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Project Management 8. Managing Project Conflict
Week 8
<ul><li>Q </li></ul><ul><li>Why is learning about conflict management relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>To h...
<ul><li>Required reading: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darling, J., & Walker, W. (2001). Effective conflict management.  Leadersh...
<ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Conflict is a form of relating or interacting where we find ourselves (either as individuals or groups) under some...
<ul><li>Sources of Conflict  </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Th...
<ul><li>Sources of Conflict  </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Biosocial </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and inter...
Bisno’s Sources of Conflict ( Condliffe, 1991 , p6)
<ul><li>Sources of Conflict  </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Biosocial </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and inter...
<ul><li>Sources of Conflict  </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Biosocial </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and inter...
( Nicholas, 2001 , p519)
( Nicholas, 2001 , p519)
<ul><li>Components of Conflict </li></ul>
<ul><li>Values: ideas and feelings about right and wrong (difficult to resolve)  </li></ul>Components of Conflict
<ul><li>Interests: things that motivate eg. managers and workers have different interests  </li></ul>Components of Conflict
<ul><li>Emotional: feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear, reject, and loss  </li></ul>Components of C...
<ul><li>Emotional:  feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear, reject, and loss  </li></ul><ul><li>Intere...
Consequences of conflict
<ul><li>Good Consequences of Conflict </li></ul>
<ul><li>increased creativity </li></ul>
<ul><li>It forces people to clarify their views </li></ul>
<ul><li>It can produce constructive social change </li></ul>
<ul><li>It gives people the opportunity to test their capacities </li></ul>
<ul><li>development of group and organization cohesion </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bad Consequences of Conflict </li></ul>
Violence
breakdown of relationships
polarization of views into static positions
A breakdown of collaborative ventures
destruction of communication
Groupthink
<ul><li>Groupthink is a tendency for strong conformity pressures within groups to lead to the breakdown of critical thinki...
<ul><li>Lack of conflict is a sign of over conformity. </li></ul>
<ul><li>It is unhealthy when there is no conflict </li></ul>
<ul><li>You need diversity of opinion </li></ul>
 
Consequences of conflict
<ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Conflict Handling Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Which conflict handling style will you use? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Which conflict handling style will you use? </li></ul><ul><li>Project Managers may have a preferred style for mana...
<ul><li>Which conflict handling style will you use? </li></ul><ul><li>Project Managers may have a preferred style for mana...
avoiding accommodation competition compromise collaboration
<ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>ignoring conflicts and hoping they’ll go away </li></ul><ul><li>putting problems...
<ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>looking for deals and trade-offs </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>create win-lose situations </li></ul><ul><li>use of power plays  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>giving way  </li></ul><ul><li>submission and fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>When ...
<ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>problem-solving carriage </li></ul><ul><li>tackle differences  </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>2 Methods for Resolving Conflict in a team </li></ul><ul><li>Role Clarification Technique (RAT) </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Role Clarification Technique (RAT) </li></ul><ul><li>This is a systematic procedure which involves all team member...
<ul><li>Intergroup Conflict Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Each group should prepare list of what they would like the other ...
<ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>What is a Grievance? </li></ul>
<ul><li>A grievance is any behaviour or action of another member or members of a team, which has or is likely to have an u...
<ul><li>Most grievances are never raised with management  </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
Lack of trust Our complaints are trivialized No action gets taken! They only take defensive action
<ul><li>What you should do? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul>
<ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Stress </li></ul>
<ul><li>What is Stress? </li></ul><ul><li>A pattern of emotional states and physiological reactions occurring in situation...
 
<ul><li>Effects of Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Physical illness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction i...
<ul><li>Causes of Stress in Projects </li></ul>Long hours Tight schedules Transient work force High risks Work overload Ro...
A Stress Survey <ul><li>How many of these for you </li></ul><ul><li>in the last year? </li></ul>
( Greenberg & Baron, 1993, p238 )
<ul><li>Stress Management </li></ul>1. Organizational Level 2. Individual Level
<ul><li>Stress Management at the Organizational Level </li></ul><ul><li>setting reasonable work plans and schedules </li><...
<ul><li>Stress Management for the Individual </li></ul><ul><li>stress management program </li></ul><ul><li>relaxation trai...
Review <ul><li>Conflict is  the opposition of people or forces that develops into an aggressive state or action.  </li></u...
References <ul><li>Condliffe, P. (1991).  Conflict management – A practical guide . Collingwood, Vic.: RMIT. </li></ul><ul...
Photo credits Helico   assbach   _uncommon   bootload   James Gordon   orionoir   Steve9091   Destinys  Agent   Karthik  S...
BetterProjects.net <ul><li>Title page pic care of  Helico  & CC @ Flickr </li></ul>
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The Project Management Process - Week 8 Conflict Management

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About managing conflict within the team and beyond. Useful info for project managers of all sorts.

