Basics of Fruit Production

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Kansas Community Garden Conference …

Kansas Community Garden Conference
July 8, 2014
Mr. Patrick Byers

Choosing a site for fruit production, selecting types of fruit and fruit cultivars, fruit production principles, and fruit integrated pest management.

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  • Blueberries will not tolerate poorly drained soils, and site modifications are commonly made to prospective sites. A raised ridge or berm is an effective way to improve soil drainage. A berm for highbush blueberries is commonly 4 feet wide and 12 inches high. Raise the berm at least 3-4 months in advance of planting, to allow the soil to settle.

Transcript

  • 1. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Fruit in the Community Garden: Introduction Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture Specialist University of Missouri Extension Springfield, MO
  • 2. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive…
  • 3. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Outline • Why choose fruit for the community garden? • Choosing a type of fruit • Choosing among fruit cultivars • Site considerations • General care of fruit plants
  • 4. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Why Grow Fruit in the Community Garden? • Interest in quality
  • 5. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Why Grow Fruit in the Community Garden? • Highest quality • Variety
  • 6. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Why Grow Fruit in the Community Garden? Fruit May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Apple Apricot Cherry Mulberry Pawpaw Persimmon Peach Pear Plum Fruit tree harvest dates
  • 7. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Why Grow Fruit in the Community Garden? Fruit May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Blackberry Blueberry Gooseberry Elderberry Grape - Table Grape - Wine Flori Raspberry Primo Raspberry JB Strawberry DN Strawberry Berry harvest dates
  • 8. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Why Grow Fruit in the Community Garden? • Highest quality • Variety • Money savings
  • 9. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Why Grow Fruit in the Community Garden? • Highest quality • Variety • Money savings • Healthful qualities of fruit – Vitamins and minerals – Fiber – Antioxidants – Anticancer properties – Ellagic acid
  • 10. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Why Grow Fruit in the Community Garden? • Highest quality • Variety • Money savings • Healthful qualities of fruit • Good for the soul!
  • 11. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Realities of Fruit in the Community Garden • Perennial plants – Long term commitment – Successful plantings are planned! – Fruits are often planted in a common area in the garden – who will tend the plants? – Consider placement in the garden • Long term commitment to plots • Structures may be needed for grape, bramble, espaliered trees • Shading issues from trees • Pest control concerns
  • 12. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Grand Acres Community Garden New Haven, CT (source: http://openarchitecturenetwork.org/projects/grand_acres_entry-26272) N
  • 13. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive…
  • 14. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive…
  • 15. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Realities of Fruit in the Community Garden • Opportunities in the community garden – Focus for festivals, garden gatherings, work parties – Focus for learning experiences – Community outreach opportunities – Fruit plants can become part of the permanent fabric of a community garden
  • 16. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive…
  • 17. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive…
  • 18. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Realities of Fruit in the Community Garden • Useful life of fruit plants in KS/MO – Apple, pear, mulberry, pawpaw, persimmon – 20-30 years – Grape – 20-30 years – Peach, plum, cherry – 15-20 years – Blueberry – 15 years – Blackberry, raspberry – 7-10 years – June bearing strawberry – 3-5 years – Day neutral strawberry – 1 year
  • 19. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Realities of Fruit in the Community Garden • Hardiness issues – Hardiest fruits – apple, pear, blueberry, pawpaw, persimmon, mulberry – -15 to -20°F: damage to blackberry and raspberry, most stone fruit flower buds, most grapes – -10 to -15°F: damage to most peach flower buds – -5 to -10°F: damage to less hardy grapes – 0 to -5°F: damage to unprotected strawberry plants
  • 20. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Realities of Fruit in the Community Garden • Pest issues – Serious pest issues – peach, plum, apricot, grape – Moderate pest issues – apple, pear, tart cherry, raspberry – Pest tolerant – blackberry, blueberry, persimmon, pawpaw, strawberry
  • 21. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Choosing a Type of Fruit • Great topic for a garden discussion! – Is there a place for fruit? – Which fruits are of interest? – What is the waiting period? – Is the fruit difficult to grow? – How often will there be a harvest? – What about spraying?
  • 22. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Choosing the Proper Fruit Cultivar • Adapted to the climate – Winter cold – Summer heat – Frosts and freezes
  • 23. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Choosing the Proper Fruit Cultivar • Adapted to the climate • Attractive features
  • 24. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Choosing the Proper Fruit Cultivar • Adapted to the climate • Attractive features • Disease and insect resistance
  • 25. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Choosing the Proper Fruit Cultivar • Adapted to the climate • Attractive features • Disease and insect resistance • Harvest season
