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Overview of various Renewable Energy Technologies

Overview of various Renewable Energy Technologies

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    Re Technologies Re Technologies Presentation Transcript

    • PRESENTATION ONRENEWABLE ENERGYRESOURCES & TECHNOLOGIESRamesh ChivukulaGeneral Manager Engineering &TenderingCHENNAI, 06.09.2010
    • RENEWABLE ENERGY Most Renewable Energy sources comes either directly or indirectly from Solar Energy. Constantly replenished & will never run out. Energy of the futureRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.3 3
    • RENEWABLE ENERGY TYPES Sunlight Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + H2O + Sunlight = C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 Biomass Biomass - Organic Matter from PhotosynthesisRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.4 4
    • RENEWABLE ENERGY TYPES Solar Energy Wind Energy Energy of the futureRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.5 5
    • RENEWABLE ENERGY TYPES Hydro Energy Geo-Thermal Energy of the futureRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.6 6
    • RENEWABLE ENERGY TYPES Tidal Energy Ocean Energy In - Direct Energy from SunRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.7 7
    • Biomass TechnologiesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.8
    • WHAT IS BIOMASS Biomass is all plant and animal matter on the Earth’s surface. Harvesting biomass such as crops, trees or dung and using it to generate energy that is either heat, electricity or motion, is Biomass Energy or in short Bioenergy. The British Biogen DefinitionRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.9 9
    • WHAT IS BIOMASS Biomass: As defined by the Energy Security Act (PL 96- 294) of 1980, "any organic matter which is available on a renewable basis, including agricultural crops and agricultural wastes and residues, wood and wood wastes and residues, animal wastes, municipal wastes, and aquatic plants." Biomass Energy: Energy produced by the conversion of biomass directly to heat or to a liquid or gas that can be converted to energy.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.10
    • BIOMASS ENERGY CYCLE • When Biomass is burnt , the carbon (found in the gases as CO2) is recycled back into the next generation of growing plants .This results in ZERO net production of Green house gases. • It is for this reason this is called a closed cycle. Closed Non Polluting CycleRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.11 11
    • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Carbon net emissions 0.035 0.030 0.025 kg Carbon/ MJ 0.020 0.015 0.010 0.005 0.000 Coal Diesels Natural Gas Woody Distillates Bio-gas Biomass Less pollution than conventional fuelsRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.12
    • MANY SOLUTIONS WITH BIO-FUELS Biomass sources Cotton husks, sunflower husks, rice husks,... Bagasse, olives residues, palm oil residues,... Wood and wood residues, Wood-chips, sawdust and wood processing industry wastes... Peat, compost,… Agricultural residues, crushed tomatoes, straw,... Animal manure... A high diversity of Biomass fuelsRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.13
    • ENERGY PRODUCTION WITH BIOMASS Wood Chips Rice Husk Straw Cotton Stalk Sunflower HuskRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.14
    • CHARCTERISTIC OF BIOMASS FUELS POOR FLOW CHARACTERISTICS HETEROGENOUS NATURE OF FUELRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.15
    • LARGE FUEL STORAGE AREARE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.16
    • TYPICAL BIOMASS FUEL ENERGY Biomass Fuel kcal/kg Biomass Fuel kcal/kg Bagasse 2272 Coir dust 4180 Rice Husk 3150 Saw dust 3396 Mustard Husk 4200 Wood Chips 4490 Sunflower Husk 4155 Palm Empty fruit bunch 3400 Cotton stalk 3978 Palm fibre 2800 Mustard stalk 3900 Corn cobs 3727 Chilly stalk 3850 Groundnut shell 3620 Paddy stalk 3500 Palm shell 4390 Cane Trash 2880 Coconut shell 3900RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.17
    • BIOMASS FUEL CHARACTERISTICS FUEL RICE HUSK WOOD CHIPS COTTON STALK Ultimate Analysis (% by volume) Carbon 36.70 46.70 39.26 Hydrogen 03.00 05.49 05.23 Oxygen 31.20 37.45 37.82 Moisture 10.00 05.00 10.00 sulfur 00.00 00.18 00.00 Nitrogen 01.10 01.18 01.68 Ash 18.00 04.00 06.01 GCV (kcal/kg) 3150 4490 3978 Proximate Analysis Fixed Carbon 20.00 28.00 10.00 Volatile Matter 52.00 63.00 73.99 Moisture 10.00 05.00 10.00 Ash 8.00 04.00 06.01RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.18
    • BIOMASS ASH CHARACTERISTICS FUEL RICE HUSK WOOD CHIPS COTTON STALK SiO2 91.42 60.48 12.10 Fe2O3 00.14 16.01 01.00 TiO2 00.02 00.15 00.20 P2O5 00.00 00.00 05.12 Al2O3 00.78 05.48 03.03 CaO 03.21 13.97 49.84 MgO 00.01 00.17 10.11 SO3 00.70 03.30 05.00 Na2O 00.21 00.27 04.00 K2O 03.51 00.17 09.60 Cl 00.00 00.00 00.00 Nature Highly erosive Medium fouling High foulingRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.19
    • PERCENTAGE OF CROP RESIDUE TO MAIN PRODUCT Crop Particular % of main Product to Residue Main Product % Residue % Bajra 50 50 Cashew 25 75 Coconut 20 80 Cotton 25 75 Groundnut 75 25 Sorghum 33 67 Tapioca 58 42 Pulses 60 40 Paddy straw 34 66 Paddy husk 77 23 Sugarcane Trash 87 13 Source : TNAU, Coimbatore.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.20
    • ALTERNATIVE ROUTES FOR BIOMASS POWER GENERATIONRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.21
    • BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES - SUMMARY Type Mean Process Combustion / Steam Steam Plant Incineration Solid biomass Gas engines Gasification Biogas Gas turbines Gaseous biomass Gas engines Liquid biomass Diesel engines Combustion / Incineration - Preferred route for plants greater than 1 MW sizeRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.22
    • BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES Combustion / Incineration SystemRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.23
