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  • 1. Name ---Shravan.S.KengalClass --- 9thSubject --- Social ScienceRoll.no --- 36Topic ---Disaster Management
  • 2. Soil Management andSoil Management andConservationConservation
  • 3. Importance of SoilImportance of Soil As the key resource in cropAs the key resource in cropproductionproduction It supports the physical, chemical,It supports the physical, chemical,and biological processesand biological processes Regulates water flow such asRegulates water flow such as• InfiltrationInfiltration• Root-zone storageRoot-zone storage• Deep percolationDeep percolation• Run-offRun-off
  • 4. Importance of SoilImportance of Soil Acts as a buffer between inputs andActs as a buffer between inputs andenvironmentenvironment Functions as “degrader” orFunctions as “degrader” or“immobilizer” of agricultural“immobilizer” of agriculturalchemicals, wastes, or otherchemicals, wastes, or otherpollutantspollutants Soil also sequesters carbon from theSoil also sequesters carbon from theatmosphereatmosphere
  • 5. Important Soil attributesImportant Soil attributes TextureTexture StructureStructure Bulk density and rooting depthBulk density and rooting depth Permeability and water storage capacityPermeability and water storage capacity Carbon contentCarbon content Organic matter and biological activityOrganic matter and biological activity pHpH Electrical conductivityElectrical conductivity
  • 6. Three functions of soilThree functions of soil(from NRC)(from NRC)1.1. Provides the physical, chemical, andProvides the physical, chemical, andbiological processes for the growthbiological processes for the growthof plantsof plants2.2. To store, regulate, and partitionTo store, regulate, and partitionwater flow through the environmentwater flow through the environment3.3. To buffer environmental change byTo buffer environmental change bydecomposing organic wastes,decomposing organic wastes,nitrates, pesticides, and othernitrates, pesticides, and othersubstances that could becomesubstances that could becomepollutantspollutants
  • 7. Soil QualitySoil Quality Defined: The capacity of soil to function orDefined: The capacity of soil to function orthe fitness for usethe fitness for use Can be maintained through use ofCan be maintained through use ofappropriate crop production technologiesappropriate crop production technologiesand resource management systemsand resource management systems Two concepts of measuring soil qualityTwo concepts of measuring soil quality• More traditional: focuses on inherent soilMore traditional: focuses on inherent soilpropertiesproperties• More recent: focuses on dynamic properties ofMore recent: focuses on dynamic properties ofsoilsoil
  • 8. Land capability and suitabilityLand capability and suitability Two types of measurements:Two types of measurements:• Land Capability Classes (LCC’s)Land Capability Classes (LCC’s)• Prime farmland designationPrime farmland designation Used to measure land capabilities forUsed to measure land capabilities fora particular purpose:a particular purpose:• Growing crops and treesGrowing crops and trees• Grazing animalsGrazing animals• Nonagricultural usesNonagricultural uses
  • 9. Land Capability ClassesLand Capability Classes(LCC’s)(LCC’s) Range from I to VIII:Range from I to VIII:• Class I: no significant limitations forClass I: no significant limitations forraising crops; About 7% of US croplandraising crops; About 7% of US cropland• Classes II and III: have someClasses II and III: have somelimitations such as poor drainage,limitations such as poor drainage,limited root zones, climatic restrictions,limited root zones, climatic restrictions,or erosion potential; make up over ¾ ofor erosion potential; make up over ¾ ofUS croplandUS cropland
  • 10. Land Capability ClassesLand Capability Classes(LCC’s)(LCC’s)• Class IV: suitable only under selectedClass IV: suitable only under selectedcropping practicescropping practices• Classes V, VI, and VII: best suited forClasses V, VI, and VII: best suited forpasture and rangepasture and range• Class VIII: is only suited for wildlifeClass VIII: is only suited for wildlifehabitat, recreation, and other non-habitat, recreation, and other non-agricultural usesagricultural uses LCC’s I through III total 337 millionLCC’s I through III total 337 millionacres, or 82% of US croplandacres, or 82% of US croplandexcluding Alaskaexcluding Alaska
