Advanced Fruit Production

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Kansas Community Garden Conference
July 8, 2014
Mr. Patrick Byers

Growing pome fruits (apple, pear), stone fruits (peach, plum, cherry, apricot), berries (strawberry, blackberry, raspberry, blueberry), and unusual fruits.

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Advanced Fruit Production

  1. 1. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Fruit in the Community Garden: Growing Fruits Patrick Byers Regional Horticulture Specialist University of Missouri Extension Springfield, Missouri
  2. 2. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Outline • Tree fruits – Apple and pear – Stone fruit – Pawpaw – Persimmon – Mulberry – Unusual tree fruits • Berries – Blackberry – Raspberry – Blueberry – Strawberry – Grape – Unusual berries
  3. 3. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Apples and Pears
  4. 4. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Apples Apples and Pears • Pluses – hardy, long lived trees – multiseason interest – disease resistant varieties – fruit • Minuses – disease and insect problems – maintenance
  5. 5. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Apples and Pears • Require cross pollination – Two cultivars needed – Multiple cultivars on a single tree? – Crabapple pollinators will work
  6. 6. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Apples • Disease resistant cultivars – ‘Pristine’ – ‘Redfree’ – ‘Liberty’ – ‘Freedom’ – ‘Jonafree’ – ‘Goldrush’ – ‘Enterprise’ ‘Goldrush’ ‘Enterprise’
  7. 7. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Apples • Antique cultivars, standard cultivars – Many to choose from – Investigate disease issues – Investigate adaptation to local conditions ‘Arkansas Black’
  8. 8. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Apples and Pears • Pear cultivars – European pears • ‘Moonglow’ • ‘Starking Delicious’ • ‘Maxine’ • ‘Magness’ • ‘Kieffer’ – Asian pears: ‘Hosui’, ‘Shinseiki’, ‘Chojuro’, ‘Starking Giant’ ‘Moonglow’ ‘Hosui’
  9. 9. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Apples and Pears • Apple rootstocks Semi-dwarf DwarfFull Size
  10. 10. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Apples and Pears • Disease resistant apple rootstocks – Dwarf • G65 • G11 • G16 – Semi dwarf • G30
  11. 11. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Apples and Pears • Fireblight – Resistance – Sanitation – Pruning out strikes
  12. 12. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Peaches and Stone Fruit
  13. 13. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Peaches and Stone Fruit • Pluses – fast growing trees – early blossoming – fruit • Minuses – disease, insect problems – freeze, frost injury to flowers – maintenance
  14. 14. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Peaches and Stone Fruit • Self fruitful – peach – tart cherry – European and damson plums – apricot • Require cross pollination – sweet cherry – Japanese and American plums
  15. 15. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Peaches and Stone Fruit • Cultivars (bud hardiness, BLS resistance) – Peach: ‘Redhaven’, ‘Encore’, ‘Madison’, ‘Cresthaven’ – White peach: ‘Summer Pearl’, ‘Raritan Rose’ – Tart cherry: ‘Montmorency’ – Apricot: ‘Goldcot’, ‘Alfred’, ‘Moorpark’ – European plum: ‘Stanley’, ‘Bluefre’, ‘Earliblue’, ‘Gage’ – Japanese plum: ‘Ozark Premier’, ‘Superior’ – Sweet cherry: ‘Hedelfingen’, ‘Starkrimson’, ‘Stella’, ‘Sweet Anne’, ‘Van’
  16. 16. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Peaches and Stone Fruit • Brown rot – Sanitation – Proper pruning – Spraying
  17. 17. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… • Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) Pawpaw
  18. 18. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… • Pawpaw cultivars – ‘Overleese’ – ‘Sunflower’ – ‘PA Gold’ – Neal Peterson cultivars • ‘Shenadoah’ • ‘Susquehanna’ • ‘Rappahannock’ • ‘Allegheny’ • ‘Potomac’ • ‘Wabash’ Pawpaw
  19. 19. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… ‘Shenandoah’ Native ‘Shenandoah’ tree ‘Shenandoah’ fruit Pawpaw
  20. 20. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… • Persimmon (Diospyros virginica) Persimmon
  21. 21. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… • Persimmon cultivars – American • ‘Early Golden’ • ‘John Rick’ • ‘Lena’ • ‘Killen’ • ‘Wabash’ • ‘Yates’ – Am X Asian • ‘Rosseyanka’ • ‘Nikita’s Gift’ ‘John Rick’ Persimmon
  22. 22. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Mulberry • Cultivars – White hybrid • ‘Illinois Everbearing’ – Black • ‘Noir de Spain’ • ‘Black Beauty’ ‘Illinois Everbearing’
