Catalytic TunnelCost Beneﬁt Analysis for Applying Photocatalytic Technology in the Maastunnel RotterdamDr. Christoph Maria Ravesloot M.STS MSc. ENG
Most dirty spot in Rotterdam ¯One problem: Maastunnel Legenda NO2 [µg/m3] <38 38-40 40-42 >42 De getoonde punten zijn op basis van de Monitoringstool. In het monitoringsrapport is een nadere analyse gemaakt en is voor een aantal punten geconstateerd dat deze ten onrechte zijn weergegeven NO2 concentraties NSL-wegen 2015 (detail) Expertisecentrum Postbus 843 3100 AV Schiedam Tel. 010-2468000 www.dcmr.nl Projectnaam: Opdrachtgever: Model: Schaal: Topografie: Status: Disclaimer: NSL Rijnmond Stadsregio Rotterdam Monitoringstool versie oktober 2010 1:40000 Formaat: A3L (c) Provincie Zuid-Holland INDICATIEVE WEERGAVE Datum: 05-10-2010 Kaartnr.: Er kunnen geen rechten ontleend worden aan getoond kaartmateriaal. Disclaimer is als bijlage bijgevoegd. EL-010-106-1/3C Bijlage: 3C > 40-80 NO2 (µg/m3) > 40-60 PM10 (µg/m3)
Careful with human health Reference and norm values PM2.5 < 25 µg/m3 ( 1 January 2015) PM10 < 40 µg/m3 NOx < 40 µg/m3
Two ingredientsPaint with active nano particles Titan-dioxidepowerLED lighting with UV light spectrum
UV spectrum of powerLED UV 300 - 400 nm IR > 780 nm
Two applications 2 Tunnel ventilation 1 Tunnel tubes
Laboratory threshold testProof of principle is positiveCatalytic nanoTiO2 paint is working optimally at 1 W/m 2PowerLED generates a UV spectrum from 300 nm to 400 nm
Publication of principle Transport Research Arena Europe 2010, BrusselsTRA 2010 Catalytic Tunneling Design-study Maastunnel renovation with catalytic paint and corresponding PowerLED lighting, City of Rotterdam The Netherlands Design-study Maastunnel renovation with Christoph Maria Ravesloot Dr., MSc. STS, MSc. OTS City of Rotterdam Public Works, Rotterdam University of Applied Science catalytic paint and corresponding PO Box 6633, NL-3002 AP Rotterdam CM.Ravesloot@gw.rotterdam.nl Robert McIntyre Dr., Cristal Global PowerLED lighting Rotterdam The Julie Maltby Cristal Global Abstract Netherlands (Ravesloot C.M., McIntyre R., In inner city areas al around the world there is a struggle for clean air. Especially PM 10, PM 2,5 and smaller and NOx are hard to fight. In the open air the effectiveness of many technical solutions are reduced by influence of wind. Concentrations of CO2, NOx, PM10 and PM2,5 are swiftly diffused in the air. Maltby J., in: Conference readings: However, in tunnels the concentration stays relatively high because there is no escape other than the tunnel entrance and exit. Catalytic paint can chemically transform NOx and certain particles from PM10, PM 2,5 and smaller into Nitrogen, CO2 and water. Laboratory tests and practical tests show positive results. The specific paint used in these examples can already function well with low power of light of 1 W/m2 in the frequency spectrum of 300 to 400 nm. Transport Research Arena Europe 2010 In a design-study it is elaborated that catalytic paint and special tuned powerLED lighting could benefit from these high concentrations of pollution. During the summer of 2011 and 2012 the two tubes of the Maastunnel, connecting the northern and southern part of Rotterdam, will be closed for some weeks for a major overhaul. During these periods there is a possibility to exchange the lighting in the tunnel by powerLED lighting. This will reduce maintenance costs. The concrete sideways and ceiling will be painted as well. The existing ventilation shafts can be Brussels) painted as well. When lighted with special UV powerLED exhausted air can be clean during transport outside the tunnel. This project could be a perfect show case for a tunnel that is actually cleaning the air of the cars that drive through. The paper shows the most results of a design study. The most technical feasible solutions in line with the process of design, bid and build are described. The remarkable conclusion is that the use of powerLED and catalytic paint is already economical feasible without the cleaning effect. The powerLED reduce energy costs and the catalytic paint is self cleaning, which reduces cleaning costs of cleaning and sideways. The UV lighting with painting of the ventilations shafts are interesting added value. Clean Air comes as a bonus.