  • 11. Prime FarmlandPrime Farmland Based on physical and morphological soilBased on physical and morphological soilcharacteristics:characteristics:• Depth of water table to the root zoneDepth of water table to the root zone• Moisture-holding capacityMoisture-holding capacity• Degree of salinityDegree of salinity• PermeabilityPermeability• Frequency of floodingFrequency of flooding• Soil temperatureSoil temperature• ErodibilityErodibility• Soil aciditySoil acidity
  • 12. Prime FarmlandPrime Farmland Factors needed to sustain high yieldsFactors needed to sustain high yieldswhen treated and managedwhen treated and managed• Growing seasonGrowing season• Moisture supplyMoisture supply• Soil qualitySoil quality Totals 222 million acres, or 54% ofTotals 222 million acres, or 54% ofUS cropland excluding AlaskaUS cropland excluding Alaska
  • 13. ProductivityProductivity Measures output per unit inputMeasures output per unit input Often measured as crop yield perOften measured as crop yield peracreacre Can reflect soil degradation if yieldsCan reflect soil degradation if yieldsdecline as soils become degradeddecline as soils become degradedand more inputs are used toand more inputs are used tocompensate for decline in soil qualitycompensate for decline in soil quality
  • 14. ErodibilityErodibility Highly erodible lands (HEL) is a soilHighly erodible lands (HEL) is a soilquality measure that is important toquality measure that is important toUSDA conservation policyUSDA conservation policy USDA uses the erodibility index (EI)USDA uses the erodibility index (EI)to classify erosion potentialto classify erosion potential
  • 15. Erosion Productivity LossErosion Productivity Loss Measure of productivity loss thatMeasure of productivity loss thatconverts total erosion from tons perconverts total erosion from tons peracre per year to inches per yearacre per year to inches per year 3 factors reflected in this measure:3 factors reflected in this measure:• Erosion ratesErosion rates• Soil depthSoil depth• Rental values of landRental values of land
  • 16. Five major concentrations ofFive major concentrations ofvulnerable soilsvulnerable soils Largest: Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri in theLargest: Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri in thecorn beltcorn belt Second: eastern North Dakota andSecond: eastern North Dakota andwestern and south central Minnesotawestern and south central Minnesota Third: eastern bluffs of Mississippi River inThird: eastern bluffs of Mississippi River inwestern Kentucky, Tennessee, and alongwestern Kentucky, Tennessee, and alongeastern edge of Mississippi Deltaeastern edge of Mississippi Delta Fourth: eastern edge of ColoradoFourth: eastern edge of Colorado Fifth: band of land in eastern WashingtonFifth: band of land in eastern Washingtonand Oregon around Palouse and Centraland Oregon around Palouse and CentralPlateauPlateau
  • 17. Effects of erosionEffects of erosion Two types:Two types:• Onsite effectsOnsite effects• Offsite effectsOffsite effects Major onsite effect is impact on soilMajor onsite effect is impact on soilproductivityproductivity Offsite damages occur when:Offsite damages occur when:• Sediment enter the streams, rivers, lakes, andSediment enter the streams, rivers, lakes, andother water bodies and damages municipalother water bodies and damages municipalwater systemswater systems• Fills reservoirs and streams interfering withFills reservoirs and streams interfering withnavigation, and contributes to floodingnavigation, and contributes to flooding
  • 18. Inappropriate farming practicesInappropriate farming practices Lead to:Lead to:• Soil degradationSoil degradation• Soil erosionSoil erosion• Loss of organic matterLoss of organic matter• Soil compactionSoil compaction• AcidificationAcidification• Loss of nitrates, phosphates, and pesticidesLoss of nitrates, phosphates, and pesticides• Accumulation of salts and trace elementsAccumulation of salts and trace elements• Increased run-off of fertilizers and pesticides toIncreased run-off of fertilizers and pesticides towater systemswater systems
  • 19. Soil DegradationSoil Degradation 3 Processes3 Processes• PhysicalPhysical Wind erosionWind erosion Water erosionWater erosion CompactionCompaction• ChemicalChemical ToxificationToxification SalinizationSalinization AcidificationAcidification• BiologicalBiological Declines in organic matterDeclines in organic matter Declines in carbonDeclines in carbon Declines in the activity and diversity of soil faunaDeclines in the activity and diversity of soil fauna
