Russia Vocabulary Siberia– area of land located between the Ural Mountains and the Pacific Ocean Taiga—Vast forest of evergreen trees Steppe– vast, grassy plains in southern Russia Cyrillic Alphabet—Russian alphabet used today; it is a form of the Greek alphabet
Russia Vocabulary Mongols (Tartars)—a group of people who invaded Russia in the 13th century. (They conquered the city of Kiev) The Mongols allowed Russian princes to rule over local states. Muscovy became the strongest state. In this region Moscow was the main city. Czar—means emperor. It is Russian for ―Caesar.‖
Russia Vocabulary Bolsheviks—group of radical Russian Communists which took control of Russia’s government in the Russian Revolution. They formed a new country called the USSR. Their first leader was Vladimir Lenin. Russian Revolution—a revolt led by the Bolsheviks under Lenin in November 1917 that led to a period of civil war which ended in victory for the Bolsheviks in 1922
Russia Revolution Gulags—harsh Soviet labor camps often located in Siberia. Under Stalin’s rule, many people were sent there because they spoke out against the government. Red Square-- is a city square in Moscow. The square separates the Kremlin from the historic merchant quarter.
Russia Vocabulary St. Basil’s Cathedral-- famous Russian landmark was built during the reign of Ivan IV. It was built in honor of Russian military victories.
Russia Vocabulary Dachas— Russian country houses Trans-Siberian Railroad—rail line that runs from Moscow to Vladivostok on the east coast. It is the longest single rail line in the world.
Russian Vocabulary Kremlin-- The Kremlin, is a historic fortified complex in Moscow, overlooking Saint Basils Cathedral and the Red Square. It is home to four palaces, four cathedrals and the enclosing Kremlin Wall. The complex serves as the official residence of the President of Russia.
Russia Vocabulary Vladivostok--Russias largest port city on the Pacific Ocean Sturgeon--large primitive fishes valued for their flesh and roe Caviar- Sturgeon eggs which have been preserved in salt
Russia Vocabulary Ivan IV—Czar of Russia in the 1500s known as Ivan the Terrible. He used secret police to control his people. He blinded the artists of St. Basil’s Cathedral so that they could never again produce something so beautiful Peter the Great—(Peter I) Czar who modernize and expanded Russia. He moved the capital of Russia to St. Petersburg.
Russian Vocabulary Catherine the Great—(Catherine II) ruler who modernize and expanded Russia
Geography of Russia All land east of the Ural Mountains is considered to be part of Siberia. The northern part of Siberia has winters that are long, dark, and fiercely cold. During the short summers, only the top few inches of the soil thaws out.
The best farmland in Russia is located in the steppe which is in the Southern part of Russia.
Early Russia In the 800s, Slavs built a civilization in a city called Kiev. In the 1200s (13th century), the Mongols invaded Russia and ruined the wealth and the power that Slavs had in Kiev.
Early Russia Meanwhile, Moscow, a town to the north became the center of a new Slavic territory called Muscovy In 1480, Ivan III, a prince of Muscovy, drove out the Mongols Muscovy developed into the country we know today as Russia.
Czars Russian rulers expanded their power, built up their armies, and seized land and other resources They called themselves czars, or emperors Ivan IV was known as ―Ivan the Terrible‖ because he used the secret police to tighten his iron grip on the people and control their lives. St. Basil’s Cathedral was built during Ivan IV’s reign
Catherine the Great and Peter the Great Peter I, or Peter the Great, moved the capital of Russia to St. Petersburg (named after himself) He had it designed like European cities with elegant palaces, public squares, and canals. Catherine II, or Catherine the Great, focused on improving education for the people of Russia. Both Peter the Great and Catherine the Great sought to modernize and expand Russia.
The French emperor, Napoleon, tried to invade Russia in 1812, but his army couldn’t survive in the harsh winters of Russia.
Railroads Because of Russia’s gigantic size and harsh climates make transportation difficult within the country Unlike the U.S., railroads are still an important means of getting around The Trans-Siberian Railroad runs from Moscow to Vladivostok and is the longest single rail line in the world.
Russian Revolution Unprepared for WWI, Russia suffered greatly. As food shortages caused starvation, discontent grew among the Russian people. There was widespread poverty, but a few people had all the wealth. As a result, there was a Russian Revolution. In 1917, Czar Nicholas II was overthrown, and the Bolsheviks, a Russian communist group, took power.
The Bolsheviks formed a new country, the USSR or Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) after the Russian Revolution Vladimir Lenin set up a communist government in Russia He moved the capital to Moscow, which is the current capital of Russia.
Communist Russia After Lenin, Joseph Stalin became the Soviet Union’s leader. Stalin set up five year plans to industrialize the country, and the government took complete control of the country Those who opposed Stalin’s actions were killed or sent to gulags (work camps) in Siberia
Cold War When WWII ended, Stalin wanted to protect the Soviet Union from any more invasions. He strengthened the military and built powerful nuclear weapons. The Soviet Union became a superpower as a result. The U.S. and Soviet Union competed for world (and outerspace) dominance in the Cold War.