    • BIOMASS POWER PLANT BASIC CONCEPT Combustion System Ash Ash Handling Wood Flue gas Biomass Flue gas Boiler Boiler Handling CleaningAir/Water Power Cooling water Generator Generator system Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Water Heat Water Process Steam Process Steam Treatment Extraction Extraction RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.24 HM 2002 / Michler - 24
    • BIOMASS POWER PLANT BASIC CONFIGURATION Combustion System STEAM STEAM TURBINE GENERATOR EXPORT POWER POWER FOR BIOMASS BOILER INHOUSE POWER AUXILIARY STEAM HEATRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.25
    • BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES Gasification System Heating in Low Oxygen EnvironmentRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.26 26
    • BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES Anaerobic Digestion Using Bacteria in Enclosed Unit Without OxygenRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.27 27
    • BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES Pyrolysis Liquid fuels can be produced from biomass thro’ the process of pyrolysis when biomass is heated to high temperature in the absence of O2. The biomass turns into a liquid called pyrolysis oil which can be used like petroleum. Aimed at Storage or other applications like AutoRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.28 28
    • BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES PyrolysisRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.29
    • BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES Poultry Litter This litter consists of mixture of wood shavings and / or straw or other bedding material and poultry droppings and is an excellent fuel for electricity generation with nearly half the calorific value of coal. Reduces pollution from existing disposal methods Approx 2.5 Lakhs birds dropping = 1 MWe Extension of Biomass technologyRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.30 30
    • Overall Biomass Steam Power PlantRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.31
    • Overall Scheme for Biomass Power Plant Biomass Power - Green EnergyRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.32 32
    • LAYOUT OF A TYPICAL BIOMASS POWER PLANT 7.5 MW Satyamaharishi Biomass power plant built by AREVA in Andhra Pradesh, India.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.33
    • LAYOUT OF A TYPICAL BIOMASS POWER PLANT 10 MW Rukmani Biomass power plant built by AREVA in Chhattisgarh, India.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.34
    • TYPICAL BIOMASS POWER PLANT 10 MW Pratyusha Biomass power plant built by AREVA in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu, IndiaRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.35
    • TYPICAL BIOMASS POWER PLANT 2x9.9 MW Bua Sommai Biomass power plant built by AREVA in Thailand.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.36
    • STUDIES TO BE CONDUCTED FOR BIOMASS PLANTS Fuel survey (Biomass assessment study) Fuel collection and transport logistics Rapid Environment study On site emergency plan Pre Feasibility / Feasibility Report (Bankable) Water survey and water analysis Ash utilization Fuel / Ash analysis and boiler design Power evacuation system studyRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.37
    • BENEFITS OF BIOMASS POWER PLANT BENEFITS FOR THE STATE AND THE NATION Bio-mass Power Helps In Bridging The Gap Between Demand And Supply. Eco. Friendly Power From Bio-mass. Prevents Addition Of Green House Gases To The Atmosphere. Power Generation Is From A Renewable Source & Dependency On Fossil Fuels Comes Down. Consolidation Of Efforts Towards Rural Electrification.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.38
    • BENEFITS OF BIOMASS POWER PLANT Cheap and reliable power for the local population. Enormous employment potential for the locals. Potential source for Heat & Power for process application. Revenue from excess power. CDM benefits. Economic development of the area in the vicinity. Effective utilization of waste land. The model can be replicated easily in many places. Utilization of waste biomass including Rice Husk, Coconut husk, Industrial waste wood, Forestry waste, etc Tap unutilized Biomass power. Ash from Power Plant can be used for brick making.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.39
    • PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH BIOMASS UTILIZATION Labour Intensive And Dispersed In Large Areas Specific Energy Content Is Lower Localized Price Senstivity High Moisture Content Automatic Feed Control Is Required Because Of Its Non Free-flow Nature Bio-mass Handling & Collection; Large Network Required Light Ash - An Atmospheric Pollutant Dust And Other Health Harzards Transportation: Biomass Occupies A Large Volume Due To Low Bulk Density (30 - 180 Kg/M3) Seasonal Availability Large Storage Space Is Required Due To Low Bulk Density & Seaonsal ProductionRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.40
    • Wind TechnologiesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.41
    • HISTORICAL OVERVIEW Wind has been used by people for over 3000 years for grinding grain and pumping water. Windmills were an important part of life for many communities beginning around 1200 BC. Wind was first used for electricity generation in the late 19th century.Approximate Eras: Prehistoric – Maritime (Greek, Viking) Medieval – Persian, Greek, England 20th Century – Great Plains First Energy Shortage -- 1974RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.42
    • PREHISTORIC & HISTORIC APPLICATIONRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.43
    • TODAY’S UTILITY GRID WITH WIND FARMRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.44