  • 20. Rotational CroppingRotational Cropping Can play significant role inCan play significant role inconserving soil, maintaining soilconserving soil, maintaining soilfertility, controlling pests, and alsofertility, controlling pests, and alsohelps break up insect and diseasehelps break up insect and diseasecyclescycles
  • 21. Cover CropsCover Crops Cover crop of small grains, meadow,Cover crop of small grains, meadow,or hay planted in the fall afteror hay planted in the fall afterharvest of a row crop providesharvest of a row crop providesvegetative cover to reduce soil loss,vegetative cover to reduce soil loss,hold nutrients, add organic matter tohold nutrients, add organic matter tothe soil, and sequester carbonthe soil, and sequester carbon
  • 22. Crop Residue Management (CRM)Crop Residue Management (CRM) CRM leaves crop residues on soilCRM leaves crop residues on soilsurface through less intensive tillagesurface through less intensive tillagepractices.practices.• Usually cost effectiveUsually cost effective• Protects soil surfaceProtects soil surface• Leads to higher farm economic returnsLeads to higher farm economic returns
  • 23. Conservation buffers andConservation buffers andStructuresStructures Structures and buffers reduce waterStructures and buffers reduce watererosion caused by rainfallerosion caused by rainfall Very important component of farmVery important component of farmsoil management systemssoil management systems
  • 24. Pest ManagementPest ManagementPracticesPractices
  • 25. About pesticideAbout pesticide One of the first growing agriculturalOne of the first growing agriculturalproduction inputs since the postproduction inputs since the postWW2WW2 $8.8 billions spent in the U.S. in$8.8 billions spent in the U.S. in19971997 Herbicides, Insecticides, Fungicides,Herbicides, Insecticides, Fungicides,and Other pesticidesand Other pesticides Herbicides and insecticides accountHerbicides and insecticides accountfor mostfor most
  • 26. HerbicidesHerbicides Largest pesticide class (62% of totalLargest pesticide class (62% of totalquality of pesticide activequality of pesticide activeingredients)ingredients) Weeds compete with crops for water,Weeds compete with crops for water,nutrients, and sunlight, and causenutrients, and sunlight, and causereduced yields.reduced yields. Atrazine,2,4-D, dicamba, andAtrazine,2,4-D, dicamba, andtrifluralin are widely used for moretrifluralin are widely used for morethan 30 yearsthan 30 years
  • 27. InsecticidesInsecticides Account for 10 percent of the totalAccount for 10 percent of the totalquantity of pesticides applied in 1997quantity of pesticides applied in 1997 Damaging insect populations canDamaging insect populations canvary annually depending on weather,vary annually depending on weather,pest cycles, cultural practices such aspest cycles, cultural practices such asrotation and destruction of host croprotation and destruction of host cropresiduesresidues Preventive treatments andPreventive treatments andintervention treatmentsintervention treatments
  • 28. Insecticides, cont.Insecticides, cont. Corn and cotton account for theCorn and cotton account for thelargest shares of insecticide uselargest shares of insecticide use Chlorpyrifos and methyl parathionChlorpyrifos and methyl parathionare the two most widely usedare the two most widely usedinsecticidesinsecticides
  • 29. FungicidesFungicides Applied to fewer acres than areApplied to fewer acres than areherbicides and insecticides andherbicides and insecticides andaccount for the smallest shares ofaccount for the smallest shares oftotal pesticide usetotal pesticide use Mostly used on fruits and vegetablesMostly used on fruits and vegetablesto control diseasesto control diseases
  • 30. Other pesticidesOther pesticides Including soil fumigants, growthIncluding soil fumigants, growthregulators, desiccants, and harvestregulators, desiccants, and harvestaidsaids Use of these pesticides increasesUse of these pesticides increasesabout 8 percent each year sinceabout 8 percent each year since19901990 About one-fifth of the total pounds ofAbout one-fifth of the total pounds ofall active ingredients applied to theall active ingredients applied to thesurveyed cropssurveyed crops
