Insect ID and Control

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Kansas Community Garden Conference
July 7, 2014
Mrs. Frannie Miller

Correct identification is important to proper management. This session will focus on identification of insects commonly found in the community garden and ways to control them.

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Insect ID and Control

  1. 1. Pest Management in Community Gardens By: Frannie Miller Pesticide Safety and IPM Coordinator
  2. 2. Types of Community Gardens • Allotment Gardens • Communal Gardens (Cooperative) • Youth/School Gardens • Therapeutic Gardens
  3. 3. PEST • Anything unwanted, troublesome, annoying or destructive
  4. 4. Managing Pests Responsibly • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) – Pest Management Strategy – Long-Term Prevention – Utilizes Regular Monitoring – Combination of Tactics
  5. 5. IPM Promotes • Know the Pest • Use Prevention First • Use Non-Chemical Solutions First • Only Use Pesticides When Needed
  6. 6. Importance • Accurate identification is very important – Different life cycles – Appropriate control methods • Without a name, information is not available • Not all insects are harmful
  7. 7. Insect Names • Common names: – Extensively used, facilitate communication – Geographic locations have different names – Example: Ladybug, ladybird beetle, Coccinelle • Binomial nomenclature: – Two part system – Consists of generic name & its species name – Examples: Musca domestica, Apis mellifera
  8. 8. Means of Identification • Visual recognition – Note habits, type of damage, life cycle • Identification services – Extension agent – Insect diagnostician • Use of dichotomous keys
  9. 9. Identification Tools • Hand lens/magnifier • Digital camera • Small vials • Identification Book/Field Guides
  10. 10. Is it an Insect? • Six legs • Three body regions • Pair of antennae • Modified appendages • Wings
  11. 11. Where does it live? • Habitats • Where did you find it? • What plant is it feeding on? • Day or night activity
  12. 12. Avoiding Pest Problems • Think before you plant – Improper planting sites • Select disease and insect resistant plants • Diversity • Go easy on water and fertilizer • Properly mow and selectively prune • Encourage beneficials
  13. 13. Identifying Pest Problems • Inspect plants regularly – Curled, rolled or deformed leaves – Mold on leaves or stems • Positively identify pest • Tolerate some insect damage & disease • Take a sample of the damaged plant if problems persist
  14. 14. Physical/Mechanical • Row covers or cardboard collars • Fencing • Traps • Mesh or wire netting • Hand picking of large insects
  15. 15. Cultural • Use of resistant varieties • Time planting to avoid infestations • Companion planting • Crop rotation and tillage • Remove diseased plants and debris
  16. 16. Biological • Beneficial insects (ladybugs) • Poultry • Birds (bluebirds, martins, barn swallows) • Bats • Toads & frogs • Snakes
  17. 17. What is a Pesticide? • “Cide” means to kill • Substance or mixture intended to prevent, control, destroy, repel or attract any pest • Also included plant regulator, defoliants or dessiccant • Example: Deet
  18. 18. Types of Pesticides • Insecticide – controls insects (carbaryl) • Fungicides – controls fungus (chlorothanonil) • Herbicides – controls weeds (glyphosate) • Miticides – control mites (insecticidal soaps) • Nematicides – controls nematodes (oxamyl)
  19. 19. Chemical • Organic – Relatively nontoxic – Spinosad, Diatomaceous earth, Copper, sulfur • Botanical – Nicotine, arsenic, pyrethrin, rotenone, neem oil • Synthetic
  20. 20. Treating Pest Problems • Remove affected leaves or plant parts • Hand removal • Avoid using broad-spectrum pesticides • Treat for specific pests • Read labels carefully • Pesticides & fertilizers are stored & disposed of properly
  21. 21. Personal Safety • Never use any chemicals without reading and understanding the label • Observe all safety warnings • Never mix any chemicals • Wear the required PPE • Keep the chemicals in the original container and with the original label • Store all chemicals properly
  22. 22. Parts of the Label • Labels Contain 4 Categories – Identifying Information – Precautionary Statements – Directions for Use – Conditions of Sale/Limitations of Warranty & Liability
  23. 23. Identifying Information • Brand, Trade or Product Names • Chemical Name • Common Name • Type of Pesticide • Net Contents • Name and Address of Manufacturer • Registration & Establishment Numbers
  24. 24. Precautionary Statements • Signal Words • Route of Entry Statements • Specific Action Statements • Protective Clothing Statement • Statement of Practical Treatment • Environmental Hazards • Physical or Chemical Hazards
  25. 25. Directions for Use • Pests Controlled • Crop, Animal, or Site • How Much to Use • Mixing Directions • Where and When the Material Should Be Applied
  26. 26. Conditions of Service • Terms and Conditions of Use • Warranty Disclaimer • Inherent Risk of Use • Limitation of Remedies
  27. 27. Protecting Your Body • Oral • Dermal • Inhalation • Acute Exposure • Chronic Exposure
  28. 28. What You Should Wear • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – Coveralls – Gloves – Hat – Shoes and Boots – Goggles or Face Shield
  29. 29. Care of Clothing • Laundering – Wash contaminated clothes separately – Always prerinse – Use highest water level and hot water – Use recommended amount of detergent – Run a complete cycle – Line dry
  30. 30. Protecting the Environment • Potential Hazards – Injure Non-target Plants and Animals • Drift • Runoff – Leave Harmful Residues – Move from Application Site – Contaminate Groundwater and Surface Water • Point and Non-point sources
  31. 31. Handling Pesticides Safely • Pesticide Storage – Store in designated area – Store all pesticides in original containers
  32. 32. DISEASES • Healthy soil is important • Crop rotation and succession planting • Fallow areas • Disease resistant varieties • Soil and plant treatments
  33. 33. Questions

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