    • WHY WIND POWER Decrease energy related air emissions. Comply with Kyoto. Extends life of fossil fuels. Enhances national security. Revenue for states. Diversification protects against price increases. Provides insurance against Conventional Fossil-based price risk. Wind for now is one of the renewable energy resource/technology of choice. “Free” resource. A “clean” resource due to: Replacement of a “dirty” energy source (coal) and, No emissions associated with its use. Can be utilized on underutilized land or on lands currently in commodity crop production (“harvest” on the surface and “harvest” above the surface). Will primarily be used for electricity generation for immediate end-use or as a “driver” for hydrogen production.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.45
    • WIND ENERGY BENEFITS No air emissions. No fuel to mine, transport, or store. No cooling water. No water pollution. No wastes.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.46
    • WIND ENERGY SYSTEMS PROVIDEElectricity for Central-grids Isolated-grids Remote power supplies Water pumpingThey also… Support for weak grids Reduced exposure to energy price volatility Reduced transmission and distribution lossesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.47
    • UTILISATION OF WIND ENERGY Off-Grid Small turbines (50 W to 10 kW) Battery charging Water pumping Isolated-Grid Turbines typically 10 to 200 kW Reduce generation costs in remote areas: wind-diesel hybrid system High or low penetration Central-Grid Turbines typically 200 kW to 3 MW Windfarms of multiple turbinesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.48
    • WIND TURBINE DESCRIPTION Basic Components Rotor Gearbox Tower Foundation Controls Generator Types Horizontal axis • Most common • Controls or design turn rotor into wind Vertical axis • Less commonRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.49
    • EVOLUTION OF WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY Past Source: IEEE Power & Energy MagazinePresent FutureRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.50
    • SIZE EVOLUTION OF WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGYRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.51
    • EVOLUTION OF COMMERCIAL US WIND TECHNOLOGYRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.52
    • TYPICAL SIZES & APPLICATIONS Small (≤10 kW) Intermediate • Homes (10-250 kW) • Farms • Remote Applications • Village Power (e.g. water pumping, • Hybrid Systems telecom sites, • Distributed Power icemaking) Large (660 kW - 2+MW) • Central Station Wind Farms • Distributed Power • Community WindRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.53
    • LARGE WIND TURBINES Large Turbines (600-2000 kW) Installed in “Windfarm” arrays totaling 1 - 100 MW $1,300/kW Designed for low cost of energy (COE) Requires 6 m/s (13 mph) average wind speed Value of Energy: $0.02 - $0.06 per kWh Small Turbines (0.3-100 kW) Installed in “rural residential” on-grid and off-grid applications $2,500-$8,000/kW Designed for reliability / low maintenance Requires 4 m/s (9 mph) average wind speed Value of energy: $0.06 - $0.26 per kWhRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.54
    • SMALL WIND TURBINES Blades: Fiber-reinforced plastics, fixed pitch, either twisted/tapered, or straight (pultruded) Generator: Direct-drive permanent magnet alternator, no brushes, 3-phase AC, 10 kW variable-speed operation Designed for: Simplicity, reliability 50 kW Few moving parts Little regular maintenance required 400 W 900 WRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.55
    • STATE-OF-THE-ART OF WIND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY Rotor diameters Tip speed Rotor mass Hub height Pitch vs. Stall control Variable speed Power electronics Gearbox vs. Direct transmissionRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.56
    • HUB HEIGHT There is trade-off between the benefits of extra energy from taller towers and the extra cost of these tower. Off shore wind shear is low then lower towers are suitable in this application since the extra benefits of taller towers diminish.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.57
    • ROTOR MASS Rotos mass impacts on the cost of the turbine: tower, foundation, bearings, shaft, etc. There is trade off between the rotor mass and the cost of the material of the blades Blades are made of glass polyester, glass epoxy or carbon fibre reinforcementRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.58
    • PITCH Vs STALL CONTROL The two principal means of limiting rotor power in high operational wind speeds - stall regulation and pitch regulation Stall: As wind speed increases, providing the rotor speed is held constant, flow angles over the blade sections steepen. The blades become increasingly stalled and this limits power to acceptable levels without any additional active control. Pitch: The main alternative to stall regulated operation is pitch regulation. This involves turning the blades about their long axis (pitching the blades) to regulate the power extracted by the rotor. In contrast to stall regulation, pitch regulation requires changes to rotor geometry.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.59
    • VARIABLE SPEED Vs FIXED SPEED Operation at variable speed offer increased “grid frindliness” The electrical energy is generated at variable frequency (related to the speed of teh rotor) and then converted to the frequency of the grid It can be used with both syncronous and induction generators Variable speed reduces loads on the transmission systemRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.60
    • GEARBOX VS. DIRECT TRANSMISSION Gear boxes have been the weakest link in the wind turbine technology They historically noisy, although now that problem has been abated in the most part Direct transmission to multipolar generators is pormising longer lifetime of wind turbinesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.61
    • BLADE COMPOSITION Wood Strong, light weight, cheap, abundant, flexible Popular on do-it yourself turbines Solid plank Laminates Veneers CompositesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.62
    • BLADE COMPOSITION Steel Heavy & expensive Aluminum Lighter-weight and easy to work with Expensive Subject to metal fatigueRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.63
