Water Wise Conservation Practices
Cary L. Rivard, Ph.D.
Dept of Horticulture
Kansas State University
4 x 200’ rows = 800 ft
800 ft / 100 ft x .5 GPM = 4 GPM
4 GPM x 180 minutes = 720 gallons
720 gal. waters the tunnel for 3...
Introduction
Plants Need Water
• Moves nutrients and required
for photosynthesis
• Water transported by
transpiration
– Dr...
Introduction
Watering: Irrigation 101
Always water the
ROOT ZONE
Crop Selection
Crop and Cultivar Selection
• Crop species have varying
needs for water
• Crop Stage
Plant Early
Winter WinterSpring Summer Fall
Warm-Season Crops
Growth/Productivity
Early
Growth
Soil Quality/Health
Good Soil Protects Crops from Drought
May AugJulyJune
Water Availability: Poor Soils
Soil Quality/Health
Good Soil Protects Crops from Drought
May AugJulyJune
Water Availability: Good Soils
Soil Improvement
• Organic matter (OM) improves
soil in a number of ways
– Loosens tight clays
– Increases water-holding c...
vs.
Raised Beds
Mulches
• Mulching is a valuable practice
that is often overlooked.
– Conserve soil moisture
– Control weeds
– Increase / ...
Season Extension
• The harvest season can be extended using multiple
strategies.
– Crop and cultivar selection
– Successiv...
• Floating row covers are spun-bonded polyester
that protects fragile crops from frost / freezing.
• Various thicknesses
•...
Summer/Fall Cool-season Production
• 30-55% shade
• Sprinkler irrigation
Shade Cloth
• Designed for organic insect
management
• Reflect heat/sun
• Multiple applications
– Wash from rains
Kaolin Clay Product
...
Monitoring Soil Moisture
Get to know your soil
• Check OFTEN
• Tools
– Tensiometer
– Electronic (resistance)
• “The old fa...
Benefits of Drip / Trickle
Drip irrigation has numerous benefits
• Disease Management
– Reduced leaf wetness
– Weed Manage...
Drip Irrigation
Water distribution is dependent on soil type
Sand Loam Clay
Types of Drip Systems
• Inexpensive
• Long rows
• Variable emitter spacing
• 6-20 Psi (12-15 std.)
Low-pressure drip syste...
Thickness: Dependent on
pressure of system
Emitter Spacing
Flow Rate
The Drip System
Types of Drip Systems
• Much more expensive
• Shorter rows
• Long life of materials
– Lower maintenance
• No pressure regu...
Excellent for perennial crops…
Types of Drip Systems
Soaker hoses are NOT the same as drip/trickle
Building the Drip System
Sources of Irrigation Water
• Surface Water
– Creeks, streams
– Rivers
– Ponds
• Below-ground
– Wells
• Treated water
– Ci...
Water filtration
Above-ground water sources
• Screen Filters
• Plastic Disk Filters
• Sand Filters
– Swimming pool
– Stain...
The Drip System
• Used to distribute the water to
the individual drip tapes
– PVC
– Orchard pipe
– Lay-flat
Design your “h...
Watch out for leaks and kinks
Irrigation Efficiency
Tips to save water in the garden
• Use drip irrigation
• Maintain healthy soil
• Use mulches
• Right...
QUESTIONS ??
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Water Wise Conservation Practices
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Water Wise Conservation Practices

393

Published on

Dr. Cary Rivard, Extension Fruit and Vegetable Specialist
Kansas Community Garden Conference, July 8-9, 2013

As water resources become increasingly valuable, good water management has become critical. Learn more about irrigation systems and garden watering practices that promote maximum plant growth within your budget.