  • 31. Pesticide Treatment TrendsPesticide Treatment Trends CornCorn• Corn is the largest crop in the U.S. inCorn is the largest crop in the U.S. interms of acreageterms of acreage• About 30% of the corn acreage in theAbout 30% of the corn acreage in the10 States received insecticides in 199710 States received insecticides in 1997• Corn rootworm was the most frequentlyCorn rootworm was the most frequentlytreated insecttreated insect
  • 32. Trends, cont.Trends, cont. SoybeansSoybeans• Herbicides account for virtually all theHerbicides account for virtually all thepesticides used on soybeanspesticides used on soybeans• The number of acres treated andThe number of acres treated andnumber of treatments per acre havenumber of treatments per acre haveincreased, partly due to the growth inincreased, partly due to the growth inno-till soybean systemsno-till soybean systems• 48% treated both before and after48% treated both before and afterplantingplanting
  • 33. Trends, cont.Trends, cont. WheatWheat• Wheat , which is one of the largest fieldWheat , which is one of the largest fieldcrops in the U.S. is the least pesticide-crops in the U.S. is the least pesticide-intensiveintensive• Account for 27% of the surveyed cropAccount for 27% of the surveyed cropacreage in 1997, though only 4% ofacreage in 1997, though only 4% oftotal pesticidestotal pesticides• Herbicide used 47%of the winter wheatHerbicide used 47%of the winter wheatand 82% of the spring and durumand 82% of the spring and durumsheatssheats
  • 34. Trends, contTrends, cont CottonCotton• One of the most pesticide-intensive fieldOne of the most pesticide-intensive fieldcrops in the U.S.crops in the U.S.• 96% of cotton acreage received96% of cotton acreage receivedherbicidesherbicides• 74% received insecticides and 68%74% received insecticides and 68%received other types of pesticidesreceived other types of pesticides• Much greater insect infestation onMuch greater insect infestation oncotton is due to its longer growingcotton is due to its longer growingseasonseason
  • 35. Trends, cont.Trends, cont. PotatoesPotatoes• Most pesticide-intensive crops for allMost pesticide-intensive crops for alltypes of pesticidestypes of pesticides Other Vegetable and FruitsOther Vegetable and Fruits• found it profitable to use insecticidesfound it profitable to use insecticidesand fungicides on a higher percentageand fungicides on a higher percentageof acreage than growers of most fieldof acreage than growers of most fieldcrops docrops do
  • 36. Pesticide ExpendituresPesticide Expenditures Annual pesticide expenditures for allAnnual pesticide expenditures for allfarm uses increased from $6.3billionfarm uses increased from $6.3billionto $8.8 billion over 1991-97 (40%to $8.8 billion over 1991-97 (40%increase)increase) Pesticide costs per acre increased forPesticide costs per acre increased for Corn 20%Corn 20% Cotton 19%Cotton 19% Soybeans 25%Soybeans 25% Wheat 10%Wheat 10%
  • 37. Pesticide ResistancePesticide Resistance Most likely to develop when a pesticideMost likely to develop when a pesticidewith a single mode of action is used overwith a single mode of action is used overand over in the absence of any otherand over in the absence of any othermanagement measures to control amanagement measures to control aspecific pestspecific pest Herbicide-resistant weedsHerbicide-resistant weeds Scouting to determine economicScouting to determine economicthresholds for treatments, alternating thethresholds for treatments, alternating theuse of pesticide families, and several otheruse of pesticide families, and several othermanagement strategies to combatmanagement strategies to combatresistance are in useresistance are in use
  • 38. Biological Pest ManagementBiological Pest ManagementPracticesPractices Include the use of pheromones, plantInclude the use of pheromones, plantregulators, and microbial organismsregulators, and microbial organisms Biorational pesticides- microbialBiorational pesticides- microbialpesticides and pheromonespesticides and pheromones biologicals are unlikely to replacebiologicals are unlikely to replacepesticides in the foreseeable future,pesticides in the foreseeable future,due to the small marketdue to the small market Beneficial organismsBeneficial organisms