    • BLADE COMPOSITION Lightweight, strong, inexpensive, good fatigue characteristics Variety of manufacturing processes Cloth over frame Pultrusion Filament winding to produce spars Most modern large turbines use fiberglassRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.64
    • HUBS The hub holds the rotor together and transmits motion to nacelle Three important aspects How blades are attached Nearly all have cantilevered hubs (supported only at hub) Struts & Stays haven’t proved worthwhile Fixed or Variable Pitch Flexible or Rigid Attachment Most are rigid Some two bladed designs use teetering hubsRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.65
    • DRIVE TRAINS Direct DriveDrive Trains transfer power from rotor to the generator Direct Drive (no transmission) Quieter & more reliable Most small turbines Multi-drive Mechanical Transmission Can have parallel or planetary shafts Prone to failure due to very high stresses Most large turbines (except in Germany)RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.66
    • ROTOR CONTROLS “The rotor is the single most critical element of any Micro Turbines wind turbine. How a wind turbine controls the forces acting on the rotor, particularly in high winds, is of the May not have any controls utmost importance to the long-term, reliable function of any wind turbine. Blade flutter Small Turbines Furling (upwind) – rotor moves to reduce frontal area facing wind Coning (downwind) – rotor blades come to a sharper cone Passive pitch governors – blades pitch out of wind Medium Turbines Aerodynamic Stall Mechanical Brakes Aerodynamic BrakesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.67
    • TOWERS Monopole (Nearly all large turbines) Tubular Steel or Concrete Lattice (many Medium turbines) 20 ft. sections Guyed Lattice or monopole • 3 guys minimum Tilt-up • 4 guys Tilt-up monopoleRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.68
    • ORIENTATION Turbines can be categorized into two overarching classes based on the orientation of the rotor Vertical Axis Horizontal AxisRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.69
    • VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES (VAWT)Advantages: Disadvantages: Omni directional Rotors generally near ground where wind poorer Accepts wind from any angle Components can be mounted at ground Centrifugal force stresses blades level Poor self-starting capabilities Ease of service Requires support at top of turbine rotor Lighter weight towers Requires entire rotor to be removed to Can theoretically use less materials to replace bearings capture the same amount of wind Overall poor performance and reliability Have never been commercially successfulRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.70
    • LIFT Vs DRAG VAWT’S Lift Device Low solidity, aerofoil blades More efficient than drag device Drag Device High solidity, cup shapes are pushed by the wind At best can capture only 15% of wind energyRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.71
    • VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE VAWT’S HAVE NOT BEEN COMMERCIALLY SUCCESSFUL, YET… Every few years a new company comes along promising a revolutionary breakthrough in wind turbine design that is low cost, outperforms anything Mag-Wind else on the market, and WindStor overcomes all of the previous problems with VAWT’s. They can also usually be installed on a roof or in a city where wind Wind Wandler is poor. WindTreeRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.72
    • HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE Rotors are usually Up- wind of tower Some machines have down-wind rotors, but only commercially available ones are small turbinesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.73
    • HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE SCHEMATICRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.74
    • INSTALLED CAPACITY IN INDIA (MW) 3000 2483 2500 2000 1340 1870 1628 1500 900 970 1025 1167 733 1000 351 115 500 32 41 54 0 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.75
    • WIND POWER DENSITYRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.76
    • WIND POWER DENSITY AND CLASSES 50 m Height Wind Installable power Class Wind speed Wind power power MW Density m/s W/m2 1 < 5.6 < 200 ------ 2A 5.6 – 6.0 200 – 250 32,647 2B 6.0 – 6.4 250 – 300 10,819 3 6.4 – 7.0 300 – 400 4683 4 7.0 – 7.5 400 – 500 396 5 7.5 – 8.0 500 – 600 17 6 8.0 – 8.8 600 – 800 -- 7 8.8 – 11.9 800 – 2000 -- Total 48,561RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.77
    • ADVANATAGEOUS OF WIND FARM Profitable wind resources are limited to distinct geographic areas. Increases total wind energy production. Economic point of view: The concentration of repair and Maintenance of equipment and spar parts reduces cost. Dedicated maintenance personnel can be employed. Resulting in reduced labour costs/turbine and financial saving to WT owner.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.78
    • WIND RESOURCE IN INDIA Winds in India influenced by Strong South-West Summer Monsoon (April-September) Weaker North-East Winter Monsoon 1150 wind monitoring stations in 25 States/UT’s established. 50 are in operation. States with high potential Andhra Pradesh Gujarat Karnataka Kerala M.P. Maharashtra Rajasthan Tamil Nadu 211 sites with annual average wind power density >200 Watts/m2 Potential in India : 48,560 MWRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.79
    • WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT IN INDIA Potential sites for wind power projects having mean wind power density above 200W/m2 at 50M level identified in 11 States and two Union Territories. State-wise Details are as follows: 1 Tamilnadu - 41 sites 2 Gujarat - 38 sites 3 Orissa - 6 sites 4 Maharastra - 28 sites 5 Andhra Pradesh - 32 sites 6 Rajasthan - 7 sites 7 Karnataka - 25 sites 8 Kerala - 16 sites 9 Madhya Pradesh - 7 sites 10 West Bengal - 1 site 11 Uttaranchal - 1 site 12 Lakshadweep - 8 sites 13 A&N Islands - 1 siteRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.80