  • 26. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Choosing the Proper Fruit Cultivar • Adapted to the climate • Attractive features • Disease and insect resistance • Harvest season • Use of the crop
  • 27. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Selecting a Place to Grow Fruit • Full sun
  • 28. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Selecting a Place to Grow Fruit • Full sun • Close to water source – fruit plants need 1.5-2 inches of water/week – Make it easy to water fruit plants – soaker hose or trickle works good – mulches are great
  • 29. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Selecting a Place to Grow Fruit • Full sun • Close to water source • Adequate space among plants – avoid pockets of stagnant air – Provide adequate spacing between fruit plants – fewer disease problems
  • 30. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Selecting a Place to Grow Fruit • Limited space – Dwarf fruit trees and small statured plants – Espaliered fruit Source: http://www.examiner.comarticlegrow- fruit-trees-narrow-spaces Source: httpwfpquantum.s3.amazonaws.comimages homesarticlesultra5rhf46ghfjctdxd9jg1s-41419.jpghttp://www.logees.com/
  • 31. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Selecting a Place to Grow Fruit • Full sun • Close to water source • Good air movement • Soil – well drained – slightly acid, moderately fertile – organic matter is important – work towards 5% OM
  • 32. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Site Modification • Provisions for soil drainage – berms, raised beds
  • 33. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Containers and Raised Beds • The growing media must be well drained, and high in organic matter • Suggested mix: – 33%: 1/4" bark compost – 33%: peat moss – 33%: good quality topsoil
  • 34. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Care of Fruit Plants in the Garden • Planting – purchase good nursery stock – plant in spring or fall – handle properly upon arrival – plant properly – care of the young plants
  • 35. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Care of Fruit Plants in the Garden • Planting fruit trees • Dig a hole 2x the spread of the roots • Plant with graft union 2” above the soil line • Spread roots, backfill, firm soil Source: http://www.dorsetdesignbuild.co.uk/author/suzie/
  • 36. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Care of Fruit Plants in the Garden • Planting berries and grapes – Plant at the same depth as in the nursery – Dig an adequate hole, and spread the roots
  • 37. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Care of Fruit Plants in the Garden • Planting strawberries – Dormant crowns • Spread roots, and plant with soil half way up the crown – Plug plants • Plant as a bedding plant
  • 38. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Care of Fruit Plants in the Garden • Pruning – pruning is an important annual job • shaping plants • strong framework • correct problems – use the proper tools – when to prune • dormant – late February • growing season
  • 39. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Training and Pruning Equipment • Pruner • Lopper • Saw • Disinfectant
  • 40. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Pruning Tree Fruits • Central leader – Apple – Pear – Apricot – European plum – Cherry • Open center – Peach – Japanese plum
  • 41. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Care of Fruit Plants in the Garden • Managing pests – IPM for diseases, insects, animals – learn the potential problems – Use “resistant” cultivars – Purchase healthy planting stock – Healthy plants are able to ward off pests – Dispose of crop residue (leftovers) – Destroy wild fruit plants that harbor pests – Use limited chemicals if necessary
  • 42. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive…
  • 43. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Care of Fruit Plants in the Garden • Fertilizing – know the needs of your plants • Weeds – Remove perennial weeds before planting – mistake to plant fruit plants in grassy areas – Don’t delay! Remove weeds when they are less than 1” tall and remove roots, too! – Mulching is useful – weed barrier, straw, leaves, black polyethylene plastic, grass clippings, wood chips – Chemicals (herbicides) - READ directions! BE careful!
  • 44. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Care of Fruit Plants in the Garden • Irrigation • Drip or trickle systems work well • Trees – gator bags, buckets with holes • 1.5 to 2 inches of water per week is usual • Combine with mulch or weed barrier fabric for easy maintenance Source: http://www.nelsonirrigation.com/products/application/apples Source: http://robertkouriksgardenroots.blogspot.com/ 2010/06/on-right-road-to-drip-irrigation.html
  • 45. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Resources • Midwest Home Fruit Production Guide - http://www.oardc.ohio- state.edu/fruitpathology/Bulletins/Home%20Fruit_B591_All%20S.pdf • Kansas State University Extension Publications • Guides on many aspects of fruit production – http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/bookstore/Category.aspx? id=528&catId=534&Page=5 – University of Missouri Extension Guides – Guides on many aspects of fruit production – http://extension.missouri.edu/main/DisplayCategory.aspx?C=63 – MO State Fruit Experiment Station (MSU) – Guides on blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, grapes, general fruit – http://mtngrv.missouristate.edu/Publications/index.htm#CommercialFrui t – Cornell Berry and Small Fruit Nursery Listing - http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/berry/nurseries/nurseries.html
  • 46. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Conclusion • Any questions? Contact information: Patrick Byers 417-881-8909 byerspl@missouri.edu