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The Project Management Process - Week 7   Managing Teams
 

The Project Management Process - Week 7 Managing Teams

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About managing teams in a project context

About managing teams in a project context

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The Project Management Process - Week 7   Managing Teams The Project Management Process - Week 7 Managing Teams Presentation Transcript

  • Project Management 7. Managing Teams
  • Week 7
    • Our goal today is to develop and facilitate leadership, team building, performance management, and conflict management skills in the context of an IT environment
    • Main reference: Gray & Larson, 2006, Ch 11.
    • Effective Team Characteristics
    • Why Join Teams?
    • Team Development
    • Keys to Managing People
    • Managing Project Teams
    • Project Team Conflict
    • Project Team Pitfalls
    • Effective Team Characteristics
    • What is a Team?
    • A team
    • is a group of individuals who cooperate and work together to achieve a given set of objectives or goals (Horodyski, 1995).
    • is close cooperation between cross-trained employees who are familiar with a wide range of jobs in their organization
    Teamwork
    • Team-building
    • is high interaction among group members to increase trust and openness
    • Effective Team Characteristics
      • 1
      • Project Team Size
      • 2
      • Common Characteristics
    • Project Team Size
    • Performance is based on balance of members carrying out roles and meeting social and emotional needs
    • Project teams of 5 to 12 members work best
    • There are problems you encounter as size increases
    • It gets more difficult to interact with and influence the group
    • Individuals get less satisfaction from their involvement in the team
    • People end up with less commitment to the team goals
    • It requires more centralized decision making
    • There is lesser feeling as being part of team
    • Project Team Size
    The Mythical Man-Month
  • Assigning more programmers to a project running behind schedule will make it even later, due to the time required for the new programmers to learn about the project, as well as the increased communication overhead. - Fred Brooks
  • Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
          • Group Intercommunication Formula
          • n ( n − 1) / 2
  • Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
          • Group Intercommunication Formula
          • n ( n − 1) / 2
          • Examples
  • Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
          • Group Intercommunication Formula
          • n ( n − 1) / 2
          • Examples
          • 5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication
  • Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
          • Group Intercommunication Formula
          • n ( n − 1) / 2
          • Examples
          • 5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication
          • 10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication
  • Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
          • Group Intercommunication Formula
          • n ( n − 1) / 2
          • Examples
          • 5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication
          • 10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication
          • 50 developers -> 50(50 − 1) / 2 = 1225 channels of communication
  • Common Characteristics of High Performing Teams
    • Goals are clearly defined and matched with measurable outcomes
    • Accurate effective 2-way communication
    • Leadership is shared and participation encouraged
    • Effective decision making and problem solving
    • Team identity and cohesiveness
  • Diverse backgrounds and experience
    • Cooperation and collaboration
    • They share a common identity
  • Figure 1 Characteristics or needs of effective teams ( Horodyski, 1995 , p12)
    • Why Join Teams?
  • Why do people want to join teams?
    • Individual reasons
    • Security
    • Status
    • Self-esteem
    • Affiliation
    • Power
    • Goal achievement
  • Why do teams work well for organizations?
    • Team Development
    • Project teams usually come together for a project and then disband. What challenges does this create?
    Project team
    • Tuckman (1960s) published five stage model of team development
  • Figure 9.1 Stages of Team Development ( Robbins et al, 1998 , p309)
  • Figure 11.1 The Five-Stage Team Development Model ( Gray & Larson, 2006 , p345)
    • Implications for teams:
    • A project manager needs to devote initial attention to helping the group evolve quickly to the (performing phase).
    • This model provides a framework for the group to understand its own development.
    • It stresses the importance of the norming phase which contributes to the level of productivity.
    • Recent studies suggest that there is no standardized pattern of group development. What do you think about Tuckman’s model?
    • Does it feel right to you?
    • Punctuated Equilibrium Model
    • (1988) Gersick found that there are natural transition points during the life of teams in which the group is receptive to change and that such a moment naturally occurs at the scheduled midpoint of a project
    • By imposing a series of deadlines, with milestones, it is possible to create multiple transition points for natural group development
  • Figure 11.2 The Punctuated Equilibrium Model of Group Development ( Gray & Larson, 2006 , p346)
    • Training can help people understand themselves and each other, and understand how to work better in teams.
    Training The main goal of team development is to help people work together more effectively to improve project performance.