    • GLOBAL CUMULATIVE INSTALLED CAPACITY 24.3%/yr 27% in 2007 30.4 %/yrSource: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006 27.4%/yr RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.81
    • GLOBAL ANNUAL INSTALLED CAPACITY 30.3% in 2007Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006 26.3%/yr RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.82
    • GLOBAL PRODUCTION Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.83
    • % OF GLOBAL ELECTRICITY Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.84
    • ANNUAL INSTALLED CAPACITY BY REGION 2007 (2006) 43.7% (50.1) 28.1% (21.3) 26.1% (24.2) 0.1% (1.9) 0.8% (1.3) 0.8% (0.7%) Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.85
    • CLIMATE IMPERATIVE 1.5 billion tonnes/yr by 2020 Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.86
    • CLIMATE IMPERATIVE 9.5 billion tonnes cumulative reductions by 2020 Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.87
    • GLOBAL WIND POWER GROWTH Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.88
    • GLOBAL WIND POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.89
    • STATUS OF THE GLOBAL WIND POWER INDUSTRY Employs around 200,000 people Has an annual revenue of more than € 18 billion (US$ 23 billion) Has been growing at an annual rate of more than 28 % for the last 10 years Meets the electricity needs of more than 25 million households Is concentrated in Europe, which accounts for 65 % of total capacity and most of the major turbine manufacturers Over 100,000 wind turbines installed today in 70 countries Over 74,000 MW of installed capacityRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.90
    • WIND ENERGY MARKET FORECAST Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.91
    • EXTENDED FORECAST 2030- 2050 Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.92
    • EXTENDED FORECAST 2030- 2050 Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.93
    • EXTENDED FORECAST 2030- 2050 Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.94
    • EXTENDED FORECAST REGIONAL BREAKDOWN Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.95
    • EXTENDED FORECAST REGIONAL BREAKDOWN Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.96
    • EXTENDED FORECAST REGIONAL BREAKDOWN Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.97
    • EXTENDED FORECAST: COSTS AND CAPACITIES Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.98
    • EXTENDED FORECAST: INVESTMENT AND EMPLOYMENT Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.99
    • EXTENDED FORECAST: CARBON EMISSIONS SAVINGS Source: GWEC, 2007 and IEA Energy Outlook 2006RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.100
    • OFFSHORE WIND 1980s Oil prices went down, market dried up 1990s Denmark experiments with offshore windRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.101
    • WORLD WIDE OFFSHORE WIND PRODUCTIONCountries 5 Projects 16Turbines 299Capacity 552 MW Annual 1.950.000.000 kWhProductionRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.102
    • OFFSHORE WIND CURRENT PROJECTS International projects expanding Other countries fast United Kingdom Denmark – 18% of all energy Belgium Wants to have 50% by 2030 Spain Germany closing down nuclear Poland plants France 36 projects in the works Ireland 60,000 MW planned Sweden CanadaRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.103
    • OFFSHORE WIND PLATFORMRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.104
    • WHY OFFSHORE WIND? Higher winds Probably same cost Can be close to Lake urban areas Less noise Wind steadier over water Less visual impactRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.105
    • ADVANTAGES OF WIND POWER Wind turbines provide electricity on and off grid world- wide. Land can be used for other purposes, such as agriculture Individuals, businesses, and co-operatives sometimes own and operate single turbines. Electricity generation expensive due to cost of transporting diesel fuel to remote areas. Wind turbines reduce consumption of diesel fuel. Electricity for small loads in windy off-grid areas. Batteries in stand-alone systems provide electricity during calm periods. Water pumping: water reservoir is storage. Can be used in combination with fossil fuel gensets and/or photovoltaic arrays in a “hybrid” system.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.106
    • ENERGY PRODUCTION AND THE ENVIRONMENT Energy use in power plants accounts for: 67% of air emissions of SO2 the primary cause of acid rain. SO2 causes acidification of lakes and damages forests and other habitats. 25% of NOx which causes smog and respiratory ailments. 33% of Hg (mercury), a persistent, bio-accumulative toxin which increases in concentration as it moves up the food chain, e.g. from fish to birds, causing serious deformities and nerve disorders.SOURCES: Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS)RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.107
    • WIND ENERGY ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Visual impact Noise Flickering (shadows and electromagnetic fields) Birds collision Land use and sea use (for off-shore applications) GHG emissions Other social and political impactsRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.108
    • LIFETIME ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Manufacturing wind turbines and building wind plants does not create large emissions of carbon dioxide. When these operations are included, wind energys CO2 emissions are quite small: about 1% of coal, or about 2% of natural gas (per unit of electricity generated).RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.109
    • Concentrated Solar Power TechnologiesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.110
