26.
<ul><li>Each cash inflow/outflow is discounted back to its present value (PV ). </li></ul><ul><li>Year 1’s value in today’s terms, </li></ul><ul><li>Year 2’s value in today’s terms, </li></ul><ul><li>Year 3’s value in today’s terms, </li></ul><ul><li>Year 4’s value in today’s terms, </li></ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul>
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2. Then they are summed. Year 1 + Year 2 + Year 3 + Year 4 + Etc ------------ = Sum
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<ul><li>t - the time of the cash flow </li></ul><ul><li>N - the total time of the project </li></ul><ul><li>r - the discount rate (the rate of return that could be earned on an investment in the financial markets with similar risk.) </li></ul><ul><li>Ct - the net cash flow (the amount of cash) at time t </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(for educational purposes, C 0 is commonly placed to the left of the sum to emphasize its role as the initial investment.) </li></ul></ul>
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What is it? r the discount rate (the rate of return that could be earned on an investment in the financial markets with similar risk.)
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What is it? <ul><li>Ct </li></ul><ul><li>the net cash flow (the amount of cash) at time t </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(for educational purposes, C 0 is commonly placed to the left of the sum to emphasize its role as the initial investment.) </li></ul></ul>
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<ul><li>The value of money over time </li></ul>
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The discount rate <ul><li>Because your 10% discount rate is worked out backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Last year was 10% greater than this year… </li></ul>Why not… Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 91% 83% 75% 68%
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The discount rate <ul><li>10% </li></ul><ul><li>Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 </li></ul><ul><li>91% 83% 75% 68% </li></ul><ul><li>So it looks like this </li></ul>
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But it ain’t perfect <ul><li>The NPV investment begins one period before the date of the value1 cash flow and ends with the last cash flow in the list. The NPV calculation is based on future cash flows. If your first cash flow occurs at the beginning of the first period, the first value must be added to the NPV result, not included in the values arguments. For more information, see the examples below </li></ul>
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The calculations in excel are … <ul><li>The NPV investment begins one period before the date of the value1 cash flow and ends with the last cash flow in the list. The NPV calculation is based on future cash flows. If your first cash flow occurs at the beginning of the first period, the first value must be added to the NPV result, not included in the values arguments. For more information, see the examples below </li></ul>different
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NPV in excel <ul><li>The NPV investment begins one period before the date of the value1 cash flow and ends with the last cash flow in the list. The NPV calculation is based on future cash flows. If your first cash flow occurs at the beginning of the first period, the first value must be added to the NPV result, not included in the values arguments. For more information, see the examples below </li></ul>
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When is it used? <ul><li>Assessing the value of a project </li></ul><ul><li>NPV is typically used for 2 reasons </li></ul><ul><li>2. Choosing which projects get priority </li></ul>
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<ul><li>Assessing the value of a project </li></ul><ul><li>NPV is typically used for 2 reasons </li></ul><ul><li>2. Choosing which projects get priority </li></ul>
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<ul><li>Assessing the value of a project </li></ul><ul><li>NPV is typically used for 2 reasons </li></ul><ul><li>2. Choosing which projects get priority </li></ul>
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<ul><li>Assessing the value of a project </li></ul><ul><li>NPV is typically used for 2 reasons </li></ul><ul><li>2. Choosing which projects get priority </li></ul>
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When do you use it? Project 1 Project 2 Compare & Contrast Which one is best? Costs & Benefits Is it worth our investment?
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Which is the better investment? http://www.flickr.com/photos/makz/56920649/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/f2g2/75152105/
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Which was the better investment? http://www.flickr.com/photos/orangebrompton/1858900270/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/orangebrompton/1858900270/
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What is IRR? The amount you need to earn to make it all worthwhile
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What is IRR? It is based on things like opportunity cost, the cost of money and risk
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< 0 < NPV < 0 NPV = 0 NPV > 0 The investment’s return is less than the discounted cash threshold The investment’s return meets the discounted cash threshold The investment’s return exceeds the discounted cash threshold < 0 = 0 > 0
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<ul><li>What impact does (would) NPV have on your project? </li></ul>
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Answers <ul><li>What is NPV good for? </li></ul><ul><li>When does a project manager use NPV? </li></ul><ul><li>What project documents (or artefacts) would you find NPV calculations in? </li></ul><ul><li>How does NPV help in decision making? </li></ul><ul><li>When is NPV not so useful? </li></ul><ul><li>What impact does (would) NPV have on your project? </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the future value of money in today’s terms </li></ul><ul><li>In presenting the cost-benefit analysis, or justification for a project </li></ul><ul><li>Business cases, project plans, and project portfolio reports </li></ul><ul><li>It helps compare the value of different projects against investment targets </li></ul><ul><li>If a project and it’s benefits are only going to run for a short period (e.g. less than a year) or if a project’s benefits are non financial </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect on your project’s costs and forecast benefits </li></ul>
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Another example Estimated costs; $1,750,000 in year 1 and $400,000 each year in years 2, 3 and 4. Estimated benefits; $0 in year 1, and $950,000 each year in years 2, 3, and 4. Use a 10 percent discount rate.
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Another example Estimated costs; $2,500,000 in year 1 and $250,000 each year in years 2, 3 and 4. Estimated benefits; $0 in year 1, and $750,000 each year in years 2, 3, and 4. Use a 10 percent discount rate.
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<ul><li>Craig Brown </li></ul><ul><li>www.BetterProjects.net </li></ul>
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<ul><li>One last request </li></ul><ul><li>If you are a Presentation ZEN thusiast – I’d love to see your efforts to improve this pack. </li></ul>
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thanks for sharing bro !