Nature and societySchool of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT First Nature Second Nature Third nature "We sow corn, we plant trees, wefertilize the soil by irrigation, we dam therivers and direct them where we want. In short, by means of our hands we try to create as it were a second nature within the natural world.“ Cicero 45BC…gardens make a “third nature, which I would not know how to name.” Bonfadio (1541) Frontispiece to lAbbé de Vallemonts Curiositez de la nature et de lart (1705)
School of Geography FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTAfter: Carver (2012) (Re)creating Wilderness: Rewilding and habitat restoration. In Howard, Thompson & Waterton (eds) TheRoutledge Companion to Landscape Studies
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT “The first rule of intelligent tinkering is to keep all the parts.” Aldo Leopold (1949)
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT Tier 1 (strongest protection for wildlife): Sites of Special Scientific Interest, Special Areas of Conservation, Special Protection Areas, Ramsar sites, national and local nature reserves, etc Tier 2: local wildlife sites and ancient woodland Tier 3 (weakest protection for wildlife): national parks and areas of outstanding natural beauty
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENThttp://www.esri.com/mapmuseum/mapbook_gallery/volume26/conservation/conservation-2.html
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTRe-wilding• Emerging wild land policy in the UK • background of historical, environmental, social, political and economic drivers• Benchmark projects • The Carrifran Wildwood Project • Wild Ennerdale • Wicken Fen• Multiple benefits and environmental http://www.wildland- resilience network.org/projects/wn_rewild_ database.htm
School of Geography FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTWork by Claire MacAlister-Hall, BSc 2011-12
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT• Multiple viewpoints as to what is ‘wild’ or ‘natural’• History of attrition of wild spaces • from prehistory to present • recent revival in interest in ‘wild nature’• Emerging policy • Scotland (SNH, NTS, JMT) • England (Natural England, Wildlife Trusts) • Wales (Coed Eryri, CCW)• Opportunities for (re)wilding • economic climate • policy climate • public interest
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT Two basic approaches: • "letting go“ • if a landscape is left unmanaged for a long enough period, nature will take over and produce its own entirely natural landscape • may not necessarily be the same landscape that existed before human settlement, but it will be natural • "wild by design“ • we may need to actively design wild landscapes by assisting the regeneration of native species to recreate a more natural looking landscape • limited economic activity in the form of low intensity grazing and recreation is still possible and indeed desirable After Council for National Parks (1998) Wild by Design
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT • Developing new wild lands where opportunities arise • Edwards Review (1991) • CNP “Wild By Design” (1998) • Natural England’s “Vital Uplands” (2009) • Lawton Report (2010) and DEFRA White Paper (2011) • Aspects of re-wilding • promotion of wilderness qualities • enhancing and recreating semi-natural habitats • promotion of ecological process in near-natural areas • securing ecosystem services
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT Edwards Review (1991) “a number of experimental schemes on a limited scale should be set up in National Parks where farming is withdrawn entirely and the natural succession of vegetation is allowed to take its course” (Recommendation 6.3, Edwards, 1991)
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT After Council for National Parks (1998) Wild by Design
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTEnvironmental resilience• How does (re)wilding fit with this approach/view?• Drivers for change • social, environmental, economic, political• Factors influencing environmental degradation and landscape response • robust nature vs delicate balance • landscape and public perceptions
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTEnvironmental drivers• Climate change and ecological response • shifting patterns of migration and range • N-S movements and altitudinal shifts • different responses by different species• Changing geographies of nature• Humanistic barriers to adaptability • lack of space/continuity between wild areas • pollution (critical loads) and environmental stress
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTPolicy drivers• CAP reform and changes in agricultural subsidies • over-production/over-grazing • environmental stewardship • agri-environment schemes (fitting in)• EU Directives • Habitats Directive and Natura 2000 • Water Framework Directive • Biodiversity Action Plans (BAPs) • Management for “Favourable status”
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTEconomic drivers• CAP reform and the single farm payment• agricultural ‘disasters’ • FMD • BSE• falling prices and the power of the big supermarkets• increasing proportion of rural economy based on tourism
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTSocial drivers• rise in outdoor recreation and leisure time• greater mobility and disposable income• rural migration: • in migration of retirees and commuters • out migration of farm workers, etc.
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTRe-introductions of native species• Nature management in UK? • maintaining habitats and species • remnants of former farming/forestry systems • management using past practice • i.e. “nature gardening”• Alternative systems? • holistic and ecosystems-based approaches • less human intervention... i.e. “letting go” • emphasis on role of large herbivores and predators?
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTHerbivores we have lost… Three Extinct! Back! Back! One herd
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT• Management with introduced grazers?
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTEurasian lynx European brown bearGrey wolf What about the carnivores? The BIG three
School of GeographyFACULTY OF ENVIRONMENTThe next steps?• “Wild by Design” highlights the challenge… “the commitment to leave minimal intervention areas on a much larger scale (landscapes of thousands of hectares) and over much longer periods (hundreds of years)” (CNP, 1998)• integrating re-wilding with farming... “Wilderness and Plenty” Fraser Darling• packaging and marketing • selling idea to the public and politicians… and more importantly (perhaps) local land owners and farmers• developing a workable and realistic strategy• Education!