    • Solar Energy Solar energy is the radiant light and heat from the sun that has been harnessed by humans since ancient times. It is one of the cleanest, most viable form of renewable energy. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. Solar power provides electrical power generation by means of heat engines or photovoltaics. solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, day lighting, hot water, thermal energy for cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. The suns light (and all light) contains energy. Usually, when light hits an object the energy turns into heat, like the warmth you feel while sitting in the sun. But when light hits certain materials the energy turns into an electrical current instead, which we can then harness for power.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.111
    • Solar Energy The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earths surface is mostly spread across the visible and near infrared ranges with a small part in the near – ultraviolet. The total solar energy absorbed by Earths atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earths non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined. SOLAR ENERGYRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.112
    • Suitability of Solar Power GenerationRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.113
    • Concentrated Solar Power Solar energy Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. The concentrated light is then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant or is concentrated onto photovoltaic surfaces. Concentrating solar power systems are divided into: • Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) • Concentrating Photovoltaics (CPV) • Concentrating Photovoltaics and Thermal (CPT) Can be integrated into conventional thermal power plants. Serve different markets like bulk power, remote power, heat, water. Provide firm capacity (thermal storage, fossil backup). Have the lowest costs for solar electricity. Have an energy pay-back time of only 6-12 months. Use the largest renewable resources available free of cost.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.114
    • Concentrated Solar Thermal Technologies Concentrating solar thermal (CST) is used to produce renewable heat or electricity (generally, in the latter case, through steam). CST systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. The concentrated light is then used as heat or as a heat source for a conventional power plant (solar thermoelectricity). A wide range of concentrating solar technologies exist, Each concentration method is capable of producing high temperatures and correspondingly high thermodynamic efficiencies, but they vary in the way that they track the Sun and focus light, these include: Parabolic trough Concentrating Linear Fresnel Reflector Solar Chimney Solar Power Tower Due to new innovations in the technology, concentrating solar thermal is being more and more cost-effective.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.115
    • Concentrated Solar Thermal TechnologiesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.116
    • Concentrated Parabolic Trough Parabolic trough are used to track the sun & concentrate sunlight on to the thermally efficient receiver tubes located along the focal line of the trough. The reflector follows the Sun during the daylight hours by tracking along a single axis. A working fluid (eg. Synthetic oil, molten salt) is heated to 150- 350° as it flows through the receiver and is then used as a heat source for a C power generation system. The Solar Energy Generating System (SEGS) plants in California, Accionas Nevada Solar One near Boulder City, Nevada, and Plataforma Solar de Almeria’s SSPS-DCS plant in Spain are representative of this technology.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.117
    • Concentrated Parabolic Trough Characteristics Large thermal storage could be built to increase Large thermal storage could be built to increase number of operating hours in a day. Rankine cycle configuration is used for power generation. Could be hybridized with power generation from fossil fuels. Other alternatives for heat transfer fluid, such as water to produce DIRECT STEAM, and molten salts to produce higher temperatures are being tried out to increase the potential of the technology further. The parabolic trough technology is commercially available. Its main components are: Parabolic Trough solar Collectors (parabolic reflectors, metal support structure and support structure and receiver tubes). Tracking system (Drive, sensors and controls).RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.118
    • Concentrated Parabolic Trough ComponentsRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.119
    • Concentrated Parabolic Trough ComponentsRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.120
    • Concentrated Parabolic Trough Collector PrincipleRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.121
    • Parabolic Trough Advantages Parabolic mirrors concentrate the solar energy onto solar thermal receivers containing a heat transfer fluid. Tracking facility provides optimal absorption of sun’s energy. The heat transfer fluid is circulated and heated through the receivers, and the heat is released to a series of heat exchangers to generate super-heated steam. The steam powers a turbine/generator to produce electricity delivered to a utility’s electric grid. With a Thermal Storage tank or a back-up of alternative fuels, a solar plant can operate beyond daylight hours. O&M of a parabolic trough power plant is similar to a conventional steam power plant, it requires the same staffing & labour skills to operate & maintain them 24 hrs.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.122
    • Concentrated Solar Tower Solar Tower is the second largest technology in CSP. It uses a circular array of heliostats (2 axis tracking system mirror) is used to concentrate sunlight to a central receiver mounted on top of a tower. It consisting of a central receiver tower, which is surrounded by a mirror field that concentrates the irradiation on the tip of the tower. In the receiver a heat transfer medium is used to transfer the energy to a heat exchanger in order to produce steam.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.123
