis, Univ. Ky.
    48. 48. Sugar Maples Use Information Red Maples Burgundy Belle % FHAB Infested 37.5 October Glory 20.0 Northwood 18.6 Red Sunset % Infested Green Mountain 20.0 Crescendo 11.8 Commemoration 11.8 Legacy 0.0 Freeman Maples 15.8 Autumn Fantasy Sienna Glen 10.0 5.0 Sun Valley 15.0 Autumn Blaze 0.0 Somerset 15.0 Misc. Maples Brandywine 10.0 A. truncatum 10.5 Autumn Flame 0.0 A. campestre 0.0 Source: Bonny Lou Seagraves, M.S. Thesis, Univ. Ky.
    49. 49. Not Every Pest, Every Week!
    50. 50. Scouting and Monitoring Pests of Deciduous Trees during Nursery Production. UT Extension Publication W142. 
    51. 51. Scouting and Monitoring Pests of Deciduous Trees during Nursery Production. UT Extension Publication W142. 
    52. 52. Traps Traps tell us insect population and emergence Ambrosia beetle Wing trap
    53. 53. Traps Tell population and Emergence • Disparity: • Nursery to nursery • Week to week • Field to field • Expecting rainfall – which field are you going to spray? Lesser Peachtree Borer
    54. 54. Identification is manageable • Alot of the same thing Lesser Peachtree Borer
    55. 55. Scale “Traps” • Crawler most susceptible scale lifestage for contact insecticides. • Crawler is immature stage-right after hatch.
    56. 56. Scale “Traps” Double sided carpet tape.
    57. 57. Scale “Traps” Detect crawlers-spray now!
    58. 58. Properly Identify Problem
    59. 59. Action/Economic Thresholds • Pest density or % incidence that initiate control measures • Depends on your customer • Different thresholds year prior to sale, for different customers, depending on their tolerance, “green factor”? • Thresholds vary – B&B Vs. container
    60. 60. Selecting Appropriate Control • Biological – not today • Mechanical/Physical • Chemical
    61. 61. Mechanical/Physical • Physically stopping a pest • Tanglefoot applied to trunk • Pruning out Eastern tent caterpillar nests
    62. 62. Chemical • An IPM approach involves using the least toxic chemical. • Dipel before Talstar for eastern tent caterpillars. Effective on young larvae, not older.
    63. 63. Resources • The information exists!
    64. 64. Resources
    65. 65. iBook for Green Industry • 326 pages • Multimedia – images, text, how-to videos • Custom made glossary with technical terms • 13 chapters • Covers the major deciduous trees in nursery production in the Southeast • FREE! Funding: Southern Region IPM Center
    66. 66. Linked Table of Contents & Scrolling Page Selection
    67. 67. Chapters Organized Plant by Plant
    68. 68. Insect and Mite Information
    69. 69. Pest Emergence Charts
    70. 70. iBook for Green Industry
    71. 71. Download chapters as pdfs
    72. 72. IPM-Is there an App for that?
    73. 73. IPMPro • App for nursery and landscape professionals • Location specific, text-like alerts for major pests and production/landscape tasks • Calendar and list view • Images, ID, mgt., control • Electronic pesticide recordkeeping
    74. 74. IPMPro
    75. 75. IPMPro
    76. 76. IPMPro
    77. 77. IPMPro
    78. 78. IPMPro
    79. 79. IPMPro
    80. 80. IPMPro
    81. 81. IPMPro
    82. 82. IPMPro • Electronic pesticide recordkeeping
    83. 83. Survey Says… • Nursery growers indicate that they use IPM practices, but some components to IPM are not widely adopted because: Demonstrated success is needed Ornamental-specific IPM information is not readily available • IPM takes too much time to implement Hoover et al. 2004 and LeBude et al. 2012
    84. 84. Survey Says… • Nursery growers indicate that they use IPM practices, but some components to IPM are not widely adopted because: Demonstrated success is needed Ornamental-specific IPM information is not readily available • IPM takes too much time to implement Hoover et al. 2004 and LeBude et al. 2012
    85. 85. ROI-Nursery Scouting • 1 scouting visit per week, more time driving than scouting • Weekly report to grower • $9,179.17 per nursery per year, ~$30 per acre (field, deciduous B&B) • $2,500 (wages plus travel) • Maryland arborists – landscape IPM • 20 minutes per ¼ A lot • Profitable
    86. 86. Survey Says… • Nursery growers indicate that they use IPM practices, but some components to IPM are not widely adopted because:  Demonstrated success is needed  Ornamental-specific IPM information is not readily available  IPM takes too much time to implement Hoover et al. 2004 and LeBude et al. 2012
    87. 87. Intelligent sprayer • Self Explanatory
    88. 88. How Do We Control Pests? • Apply pesticides
    89. 89. Pesticide Use • Pesticide contact with skin is desirable? • No! Photo Credit: http://www.agf.gov.bc.ca/pesticides/b_2.htm#2; http://thailand.ipm-info.org/pesticides/risk_reduction.htm
    90. 90. Pesticide Use • Pesticides are free? • No!