  • 39. Cultural Pest Management PracticeCultural Pest Management Practice Number of production techniquesNumber of production techniquesand practices, including cropand practices, including croprotation, tillage, trap crops, androtation, tillage, trap crops, andirrigation scheduling, and such andirrigation scheduling, and such andsuchsuch Controls work by preventing pestControls work by preventing pestcolonization of the crop, reducingcolonization of the crop, reducingpest populations, reducing croppest populations, reducing cropinjury, and increasing the number ofinjury, and increasing the number ofnatural enemies in the croppingnatural enemies in the croppingsystemsystem
  • 40. Cultural Pest ManagementCultural Pest ManagementPractice, cont.Practice, cont. Crop rotationCrop rotation• One of the most important culturalOne of the most important culturaltechniquestechniques• 82% of the U.S. corn acreage82% of the U.S. corn acreage• 89% of soybeans89% of soybeans Cultivation for weed controlCultivation for weed control Field sanitation and waterField sanitation and watermanagementmanagement
  • 41. Decision Criteria and InformationDecision Criteria and Information Scouting and Economic thresholdsScouting and Economic thresholds• To monitor the populations of majorTo monitor the populations of majorinsect and other arthropod pests forinsect and other arthropod pests forseveral decadesseveral decades• Scouting on 70-90% of grape, orange,Scouting on 70-90% of grape, orange,apple acreage, and thresholds used on aapple acreage, and thresholds used on asignificant proportion of that acreagesignificant proportion of that acreage
  • 42. Decision Criteria and Information,Decision Criteria and Information,cont.cont. Sources of pest managementSources of pest managementinformationinformation• Farm supply/chemical dealersFarm supply/chemical dealers• consultants’/pest control advisorsconsultants’/pest control advisors• Professional scouting servicesProfessional scouting services• Extension advisorsExtension advisors
  • 43. Decision Criteria and Information,Decision Criteria and Information,cont.cont. Expert systemExpert system• Integrate information on pest density,Integrate information on pest density,economic thresholds, applicationeconomic thresholds, applicationmethods, and other elements of pestmethods, and other elements of pestmanagement into a computer softwaremanagement into a computer softwarepackagepackage Precision FarmingPrecision Farming• Emerging technology that may allow aEmerging technology that may allow amore efficient application of inputs bymore efficient application of inputs byusing yield monitors, satellite images,using yield monitors, satellite images,etc.etc.
  • 44. Factors Affecting PestFactors Affecting PestManagement DecisionsManagement Decisions Factors should be influenced by pestFactors should be influenced by pestinfestations, yield and quality lossesinfestations, yield and quality lossescaused by those infestations, as wellcaused by those infestations, as wellas by crop prices and the costs ofas by crop prices and the costs ofpesticides and alternative controlpesticides and alternative controlmethodsmethods• Changes in planted acresChanges in planted acres• Weather and other environmentalWeather and other environmentalconditionsconditions
  • 45. Factors Affecting PestFactors Affecting PestManagement Decisions, cont.Management Decisions, cont. Pesticide pricesPesticide prices• Increased 17% over 1991-96Increased 17% over 1991-96• Herbicides 17% increaseHerbicides 17% increase• Fungicide almost 14% increaseFungicide almost 14% increase• Insecticide about 24% increaseInsecticide about 24% increase
  • 46. Pesticide Regulatory IssuesPesticide Regulatory Issues EPA regulates pesticides under theEPA regulates pesticides under theFederal Insecticide Fungicide andFederal Insecticide Fungicide andRodenticide Act (FIFRA)Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) Pesticide residues in food under thePesticide residues in food under theFederal Food, Drug, and CosmeticFederal Food, Drug, and CosmeticAct (FFDCA)Act (FFDCA) The Clean Air Act, Clean Water ActThe Clean Air Act, Clean Water Actalso contain provisions that affectalso contain provisions that affectpesticide manufacturerspesticide manufacturers