    • Concentrated Sterling dish Sterling dish Concentrator consists of a reflecting parabolic dish which concentrate sunlight onto one spot. The working fluid in the receiver is heated by the concentrated rays to 250- ° 700°C and then used by a Stirling engine to generate power (5- 50 kW range).. Parabolic dish systems provide the highest solar-to-electric efficiency among CSP technologies, and their modular nature provides scalability.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.124
    • Concentrated Fresnel Reflectors (CLFR) Concentrating Linear Fresnel Reflectors are CSP-plants which use many thin mirror strips instead of parabolic mirrors to concentrate sunlight onto two tubes with working fluid. This has the advantage that flat mirrors can be used which are much cheaper than parabolic mirrors, and that more reflectors can be placed in the same amount of space, allowing more of the available sunlight to be used. They can come in large plants or more compact plants. Fresnel reflectors are not as efficient as parabolic mirrors but are much cheaper to build. In a typical hybrid installation Linear Fresnel Reflectors preheats water for the coal fired power plant (285oC: 70bar steam)RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.125
    • Concentrated Solar Chimney With the solar chimney, the sun heats air beneath gigantic, green-house-like glass roofs. The air then rises in a tower and drives the turbines. A solar chimney power plant has a high chimney (tower), with a height of up to 1000 metres, surrounded by a large collector roof, up to 130 metres in diameter, that consists of glass or resistive plastic supported on a framework. Towards its centre, the roof curves upwards to join the chimney, creating a funnel. The sun heats up the ground and the air underneath the collector roof, and the heated air follows the upward incline of the roof until it reaches the chimney. The heated air flows at high speed through the chimney and drives wind generators at its bottom. The efficiency of the solar chimney power plant is below 2%, and depends mainly on the height of the tower, so these power plants can only be constructed on land which is very cheap or free.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.126
    • Concentrated Solar Technologies - Comparison Parabolic Trough Central Receiver Parabolic Dish Grid-connected plants, high Stand-alone applications or Grid-connected plants, temperature process heat small off-grid power systemsApplications process heat (Highest solar unit (Highest solar unit size built to (Highest solar unit size built to size built to date: 80 MWe). date: 10 MWe). date: 25 kWe). Commercially available – over 10 billion kWh operational experience; operating temperature potential up to 500° (400° commercially C C proven). Good mid-term prospects for Very high conversion high conversion efficiencies, efficiencies– peak solar to Commercially proven annual electric conversion of about performance of 14% solar to net with solar collection; operatingAdvantages electrical output. temperature potential up to 30%. 1000° (565° proven at 10 MW C C Modularity. Commercially proven scale). investment and operating costs. Hybrid operation possible. Storage at high temperatures Operational experience of first Modularity. Hybrid operation possible. prototypes. Best land use. Lowest materials demand. Hybrid concept proven. Storage capability. The use of oil based heat transfer media restricts Reliability needs to be operating temperatures to Projected annual performance improved.Disadvantages values, investment and 400° resulting in moderate C, Projected cost goals of mass steam qualities. operating costs still need to be proved in commercial operation. production still need to be Land availability, water achieved. demand.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.127
    • Concentrated Solar Trough Collector Functional DiagramRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.128
    • Concentrated Solar Trough with Direct Steam GenerationRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.129
    • Concentrated Solar Trough with Direct Steam Generation Has the potential to reduce the overall cost. Does not face limitations of the thermal oil systems. No realistic storage option exists presently. Initial studies indicate about 10% reduction in the solar portion of levelized cost of energy. Faces serious challenges for safety and maintenance as large solar field is pressurized.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.130
    • Solar Thermal Power Plant – A Typical Project Case A 100 MWe Solar Thermal Power Plant with thermal storage will require about 400 M€ of investment and requires: 4 km2 of Land. 25000 tons of steel. 12000 tons of glass. 30000 tons of storage medium. 20000 m3 of concrete. It produces 1000 jobs during construction & 100 jobs during its operation.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.131
    • Advantages of Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plant Centralized power generation in systems up to 200 MWel. No qualitative change in the grid structure. Reliable, plannable, stable grids. Can be combined with fossil fuel heating. In the mid-term competitive with medium-load fossil fuel plants. Independent of fuel prices, low operating costs. Already competitive for peak loads. High-voltage DC transmission permits cost-effective conduction of electricity over long distances. Proven technology. Great proportion of added value is local. Good ecological balance. Lower land use than other renewable energies. Sea water desalination as added benefit.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.132