    91. 91. Pesticide Use • Pesticides are beneficial off the target pest and crop? • No! • >30% pesticide application lands off target
    92. 92. What if… • We had a sprayer that could: • • • • Mix pesticide inline Sense the presence/absence of a plant Detect foliar density Create variable rate spray outputs based on need, in real time
    93. 93. Dr. Heping Zhu USDA ARS
    94. 94. Intelligent Spray Systems Variable-rate Hydraulic Boom Spray System Development Variable-rate Air-assisted Spray System Development
    95. 95. Intelligent Spray Systems • Automatic controllers – computer program – a signal generation and amplification unit – pulse width modulated solenoid valves – algorithm
    96. 96. Variable-rate Air-assisted Spray System Development Spray output depends on foliage volume and the amount of liquid to cover the fo
    97. 97. What the Sensors “Sees” • Images of trees scanned by a laser scanning sensor
    98. 98. Hydraulic Boom Sprayer
    99. 99. Field Tests
    100. 100. Test Drive • Compared to the constant application rate of 50 gpa • the intelligent sprayer reduced the application rate by 70, 66, and 52% in April, May, and June, respectively. 
    101. 101. What about Pest Control? • Is 40% spray coverage enough? Japanese Maple Scale
    102. 102. Test Drive • The variable-rate sprayer reduced spray volume up to 86.4 and 70.8% compared to a constant 100 gpa and tree-row volume estimated rate applications, respectively. • But what about insect and disease control?
    103. 103. Pest Control Tests in Oregon
    104. 104. Aphids Population Levels Comparison of average number of aphids per five leaves on a red oak tree between variablerate and conventional application methods in a commercial nursery in 2011 Date 6/16 8/4 8/18 8/3 9/8[1] 9/15 9/30 [1] [2] Average number of Aphids Variable-rate Conventional 0.0 a[2] 2.3 a 11.6 a 46.1 a 0.6 a 0.4 a 0.3 b 8 days after sprayed with Diazinon insecticide. Values in a row followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 0.05 level. 0.0 a 1.8 a 9.1 a 39.5 a 0.4 a 0.1 a 3.4 a
    105. 105. Powdery Mildew Infection Comparison of average rating of powdery mildew infection on a leaf of a Norway maple between variable-rate and conventional application methods in a commercial nursery in 2011 Date 6/16 6/30 7/6[1] 7/26 8/1[2] 8/18[3] 8/25 9/30 Average rating Variable-rate Conventional 0.06 a[4] 0.52 b 0.79 a 1.01 a 0.68 b 0.56 a 0.83 a 1.10 b 0.05 a 0.67 a 0.84 a 1.08 a 0.84 a 0.47 a 0.61 b 1.70 a , [2] , [3] Five, six, and six days after sprayed Chlorothalonil 720 SFT, Eagle (Myclobutanil) 20 EW, and Clearys 3336F, respectively. [1]
    106. 106. Results • Laboratory and field tests demonstrated that both variable-rate sprayers controlled spray outputs by continually matching canopy characteristics • reduced off-target losses • has potential to: • drastically decrease pesticide use and associated economic inputs • increase environmental quality • enhance worker safety
    107. 107. Thank you!

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