  23. 23. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Strawberries • Pluses – easy to grow – fruit! – landscape uses • Minuses – winter injury – frost injury – weed management
  24. 24. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Strawberries
  25. 25. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Strawberries • Types of strawberries – Junebearing – Day neutral – Alpine – Ornamental
  26. 26. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Strawberries • Self fruitful • Cultivars – Junebearing • Early season: ‘Earliglow’, ‘Annapolis’ • Midseason: ‘Honeoye’, ‘Allstar’, ‘Redchief’, ‘Guardian’, ‘Darselect’ • Late season: ‘Lateglow’, ‘Winona’ – Day Neutral: ‘Albion’, ‘Seascape’, ‘San Andreas’ – Alpine: ‘Alexandria’, ‘Alpine Yellow’, ‘Reugen’ – Ornamental: ‘Pink Panda’
  27. 27. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Strawberries 42” 18”
  28. 28. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Strawberries • Junebearing culture, Year 1 – Plant early in the spring – Remove flowers – Position runners to fill the row – Keep weeds under control – Fertilize in August – Mulch in late fall
  29. 29. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Strawberries • Junebearing culture, Year 1 – Mulching materials • 4-6 inches of clean straw • Spunbonded row covers – Mulch after ground is cold (late November-December)
  30. 30. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Strawberries • Junebearing culture, Year 2 and beyond – Remove mulch in March-April – Harvest fruit in May-June – Renovate after harvest – Fertilize in August – Control weeds – Mulch in late fall
  31. 31. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive…
  32. 32. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Strawberries
  33. 33. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles
  34. 34. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles • Pluses – quick production – pest resistant – easy to grow – fruit • Minuses – winter injury – high temperature damage – thorns
  35. 35. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles • Self fruitful • Types of brambles – raspberry • primocane red raspberries • floricane red raspberries • black raspberries • purple raspberries – blackberry • upright thornless and thorny • primocane • semi-erect thornless
  36. 36. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles  Biennial shoots  Types of Canes: -Primocanes (first year) vegetative -Floricanes (second year) bear flowers and fruit
  37. 37. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles • Cultivars – primocane red raspberry: ‘Caroline’, ‘Heritage’, ‘Josephine’, ‘Prelude’, many others – primocane yellow raspberry: ‘Anne’, ‘Kiwigold’ ‘Heritage’ Golden Harvest
  38. 38. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles • Cultivars – floricane red raspberry: ‘Canby’, ‘Reveille’, ‘Lauren’, ‘Nova’ ‘Nova’
  39. 39. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles • Cultivars – black raspberry: ‘Jewell’, ‘Bristol’ ‘Bristol’
  40. 40. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles • Cultivars – erect thornless blackberry: ‘Natchez’, ‘Ouichita’, ‘Osage’, ‘Apache’, ‘Navaho’ – erect thorny blackberry: ‘Kiowa’, ‘Chickasaw’ – primocane: ‘Prime Jim’, ‘Prime Jan’, ‘Prime Ark 45’, ‘Prime Ark Freedom’
  41. 41. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles • Cultivars – semi-erect blackberry: ‘Chester’, ‘Triple Crown’ ‘Triple Crown’
  42. 42. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles • Planting brambles – Use tissue culture nursery stock – Spacing between rows – 10-12 ft – Spacing between plants • Red raspberries – 18-24 inches • Erect blackberries – 2-4 feet • Black raspberries – 3 feet • Semi-erect blackberries – 6 feet
  43. 43. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles • Pruning primocane bearing red raspberries – Remove all canes in late winter
  44. 44. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles • Pruning floricane bearing red raspberries  Remove old floricanes in winter  Thin remaining canes to 3-4 /ft2
  45. 45. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles  Pruning black raspberries, erect and semi-erect blackberries  Tip primocanes in early summer  Remove dead floricanes in winter  Thin remaining canes to 3-6 per plant (black raspberries, semi-erect blackberries) or 6/sq.ft (blackberries  Shorten laterals to 12-18” (18-24” for semi-erect blackberries
  46. 46. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Brambles
  47. 47. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Blueberries