    • Team building activities include physical challenges and psychological preference indicator tools
  • MBTI
    • What are you?
  • extrovert introvert sensation intuition thinking feeling judgement perception e s t j i n f p
  • extrovert introvert sensation intuition thinking feeling judgement perception e s t j i n f p e n t j me
    • NTs are attracted to technology fields
    • There is a belief that IT people differ from population in a tendency to not be extroverted or sensing.
    extrovert introvert sensation intuition thinking feeling judgement perception e s t j i n f p n i
  • The Max Wideman MTBI article “ Do we have enough of the right kind of people?”
    • R. Max Wideman, (1998) Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large: Do we have enough of the right kind of people? FPMI, AEW Services, Vancouver, BC, Canada. http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/profiles/profiles.pdf
  • What is your suitability to Project Work? * Wideman, R. Max. “Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large: Do we have enough of the right kind of people?” (http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/profiles/profiles.pdf ).
  • Another model
    • Social Styles Profile
    • People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of four zones, based on their assertiveness and responsiveness
    Assertiveness Responsiveness
  • Another model Analytical Driver Amiable Expressive Responsiveness Assertiveness Ask Tell People Task
    • Reward and Recognition Systems
    • Team-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamwork
    • Focus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goals
    • Allow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meet project goals and develop human resources
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/hi-phi/1100036300/
    • Reward and Recognition Systems cont’d…
      • Recognize individual performance?
        • letters of commendation
        • public recognition for outstanding work
        • desirable job assignments
        • increased personal flexibility
    Team Development cont’d…
    • Keys to Managing People
    • Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research and thought to the field of managing people at work. Important areas related to project management include (1)Motivation, (2)Influence and power, and (3) Effectiveness
    • Intrinsic motivation causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment
    • eg. read, gardening…
    • Extrinsic motivation causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty
    • eg. homework
    Motivation
    • Motivation Theorists
      • Maslow’s hierarch of needs
      • Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene
      • McClelland’s acquired-needs
      • McGregor’s X and Y
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • (1960s) Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy of needs to illustrate his theory that people’s behaviors are guided by a sequence of needs
    • Maslow argued that humans possess unique qualities that enable them to make independent choices, thus giving them control of their destiny
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs http://talkingtails.wordpress.com/2007/07/23/maslow-greek-philosophy-indian-mysticism/
    • Hertzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
    • In the late 1960s Frederick Herzberg wrote about worker motivation.
    • He distinguished between motivation factors and hygiene factors.
    motivation factors Help motivate workers directly eg. achievement, recognition, work, responsibility hygiene factors cause dissatisfaction if absent but do not motivate, eg. Money, working conditions,
  • http://www.provenmodels.com/21/motivation-hygiene-theory/herzberg-mausner-snyderman
  • ( Robbins et al, 1998, p221)
    • McClelland’s Acquired-Needs Theory
    • (1961) David McClelland proposed an individual’s specific needs are acquired or learned over time and shaped by life experiences.
    • Categories:
      • achievement
      • affiliation
      • power
    • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
    • In the 1960’s Douglas McGregor popularized the human relations approach
    • Theory X: workers dislike and avoid work
    • Theory Y: work is as natural as play or rest
    • Theory Z: emphasizing trust, quality, collective decision making, and cultural values
  • http://www.provenmodels.com/20/theory-x-&-y/mcgregor
    • Thamhain and Wilemon’s influence bases
    • (1970’s) HJ Thamhain and DL Wilemon identified nine influence bases available to project managers
      • authority
      • assignment
      • budget
      • promotion
      • money
      • penalty
      • work challenge
      • expertise
      • friendship
    • Steven Covey’s 7 habits
    • Ca be applied to improve effectiveness on projects
      • Be proactive
      • Begin with the end in mind
      • Put first things first
      • Think win/win
      • Seek first to understand, then to be understood
      • Synergize
      • Sharpen the saw
    • Covey’s Habit 5: Seek first to understand, then to be understood
    • Managing Project Teams
    • Project managers must lead their teams in performing various project activities
    • After assessing team performance and related information, the project manager must decide:
      • if changes should be requested to the project
      • if corrective or preventive actions should be recommended
      • if updates are needed to the project management plan or organizational process assets
    • Tools and techniques available to assist in managing project teams include:
      • observation and conversation
      • project performance appraisals
      • conflict management
      • issue logs
  • Develop your team