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  • Transcript of "The Project Management Process - Week 8 Conflict Management"

    1. 1. Project Management 8. Managing Project Conflict
    2. 2. Week 8
    3. 3. <ul><li>Q </li></ul><ul><li>Why is learning about conflict management relevant? </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>To help develop and facilitate leadership, team building, performance management, and conflict management skills in an IT environment </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Required reading: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Darling, J., & Walker, W. (2001). Effective conflict management. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22 (5), 230-242. Retrieved February 10, 2006 from: http://faculty.business.utsa.edu/dwalz/Classes/S2003PhD/Articles%5CMISQ%20Barki%202001.pdf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recommended reading: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cadle & Yeates, 2004, Ch 23. </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stress </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stress </li></ul>4 4
    7. 7. <ul><li>Conflict is a form of relating or interacting where we find ourselves (either as individuals or groups) under some sort of perceived threat to our personal or collective goals. </li></ul><ul><li>These goals are usually to do with our interpersonal wants. These perceived threats may be either real or imagined (Condliffe, 1991, p3). </li></ul>Conflict
    8. 8. <ul><li>Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Thamhain & Wilemon) </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Biosocial </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and interactional </li></ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and ideological </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul>
    10. 10. Bisno’s Sources of Conflict ( Condliffe, 1991 , p6)
    11. 11. <ul><li>Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Biosocial </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and interactional </li></ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and ideological </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Bisno) </li></ul><ul><li>Biosocial </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and interactional </li></ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural and ideological </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence </li></ul><ul><li>Project Sources of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Thamhain & Wilemon) </li></ul><ul><li>Project schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Project priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Workforce </li></ul>
    13. 13. ( Nicholas, 2001 , p519)
    14. 14. ( Nicholas, 2001 , p519)
    15. 15. <ul><li>Components of Conflict </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Values: ideas and feelings about right and wrong (difficult to resolve) </li></ul>Components of Conflict
    17. 17. <ul><li>Interests: things that motivate eg. managers and workers have different interests </li></ul>Components of Conflict
    18. 18. <ul><li>Emotional: feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear, reject, and loss </li></ul>Components of Conflict
    19. 19. <ul><li>Emotional: feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear, reject, and loss </li></ul><ul><li>Interests: things that motivate eg. managers and workers have different interests </li></ul><ul><li>Values: ideas and feelings about right and wrong (difficult to resolve) </li></ul>Components of Conflict When you have to deal with conflict tackle the emotional issues first then address values and interests
    20. 20. Consequences of conflict
    21. 21. <ul><li>Good Consequences of Conflict </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>increased creativity </li></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>It forces people to clarify their views </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>It can produce constructive social change </li></ul>
    25. 25. <ul><li>It gives people the opportunity to test their capacities </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>development of group and organization cohesion </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Bad Consequences of Conflict </li></ul>
    28. 28. Violence
    29. 29. breakdown of relationships
    30. 30. polarization of views into static positions
    31. 31. A breakdown of collaborative ventures
    32. 32. destruction of communication
    33. 33. Groupthink
    34. 34. <ul><li>Groupthink is a tendency for strong conformity pressures within groups to lead to the breakdown of critical thinking and encourage premature acceptance of questionable decisions </li></ul>Groupthink
    35. 35. <ul><li>Lack of conflict is a sign of over conformity. </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>It is unhealthy when there is no conflict </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>You need diversity of opinion </li></ul>
    38. 39. Consequences of conflict
    39. 40. <ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stress </li></ul>3 3
    40. 41. <ul><li>Conflict Handling Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul>
    41. 42. <ul><li>Which conflict handling style will you use? </li></ul>
    42. 43. <ul><li>Which conflict handling style will you use? </li></ul><ul><li>Project Managers may have a preferred style for managing conflict </li></ul>
    43. 44. <ul><li>Which conflict handling style will you use? </li></ul><ul><li>Project Managers may have a preferred style for managing conflict </li></ul><ul><li>You should use different styles depending on the problem – and get there by using your ability to read situation </li></ul>
    44. 45. avoiding accommodation competition compromise collaboration
    45. 46. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>ignoring conflicts and hoping they’ll go away </li></ul><ul><li>putting problems under consideration or on hold </li></ul><ul><li>use of secrecy to avoid confrontation </li></ul><ul><li>appeal to bureaucratic rules </li></ul>Avoiding <ul><li>When to use </li></ul><ul><li>Trivial, small/unimportant issue </li></ul><ul><li>no perceived chance of resolution </li></ul><ul><li>To allow a cool down period </li></ul><ul><li>To allow others to resolve the situation </li></ul>
    46. 47. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>looking for deals and trade-offs </li></ul><ul><li>finding satisfactory or acceptable solutions </li></ul><ul><li>When to use </li></ul><ul><li>goals are important, but not worth effort </li></ul><ul><li>opponents with equal power are committed to mutually exclusive goals </li></ul><ul><li>achieve temporary settlements to issues </li></ul><ul><li>arrive at solutions under time pressure </li></ul><ul><li>back-up to collaboration or competition </li></ul>Compromise