    • Solar Thermal Power Plant – Today’s Scenario Solar Thermal Power Plant (STPP) technologies are important to share the clean energy needed in the future. Today STPP are a well proven & demonstrated technology. Since 1985 parabolic trough type STPP in California has generated >10 Billion kWh of solar- thermal electricity & has fed to the grid. At present, STPP with a total capacity exceeding 500 MW are being built world wide, further 11 GW being in the project development stage. STPP are already among the most cost-effective renewable power technologies. In combination with thermal energy storage, solar thermal power plants can provide dispatchable electricity. With further technological improvements & mass production, STPP can become competitive with fossil-fuel plants. Solar Thermal Power has best Market Perspectives among Renewables: Solar Energy has the most abundant technically usable renewable resource. Only solar thermal power can cover the commercial demand for bulk electricity in the ten to hundreds of Megawatt range with relatively low land demand. Predictable and dispatchable power in commercial power plant scale (50-200 MW). No shortage of raw materialsRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.133
    • Solar Photovoltaic TechnologiesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.134
    • Solar Photovoltaic Photovoltaic’s are best known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun directly into electricity. The photovoltaic effect refers to photons of light knocking electrons into a higher state of energy to create electricity. “Photovoltaic” is a marriage of two words: “photo”, meaning light, and “voltaic”, meaning electricity. Many of these plants are integrated with agriculture and some use innovative tracking systems that follow the suns daily path across the sky to generate more electricity than conventional fixed-mounted systems. There are no fuel costs or emissions during operation of the Photovoltaic Power Stations. When more power is required than a single cell can deliver, cells are electrically connected together to form photovoltaic modules, or solar panels. A single module is enough to power an emergency telephone, but for a house or a power plant the modules must be arranged in multiples as arrays. A Single PhotoVoltaic Cell An Array of Solar Photovoltaic PanelsRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.135
    • Solar Photovoltaic The European PhotoVoltaic Industry Association (EPIA / Greenpeace) Advanced Scenario shows that by the year 2030, PV systems could be generating approximately 1864 GW of electricity around the world. This means that, enough solar power would be produced globally in twenty-five years time to satisfy the electricity needs of almost 14% of the world’s population. By early 2006, the average cost per installed watt for a residential sized system was about USD 7.50 to USD 9.50, including panels, inverters, mounts, and electrical items. The most important issue with solar panels is capital cost (installation and materials). Due to economies of scale solar panels get less costly as people use and buy more, as manufacturers increase production to meet demand, the cost and price is expected to drop in the years to come.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.136
    • Solar Thermal Vs Photovoltaic Solar Thermal PhotoVoltaic (PV) Annual system efficiency of the parabolic trough Annual system efficiency decreases at higher irradiation system increases significantly with the annual values due to the negative influence of correlated higher irradiation sum. ambient temperature. Unique integrability into conventional thermal PV module efficiency is almost constant over large plants. Can be integrated as "a solar burner" in irradiance ranges and decreases with higher parallel to a fossil burner into conventional temperatures. thermal cycles. More suitable for smaller installations (integrated into Not cost-effective for small installations. buildings). Annual electricity generation for a typical Annual electricity generation for a typical installation is installation is 3400 kWh/kW/year for systems with 1250-1750 kWh/year depending on the location and 7.5 hours of Thermal Storage and 2040 kWh/year slope of the panels. for systems without storage. Installation cost depends on the capacity of the installation. For a 50MW Power plant installation cost is about 4500 Euro/kW (in case that Thermal Current typical installation cost is about 5000 Euro/kW. Storage for 7.5 hours is added, installation cost is about 6000 Euro/kW). In all regions with an annual global irradiation above 1100 kWh/m² the costs of solar thermal electricity are lower than the costs of photovoltaic systems.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.137
    • Solar Thermal Vs PhotovoltaicRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.138
    • CO2 Emissions ComparisonRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.139
    • Solar Thermal Power – Future OpportunitiesRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.140
    • CSP Technology to Lead the FutureRE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.141
    • Solar Thermal Power Plant – Today’s Scenario Examples of specific large solar thermal projects currently planned around the world include: Algeria: 140 MW ISCC plant with 35 MW solar capacity. Australia: 35 MW CLFR-based array to pre-heat steam at a coal-fired 2,000 MW plant. Egypt: 127 MW ISCC plant with 29 MW solar capacity. Greece: 50 MW solar capacity using steam cycle. India: 140 MW ISCC plant with 35 MW solar capacity. Israel: 100 MW solar hybrid operation. Italy: 40 MW solar capacity using steam cycle. Mexico: 300 MW ISCC plant with 29 MW solar capacity. Morocco: 230 MW ISCC plant with 35 MW solar capacity. Spain: 2 x 50 MW solar capacity using steam cycle and storage. USA: 50 MW Solar Electric Generating Systems. USA: 1 MW parabolic trough using ORC engine The five most promising countries in terms of governmental targets or potentials according to the scenario, each with more than 1,000 MW of solar thermal projects expected by 2020, are Spain, United States, Mexico, Australia and South Africa.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.142
    • Concentrated Solar Thermal Power – A Promise for Tomorrow Concentrated Parabolic trough power plants have been providing a reliable power supply to 2,00,000 households in Kramer Junction, California for the last 15 years.RE TECHNOLOGY – Presenter/ref. - 09 February 2011 - p.143