  • 47. Pesticide Regulatory Issues, cont.Pesticide Regulatory Issues, cont. Important regulatory actionsImportant regulatory actions• Ex.) Stop selling products containingEx.) Stop selling products containingcyanazine by 1999cyanazine by 1999 Pesticide registration costsPesticide registration costs• The research and development of a newThe research and development of a newpesticide averages 11years and costpesticide averages 11years and costmanufacturers $50-$70 millionmanufacturers $50-$70 million Regulatory streaming for reduced-Regulatory streaming for reduced-risk pesticidesrisk pesticides
  • 48. Pesticide Regulatory Issues, cont.Pesticide Regulatory Issues, cont. New pest control products and technologyNew pest control products and technology• The EPA registers new pesticides every yearThe EPA registers new pesticides every year• Between 22 and 31 new pesticides per yearBetween 22 and 31 new pesticides per yearfrom 1994 to 1998 are registeredfrom 1994 to 1998 are registered Genetically Engineered plantsGenetically Engineered plants• Seed and chemical companies have expandedSeed and chemical companies have expandedresearch on plant biotechnology because of theresearch on plant biotechnology because of theincreasing costs to develop chemical pesticidesincreasing costs to develop chemical pesticides
  • 49. Pesticide Regulatory Issues, cont.Pesticide Regulatory Issues, cont. Genetically engineered plantsGenetically engineered plants• Reduces the time required to identifyReduces the time required to identifydesirable traitsdesirable traits• Allows a precise alteration of a plant’sAllows a precise alteration of a plant’straitstraits• Development of genetically modifiedDevelopment of genetically modifiedplants takes about 6 years and costplants takes about 6 years and costabout $10 millionabout $10 million• U.S. consumer acceptanceU.S. consumer acceptance
  • 50. Alternative Pest ManagementAlternative Pest ManagementPrograms and InitiativesPrograms and Initiatives Integrated pest management (IPM)Integrated pest management (IPM)programs research and promote aprograms research and promote acombination of cultural, biologicalcombination of cultural, biologicaland pesticide efficiency toolsand pesticide efficiency tools Areawide pest management systemsAreawide pest management systemsimplements IPM and biologicalimplements IPM and biologicalapproaches on an areawide basisapproaches on an areawide basis
  • 51. Alternative Pest ManagementAlternative Pest ManagementPrograms and Initiatives, cont.Programs and Initiatives, cont. Biologically based pest managementBiologically based pest management• Intended to complement IPM programsIntended to complement IPM programs USDA incentive paymentsUSDA incentive payments• Environmental Quality IncentivesEnvironmental Quality IncentivesProgram (EQIP) provides assistance toProgram (EQIP) provides assistance toeligible farmers and ranchers to addresseligible farmers and ranchers to addressnatural resource concerns on their landsnatural resource concerns on their landsin an environmentally beneficial andin an environmentally beneficial andcost-effective mannercost-effective manner
  • 52. Alternative Pest ManagementAlternative Pest ManagementPrograms and Initiatives, cont.Programs and Initiatives, cont. Voluntary environmental standardsVoluntary environmental standards• Initiated by the private sectorInitiated by the private sector• Enforced by firms themselvesEnforced by firms themselves• Use sanctions such as peer pressure forUse sanctions such as peer pressure forcompliancecompliance• Focus on life-cycle impactsFocus on life-cycle impacts• Emphasize management systemsEmphasize management systems
  • 53. Nutrient Use andNutrient Use andManagementManagement
  • 54. Role of Plant NutrientsRole of Plant Nutrients Major nutrients:Major nutrients:• Nitrogen (N)Nitrogen (N)• Phosphorus (P)Phosphorus (P)• Potassium (K)Potassium (K) Other required nutrients:Other required nutrients:• MagnesiumMagnesium• CalciumCalcium• SulphurSulphur
  • 55. Role of Plant NutrientsRole of Plant Nutrients If no nutrients applied, crops wouldIf no nutrients applied, crops woulddeplete the soil’s store of nutrientsdeplete the soil’s store of nutrientsand yields would declineand yields would decline
  • 56. Why manage nutrients?Why manage nutrients? According to the EPA, nutrientAccording to the EPA, nutrientpollution is leading cause of waterpollution is leading cause of waterquality impairment in lakes andquality impairment in lakes andestuaries and third leading cause inestuaries and third leading cause inrivers.rivers. This usually occurs because ofThis usually occurs because ofleaching and run-off.leaching and run-off.