    • Be patient and kind with your team
    • Fix the problem instead of blaming people
    • Establish regular, effective meetings
    • Allow time for teams to go through the basic team-building stages
    • Limit the size of work teams to five to twelve members
    • Plan some social activities to help project team members and other stakeholders
    • Stress team identity
    • Nurture team members and encourage them to help each other
    • Take additional actions to work with virtual team members
    Develop your team
    • Voluntary team membership
    • Continuous service on the team
    • Full-time assignment to the team
    • An organization culture of cooperation and trust
    • Members report only to the project manager
    • Functional areas are represented on the team
    • The project has a compelling objective
    • Members are in speaking distance of each other
    Know the conditions favorable for development of high performing teams
    • Meetings?
  • A brief diversion into Management and Meetings
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
    • Don’t waste my time
  • Conducting Project Meetings Conducting Project Meetings Establishing Ground Rules Planning Decisions Tracking Decisions Managing Change Decisions Relationship Decisions Managing Subsequent Meetings
    • Time
    • Date
    • Place
    • Who must be there
    • Meeting goals
    • Agenda
    • Expected outcome
    • Preparation required
    • Factors affecting recruiting
      • importance of the project
      • management structure used to complete the project
    • How to recruit?
      • ask for volunteers
    • Who to recruit?
      • problem-solving ability
      • availability
      • technological expertise
      • credibility
      • political connections
      • ambition, initiative, and energy
    Recruiting Project Members
  • Figure 11.32 Creating a High-Performance Project Team ( Gray & Larson, 2006 , p348)
    • Establishing a Team Identity
    Effective Use of Meetings Co-location of team members Creation of project team name Team rituals
  • Figure 11.4 Requirements for an Effective Project Vision ( Gray & Larson, 2006 , p357)
    • Orchestrating the Decision-Making Process
    Problem Identification Generating Alternatives Reaching a Decision Follow-up
  • Rejuvenating the Project Team
    • Informal Techniques
      • institute new rituals
      • take an off-site break as a team from the project
      • view an inspiration message or movie
      • have the project sponsor give a pep talk
  • Rejuvenating the Project Team
    • Formal Techniques
      • team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify ownership issues affecting performance
      • engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common experience to promote social development of the team
    • Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams
    • Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams
      • Developing trust
        • exchange of social information
        • set clear roles for each team member
    • Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams
      • Developing effective patterns of communication
        • include face-to-face if at all possible
        • keep team members informed on how the overall project is going
        • don’t let team members vanish
        • establish a code of conduct to avoid delays
        • establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts
  • Figure 11.6 24-Hour Global Clock ( Gray & Larson, 2006 , p369)
    • Project Team Conflict
  • Managing Conflict in the Project Team
  • Managing Conflict in the Project Team
    • Encouraging Functional Conflict
      • encourage dissent by asking tough questions
      • bring in people with different points of view
      • designate someone to be a devil’s advocate
      • ask the team to consider an alternative
  • Managing Conflict in the Project Team
    • Encouraging Functional Conflict
      • encourage dissent by asking tough questions
      • bring in people with different points of view
      • designate someone to be a devil’s advocate
      • ask the team to consider an alternative
    • Managing Dysfunctional Conflict
      • mediate the conflict
      • arbitrate the conflict
      • control the conflict
      • accept the conflict
      • eliminate the conflict
    • Project Team Pitfalls
  • Figure 11.5 Conflict Intensity over the Project Life Cycle ( Gray & Larson, 2006 , p363)
  • Project Team Pitfalls Groupthink Bureaucratic Bypass Syndrome Team Spirit Becomes Team Infatuation Going Native
  • Review
    • Effective teams have common characteristics such as; size range, purpose, communication, leadership, cohesiveness, identity, diversity, and cooperation.
    • Traditional research suggests teams develop in 5-stage process ; forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Modern approach indicates growth occurs at project transition points.
    • Team development can be facilitated through training, personality indicators, social styles profiles, and reward systems.
    • PM’s can utilize people handling strategies from motivation theorists and other theorists such as; Maslow, Hertzberg, McClelland, McGregor and Covey …
    • Other areas of importance include; recruitment, maintenance, and conflict management of project teams.
  • References
    • Horodyski, K. (1995). Managing and developing teams . Footscray, Vic.: Open Training Services.
    • Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. (1993). Behavior in organizations (4 th ed.). Syd., NSW: Allyn and Bacon.
    • Robbins, S., et al. (1998). Organisational behaviour (2nd ed.). Sydney: Prentice-Hall
  • BetterProjects.net
    • Title page pic care of atomicShed & CC @ Flickr
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