Cost-Beneﬁt AnalysisMunicipality of Rotterdam - negative in budgetRotterdam Air Quality ProgramBoundary object Maastunnel system City of RotterdamCalculation do not take in account effects like jet stream, thermal inﬂuence,moving trafﬁc, hourly based calculations + positive in budget
Four Casesventilation CBA Maastunnel system SCBA City of Rotterdam tubes investment - paint and painting Clean end-of-pipe - UV powerLED maintenance + cheaper than elsewhere - extra cleaning bill in the City of Rotterdam - light energy cost bill - fans energy cost bill investment cleaning where the - paint concentration is highest - powerLED + speaker system necessary because of strong + adjustable lighting European norms maintenance tunnel - less cleaning tubes - less light maitenance cleaner air, cheaper maintenance for reasonable prize
Design-research MaastunnelChange of interior in a historical monument
Design-research MaastunnelChange of interior in a historical monument
Three advantages -ventilation CBA Maastunnel system SCBA City of Rotterdam + + tubes investment - paint and painting Clean end-of-pipe - UV powerLED maintenance + cheaper than elsewhere - extra cleaning bill in the City of Rotterdam - light energy cost bill - fans energy cost bill investment cleaning where the - paint concentration is highest - powerLED + speaker system necessary because of strong + adjustable lighting European norms maintenance tunnel - less cleaning tubes + + - less light maitenance cleaner air, cheaper maintenance for reasonable prize
Tube lights investment costs -Exchange same old fashioned type € 1.217.460 € 512.200 -Exchange conventional retroﬁt type € 705.260 € 7.000 -Exchange energy saving same type € 712.260 € 240.840 -Exchange power LED + UV type € 953.100 +€ 59.888 - labour for wiring€ 56.736 - ﬁxation of connectors
Tube lights energy costs - 50 years 1 yearExchange same old fashioned type € 1.979.010 € 7.600 -Exchange conventional retroﬁt type € 1.594.202 € 3.300 +Exchange energy saving same type € 1.759.210 € 11.550 +Exchange power LED + UV type € 1.181.906 +Reference 2010: 359.820 kWh/a costing € 17.550
Tube walls ceiling cleaning costs 1 year Cleaning old reference € 126.000 - Cleaning new painted situation € 45.000 - Total difference positive on budget € 81.000 +
Tube maintenance costs lights 50 years 1 yearExchange old fashioned reference € 3.813.920 € 76.278Exchange conventional same type € 1.136.930 € 22.738Exchange energy saving same type € 1.620.021 € 32.400Exchange power LED + UV type € 198.900 € 3.972 +
Ventilation system cleaning - 50 years 1 year Cleaning robot € 300.000 - Cleaning cycle eight weeks € 110.000 € 2.200 -
Summing up CBA tunnelCatalytic Tunnel Tubes investment at 20 % NOx efﬁciencyinvestment of € 14.500.000 gives proﬁtable beneﬁts withinboundary system in 50 years + € 11.500 proﬁt from energy saving per year + € 81.000 proﬁt from cleaning per year + € 3.900 proﬁt less maintenance of LED per year + € 96.400 total positive on budget
Summing up CBA ventilationCatalytic Ventilation Tubes investment at 40 % NOx efﬁciency investment of € 440.000 gives no proﬁtable beneﬁts within boundary system of the tunnel proﬁt most be made on boundary object of the City of Rotterdam, because on no other location NOx can be captured this cheap?
Social Cost BeneﬁtsCan the city of Rotterdam clean NOx from air in any otherway cheaper than in the catalytic Maastunnel?Can the city of Rotterdam clean NOx from air anywhere elsein the city cheaper than in the catalytic Maastunnel?
How much will be captured? NOx x 1000 kg/m3 yearTunnel Tube 20 % effect 150Ventilation Tube 40 % effect 225Combined Tunnel + Ventilation effect 50 % 375Reference Tunnel + Ventilation effect 100 % 750
How much will be payed? ? € 14.500.000 + € 440.000 = € 14.940.000 for 612.500 citizens = appr. € 25 / citizen to save some dozens of early deaths in Rotterdam in 50 years to save € 100.000 on maintenance cost of the Maasttunnel each year for the next 50 years
References2010 Ravesloot C.M., McIntyre R., Maltby J., Catalytic Tunneling, Design-study Maastunnel renovation with catalytic paint and correspondingPowerLED lighting, City of Rotterdam The Netherlands in: Conferencereadings: Transport Research Arena Europe 2010, Brussels;2011 Ravesloot C.M., Rooijen van R., Dijk L., Catalytic Tunneling,Feasibility-study Maastunnel renovation with catalytic paint andcorresponding PowerLED lighting, City of Rotterdam; forthcoming