  • 57. Nutrient SourcesNutrient Sources Commercial fertilizerCommercial fertilizer• Anhydrous ammonia is source of nearlyAnhydrous ammonia is source of nearlyall nitrogen fertilizerall nitrogen fertilizer• Phosphate fertilizer produced by treatingPhosphate fertilizer produced by treatingphosphate rockphosphate rock• Potash is used for potassium. CanadaPotash is used for potassium. Canadasupplies US with 95% of their potashsupplies US with 95% of their potash
  • 58. Animal manureAnimal manure Transportation costs limits usingTransportation costs limits usinganimal waste as fertilizeranimal waste as fertilizer Among major field crops share ofAmong major field crops share ofacres treated with manure:acres treated with manure:• Corn: 15%Corn: 15%• Soybeans: 10%Soybeans: 10%• Wheat: < 3%Wheat: < 3%
  • 59. Municipal and Industrial WastesMunicipal and Industrial Wastes Municipal Solid Waste (MSW):Municipal Solid Waste (MSW):• Paper and paperboardPaper and paperboard• GlassGlass• MetalsMetals• PlasticsPlastics• RubberRubber• LeatherLeather• TextileTextile• WoodWood• Food wastesFood wastes• Yard trimmingsYard trimmings• And othersAnd others
  • 60. Municipal and Industrial WastesMunicipal and Industrial Wastes Three major methods for MSWThree major methods for MSWdisposaldisposal• Land filling (61%)Land filling (61%)• Recoveries for recycle (17%)Recoveries for recycle (17%)• Incineration (12%)Incineration (12%)
  • 61. Commercial fertilizer useCommercial fertilizer use Was 7.5 million nutrient tons in 1960Was 7.5 million nutrient tons in 1960 Rose to 23.7 million nutrient tons inRose to 23.7 million nutrient tons in19811981 Dropped to 21.3 million nutrient tonsDropped to 21.3 million nutrient tonsin 1995in 1995 Rose again to 22 million nutrientRose again to 22 million nutrienttons in 1999tons in 1999
  • 62. Factors Affecting Fertilizer useFactors Affecting Fertilizer use Principal factors:Principal factors:• Level and mix of planted croplandLevel and mix of planted cropland• Fertilizer pricesFertilizer prices• Commodity prices and programsCommodity prices and programs Other factorsOther factors• Soil characteristicsSoil characteristics• Climate and weatherClimate and weather• Crop rotationsCrop rotations• Application technologyApplication technology• Nutrient management practicesNutrient management practices
  • 63. Nutrient BalanceNutrient Balance Nutrient mass calculates the residualNutrient mass calculates the residualnitrogen or phosphorus that may remainnitrogen or phosphorus that may remainin the soil or be lost to the environmentin the soil or be lost to the environment Categorized as:Categorized as:• High: nutrient input exceeded output inHigh: nutrient input exceeded output inharvested crop by more than 25%harvested crop by more than 25%• Moderate: nutrient input exceeded output byModerate: nutrient input exceeded output byless than 25%less than 25%• Negative: total nutrient input was less than theNegative: total nutrient input was less than theoutputoutput
  • 64. Nutrient management practicesNutrient management practices Effective management can helpEffective management can helpreduce nutrient losses to thereduce nutrient losses to theenvironment while sustaining long-environment while sustaining long-term productivity and profitabilityterm productivity and profitability Includes:Includes:• Assessing nutrient needsAssessing nutrient needs• Timing nutrient applicationTiming nutrient application• Placing nutrients close to crop rootsPlacing nutrients close to crop roots
  • 65. Assessing nutrient needsAssessing nutrient needs Improved management requiresImproved management requiresmore information about the nutrientsmore information about the nutrientsand the use of balances to betterand the use of balances to betterassess needsassess needs
  • 66. Timing nutrient applicationTiming nutrient application Timing applications leaves lessTiming applications leaves lessnutrients available for loss and cannutrients available for loss and canreduce total amount appliedreduce total amount applied Times vary by crop, texture of soil,Times vary by crop, texture of soil,climate, and stability of the fertilizerclimate, and stability of the fertilizer
  • 67. Irrigation managementIrrigation management Irrigation management is importantIrrigation management is importantbecause:because:• Too much water promotes leaching,Too much water promotes leaching,affects nutrient concentration, andaffects nutrient concentration, andaffects the rate of nutrient movementaffects the rate of nutrient movement• Too little water can stunt plant growth,Too little water can stunt plant growth,and reduce crop yield.and reduce crop yield.
  • 68. Improving nutrient managementImproving nutrient management Societies through government can:Societies through government can:• Adjust the anticipated costs or benefitsAdjust the anticipated costs or benefitsof production practicesof production practices• Regulate certain production practicesRegulate certain production practices• Establish markets for animal wastesEstablish markets for animal wastes• Research develop and demonstrateResearch develop and demonstrateproduction practices lessproduction practices lessenvironmentally damagingenvironmentally damaging