  48. 48. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Blueberries • Pluses – hardy, long lived – multiseason interest – fruit • Minuses – specific soil requirements – bird problems
  49. 49. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Blueberries • Blueberry cultivars (self fruitful) – Northern highbush • Many cultivars available – ‘Bluecrop’, ‘Blueray’, ‘Duke’, ‘Coville’, ‘Lateblue’, ‘Chandler’ – Southern highbush • ‘Legacy’ • ‘Ozarkblue’ – Half high • ‘Northblue’ • ‘Bluesky’
  50. 50. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Blueberries • Soil requirements – acid pH: 4.8-5.2 is ideal – well drained – high organic matter
  51. 51. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Blueberries Sulfur Recommendations – amount needed to lower soil pH by one pH unit Soil Type lbs / 100 sq.ft. sandy loam 0.75 loam 1.0 silt loam 1.5 clay 2.0
  52. 52. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Blueberries • Planting blueberries – 2 year plants work best – Spacing between rows – 10-12 feet – Spacing between plants – 4 feet
  53. 53. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Blueberries • Mulching • Irrigation
  54. 54. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Blueberries  Pruning  Begin pruning when bushes are small  Prune when dormant  Thinning cuts  Remove: - older canes - weak shoots - diseased and dead wood
  55. 55. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Grapes
  56. 56. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Grapes • Pluses – hardy, long lived – fruit – landscape uses • Minuses – disease problems – bird problems – maintenance
  57. 57. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Grapes • Types of grapes – American – French-American hybrids – Vinifera – Muscadine
  58. 58. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Grapes • Self fruitful • Cultivars – seeded American grapes: ‘Concord’, ‘Delaware’, ‘Steuban’, ‘Niagara’, ‘Norton’ – seedless American grapes: ‘Mars’, ‘Reliance’, ‘Vanessa’, ‘Himrod’, ‘Marquis’, ‘Saturn’, ‘Venus’ – French-American hybrids: ‘Seyval’, ‘Vidal’, ‘Vignoles’, ‘Chambourcin’
  59. 59. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Grapes • Planting grapes – 1 year rooted cuttings – Spacing between rows – 10 feet – Spacing between plants – 8 feet
  60. 60. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Grapes • Training systems for grapes – Cordon system
  61. 61. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Grapes • Black rot – Resistance – Sanitation – Spraying
  62. 62. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Grapes
  63. 63. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Gooseberry, Currant • Gooseberry and currants (black, red, white) Cultivars •Gooseberry – ‘Pixwell’, ‘Poorman’ •Red currant – ‘Wilder’, ‘Red Lake’ •White currant – ‘White Pearl’, ‘Primus’ •Black currant – ‘Consort’, ‘Ben Sarek’, ‘Crandall’
  64. 64. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Hardy Kiwi • Hardy kiwi Cultivars •‘Issai’ •‘Anna’ •‘Dumbarton Oaks’ •others
  65. 65. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Elderberry • Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) Cultivars •‘Bob Gordon’ •‘Wyldewood’ •‘Adams 1 & 2’ •‘York’ •‘Nova’ •‘Scotia’ •‘Kent’ •‘Johns’
  66. 66. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Other Small Fruits • Bush stone fruits – Bush cherries – Choke cherries – Sand plums Photo by Hamish Tulloch, Native Fruit Development Program, Univ of Sask Cultivars •Few cultivars available
  67. 67. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Other Small Fruits • Highbush cranberry • Aronia • Autumn olive Aronia Autumn olive Highbush Cranberry
  68. 68. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Resources • Midwest Home Fruit Production Guide - http://www.oardc.ohio- state.edu/fruitpathology/Bulletins/Home%20Fruit_B591_All%20S.pdf • Kansas State University Extension Publications • Guides on many aspects of fruit production – http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/bookstore/Category.aspx? id=528&catId=534&Page=5 – University of Missouri Extension Guides – Guides on many aspects of fruit production – http://extension.missouri.edu/main/DisplayCategory.aspx?C=63 – MO State Fruit Experiment Station (MSU) – Guides on blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, grapes, general fruit – http://mtngrv.missouristate.edu/Publications/index.htm#CommercialFrui t – Cornell Berry and Small Fruit Nursery Listing - http://www.fruit.cornell.edu/berry/nurseries/nurseries.html
  69. 69. Relevant, Reliable, Responsive… Any Questions?

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