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
393
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Water Wise Conservation Practices"

  1. 1. Water Wise Conservation Practices Cary L. Rivard, Ph.D. Dept of Horticulture Kansas State University
  2. 2. 4 x 200’ rows = 800 ft 800 ft / 100 ft x .5 GPM = 4 GPM 4 GPM x 180 minutes = 720 gallons 720 gal. waters the tunnel for 3 hours
  3. 3. Introduction Plants Need Water • Moves nutrients and required for photosynthesis • Water transported by transpiration – Driven by evaporation into the atmosphere • Water availability – Soil moisture – Soil type, OM, etc. • Water the root-zone (1”/week) – Crop dependent
  4. 4. Introduction Watering: Irrigation 101 Always water the ROOT ZONE
  5. 5. Crop Selection Crop and Cultivar Selection • Crop species have varying needs for water • Crop Stage
  6. 6. Plant Early Winter WinterSpring Summer Fall Warm-Season Crops Growth/Productivity Early Growth
  7. 7. Soil Quality/Health Good Soil Protects Crops from Drought May AugJulyJune Water Availability: Poor Soils
  8. 8. Soil Quality/Health Good Soil Protects Crops from Drought May AugJulyJune Water Availability: Good Soils
  9. 9. Soil Improvement • Organic matter (OM) improves soil in a number of ways – Loosens tight clays – Increases water-holding capacity – Increases cation exchange capacity – Soil “aggregates” and tilth • How OM can be added – Compost • Pre-plant or side-dressing – Degradeable mulch – Crop residues – Cover crops / green manures Adding Organic Matter
  10. 10. vs. Raised Beds
  11. 11. Mulches • Mulching is a valuable practice that is often overlooked. – Conserve soil moisture – Control weeds – Increase / reduce soil temperature – Disease management • Organic Mulches – Leaves, straw, compost, wood chips, pine straw • Plastic Mulches – Colored mulches – Reflective mulches Mulches
  12. 12. Season Extension • The harvest season can be extended using multiple strategies. – Crop and cultivar selection – Successive plantings – Garden site selection – Raised beds – Mulches – Row covers – Low tunnels – High tunnels – Shade The Benefit of Microclimate Modification
  13. 13. • Floating row covers are spun-bonded polyester that protects fragile crops from frost / freezing. • Various thicknesses • Does not get too hot • Protects from insects • Use wire hoops to support • Can be used in combination with high / low tunnels Floating Row Covers Row Covers
  14. 14. Summer/Fall Cool-season Production • 30-55% shade • Sprinkler irrigation Shade Cloth
  15. 15. • Designed for organic insect management • Reflect heat/sun • Multiple applications – Wash from rains Kaolin Clay Product Shading Compounds
  16. 16. Monitoring Soil Moisture Get to know your soil • Check OFTEN • Tools – Tensiometer – Electronic (resistance) • “The old fashioned way” Soil Tensiometer
  17. 17. Benefits of Drip / Trickle Drip irrigation has numerous benefits • Disease Management – Reduced leaf wetness – Weed Management – Precision • HIGHLY EFFICIENT – Low volume of water • Fertigation – Soluble organic fertilizers – Potassium, magnesium, etc. • Inexpensive • Plasticulture / Tunnels Mazzei Injector (Venturi-type)
  18. 18. Drip Irrigation Water distribution is dependent on soil type Sand Loam Clay
  19. 19. Types of Drip Systems • Inexpensive • Long rows • Variable emitter spacing • 6-20 Psi (12-15 std.) Low-pressure drip systems (drip tape)
  20. 20. Thickness: Dependent on pressure of system Emitter Spacing Flow Rate
  21. 21. The Drip System
  22. 22. Types of Drip Systems • Much more expensive • Shorter rows • Long life of materials – Lower maintenance • No pressure regulator • Can be purchased at hardware stores High pressure systems “drip tube”
  23. 23. Excellent for perennial crops…
  24. 24. Types of Drip Systems Soaker hoses are NOT the same as drip/trickle
  25. 25. Building the Drip System
  26. 26. Sources of Irrigation Water • Surface Water – Creeks, streams – Rivers – Ponds • Below-ground – Wells • Treated water – City – Rural water districts. Advantages vs. Disadvantages
  27. 27. Water filtration Above-ground water sources • Screen Filters • Plastic Disk Filters • Sand Filters – Swimming pool – Stainless steel – Ceramic
  28. 28. The Drip System • Used to distribute the water to the individual drip tapes – PVC – Orchard pipe – Lay-flat Design your “header” pipe
  29. 29. Watch out for leaks and kinks
  30. 30. Irrigation Efficiency Tips to save water in the garden • Use drip irrigation • Maintain healthy soil • Use mulches • Right plant, right place • Be realistic in your expectations – Crop selection – Planting dates, etc.
  31. 31. QUESTIONS ??

×