    47. 48. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>create win-lose situations </li></ul><ul><li>use of power plays </li></ul><ul><li>forcing submission </li></ul><ul><li>When to use </li></ul><ul><li>quick, decisive action is vital, very important </li></ul><ul><li>unpopular actions eg. cost cutting </li></ul><ul><li>issues are vital to company welfare </li></ul><ul><li>against people who take advantage of non-competitive behavior </li></ul>Competition
    48. 49. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>giving way </li></ul><ul><li>submission and fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>When to use </li></ul><ul><li>find you are wrong </li></ul><ul><li>issues more important to others than yourself </li></ul><ul><li>maintain cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>build social credits for later on </li></ul><ul><li>minimize loss </li></ul><ul><li>harmony and stability are important </li></ul><ul><li>allow team members to learn from their mistakes </li></ul>Accommodation
    49. 50. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>problem-solving carriage </li></ul><ul><li>tackle differences </li></ul><ul><li>sharing ideas and information </li></ul><ul><li>seeing problems and conflicts as challenges </li></ul><ul><li>When to use </li></ul><ul><li>find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are important </li></ul><ul><li>objective is to learn </li></ul>Collaboration
    50. 51. <ul><li>2 Methods for Resolving Conflict in a team </li></ul><ul><li>Role Clarification Technique (RAT) </li></ul><ul><li>Intergroup Conflict Resolution </li></ul>
    51. 52. <ul><li>Role Clarification Technique (RAT) </li></ul><ul><li>This is a systematic procedure which involves all team members understanding the requirements of their of own and everyone else's position, duties and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>You’ll need to clarify roles for team and individuals; for example via questionnaires (or for project teams - RAM matrices!) </li></ul>
    52. 53. <ul><li>Intergroup Conflict Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Each group should prepare list of what they would like the other groups to start doing, stop doing, and continue to do. </li></ul><ul><li>This list narrows he scope of the dispute and makes it easier to work on the core problems. </li></ul>
    53. 54. <ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stress </li></ul>2 2
    54. 55. <ul><li>What is a Grievance? </li></ul>
    55. 56. <ul><li>A grievance is any behaviour or action of another member or members of a team, which has or is likely to have an unreasonable negative impact on the ability of a team member to undertake their duties </li></ul>
    56. 57. <ul><li>Most grievances are never raised with management </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
    57. 58. Lack of trust Our complaints are trivialized No action gets taken! They only take defensive action
    58. 59. <ul><li>What you should do? </li></ul>
    59. 60. <ul><li>Listen </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss </li></ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul>
    60. 61. <ul><li>Nature of Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Handling Grievances </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Stress </li></ul>1 1
    61. 62. <ul><li>Stress </li></ul>
    62. 63. <ul><li>What is Stress? </li></ul><ul><li>A pattern of emotional states and physiological reactions occurring in situations where individuals perceive threats to their important goals that they feel unable to meet </li></ul><ul><li>(Greenberg & Baron, 1993, p257). </li></ul>
    63. 65. <ul><li>Effects of Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Physical illness </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in task performance </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality decision making </li></ul>
    64. 66. <ul><li>Causes of Stress in Projects </li></ul>Long hours Tight schedules Transient work force High risks Work overload Role uncertainty Social relations
    65. 67. A Stress Survey <ul><li>How many of these for you </li></ul><ul><li>in the last year? </li></ul>
    66. 68. ( Greenberg & Baron, 1993, p238 )
    67. 69. <ul><li>Stress Management </li></ul>1. Organizational Level 2. Individual Level
    68. 70. <ul><li>Stress Management at the Organizational Level </li></ul><ul><li>setting reasonable work plans and schedules </li></ul><ul><li>delegating responsibility and increasing independence </li></ul><ul><li>clarifying responsibilities, authority, and performance criteria </li></ul><ul><li>clarifying goals, procedures, and decision criteria </li></ul><ul><li>giving consideration and support in leadership </li></ul>
    69. 71. <ul><li>Stress Management for the Individual </li></ul><ul><li>stress management program </li></ul><ul><li>relaxation training </li></ul><ul><li>diversions from work-related problems </li></ul>
    70. 72. Review <ul><li>Conflict is the opposition of people or forces that develops into an aggressive state or action. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of IT project conflict includes; schedules, priorities and workforce issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict can be good and bad. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict handling styles include; avoiding, compromise, competition, accommodation, and collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance handling strategies include; listen, discuss, and plan. Not dealing with grievances can be harmful to projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Work environment improvements and reducing stress is essential to a team’s health and the success of the project. </li></ul>
    71. 73. References <ul><li>Condliffe, P. (1991). Conflict management – A practical guide . Collingwood, Vic.: RMIT. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. (1993). Behavior in organizations (4 th ed.). Syd., NSW: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Nicholas, J. (2001). Project management for business technology – Principles and practice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. </li></ul>
    72. 74. Photo credits Helico assbach _uncommon bootload James Gordon orionoir Steve9091 Destinys Agent Karthik Sudhir bfick kodama BryonRealey Photos come care of Flickr, CC and generous community members. Most photo credits are in the notes section of the page itself. Some are below.
    73. 75. BetterProjects.net <ul><li>Title page pic care of Helico & CC @ Flickr </li></ul>
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