The Five R’s
There Can Be No DB2 Performance
Improvements Without Them!
By Craig S. Mullins
2
Application Performance
BIND and REBIND are critical for application performance
Wise organizations plan their REBIND st...
3
Let It Ride
— Programs once bound, are (almost) never rebound.
— Reason:

Fear of access path degradation
— Result:

N...
4
Regular REBIND
— Better Approach: Regular REBINDing

The Three R’s (next slide)
— Reason:

Access paths are more up-to...
5
The Three R’s

REORG

RUNSTATS

REBIND
As far back as February 1993
6
But the Three R’s are Not Enough!

With only Three R’s, a lot of questions remain…
— When should you REORGanize?

To p...
7
OK, so When Should we REBIND?
When do we REBIND?

The best answer to this questions is: “Whenever data has changed
sign...
8
Reviewing the Steps: The 3 5 R’s
1. RTS (or RUNSTATS)
2. REORG
3. RUNSTATS
4. REBIND
5. Recheck

In other words, what d...
9
Bind ImpactExpert
The big problem implementing the 5 R’s is how to
recheck after rebinding
SEGUS Bind ImpactExpert autom...
9
Bind ImpactExpert
The big problem implementing the 5 R’s is how to
recheck after rebinding
SEGUS Bind ImpactExpert autom...
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The Five R's: There Can be no DB2 Performance Improvement Without Them!

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We know that BIND and REBIND are important components in assuring optimal application performance. It is the bind process that determines exactly how your DB2 data is accessed in your application programs. But binding requires statistics for the optimizer to use... and if the data is disorganized even current stats might not help... and you have to make sure that you check on the results of binding... and... well, let's just say this short presentations examines all of these issues and more.

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  • OK, so we know that BIND and REBIND are important components in assuring optimal application performance. It is the bind process that determines exactly how your DB2 data is accessed in your application programs. As such, it critically important that you develop an appropriate strategy for when and how to REBIND your programs. There are several common approaches taken by DB2 customers. By far, the best approach is the first – as we will learn. This approach involves some form of regular maintenance that keeps DB2 statistics up to date and formulates new access paths as data volumes and patterns change. More on this in a moment. Other approaches include binding only when a new version of DB2 is installed, or perhaps more ambitious, whenever new PTFs are applied to DB2. Another approach is to rebind automatically after a regular period of time, whether it is days, weeks, months, what have you. This approach can work if the period of time is wisely chosen based on the application data – but it still can pose significant administrative issues. The final approach – if it ain’t broke don’t fix it - is taken by some organizations… and it is the worst of the several approaches here. Let’s go on to the next slide to discuss the issues with this tactic.
  • The biggest problem with this approach is that you are penalizing EVERY program in your subsystem for fear that a program or two will have a few degraded access paths. This results in potentially many programs having sub-optimal performance because the optimizer never gets a chance to create better access paths as the data changes. Of course, the possibility of degraded performance is real. The problem is being able to find which statements may be worse. The ideal would situation would be to be able to review the access path changes before hand to determine if they are better or worse. But DB2 does not provide any systematic method of administering access paths that way.
  • As I mentioned previously, the best approach is to perform regular REBINDs as your data changes. This involves what has become known as the three Rs. We’ll discuss this approach on the next slide in just a moment. At any rate, your goal should be to keep your access paths up-to-date with the current state of your data. Failing to do this means that DB2 is accessing data based upon false assumptions. DB2 is unlikely to make the same access path choice as your data grows – and as patterns within the data change. By REBINDing you can generally improve the overall performance of your applications because the access paths will be better designed based on an accurate view of the data. Additionally, as DB2 changes are made (via new releases or PTFs) optimizer improvements and new access techniques can be incorporated into the access paths. OF course, this means you will have to develop a methodology for reviewing your access paths and taking care of any “potential” problem access paths. But tackling this as a manual process can be difficult.
  • Anyway, the proper approach of regular rebinds is typically referred to as the Three R’s. This means regularly reorganizing the data to ensure that it is optimally structured. That is followed by RUNSTATS to be sure that the reorganized state of the data is reflected in the DB2 Catalog. Finally, we follow that up with REBINDs of the application programs that access the data structures that have been reorganized and RUNSTATed.
  • Of course, the Three R’s can pose more questions than it answers. For example, when should you REORGanize? In order to properly determine when a REORG is needed you’ll have to look at statistics. This mean looking at either RUNSTATS or Real-Time Statistics. So, perhaps it should be at least 4 R’s – in other words, RUNSTATS, REORG, RUNSTATS, REBIND. Some folks don’t rely on statistics to schedule a REORG but just build the JCL to REORG their database objects when they create the object. So they create a table space then build the REORG job and schedule it to run monthly, or quarterly, or on some regular basis. This is better than no REORG at all, but it is probably not the best approach because you are probably either reorging too soon (in which case you waste the CPU cycles to do the REORG) or you are reorging too late (in which case performance is suffering for a period of time before the REORG runs). Better to base your REORGs off of statistics – either RUNSTATS or RTS. OK, then when should you run RUNSTATS? My answer is "As frequently as possible based on how often your data changes.” Of course, this means you need to know a thing or two about your data growth patterns. To properly determine a schedule for statistics you need to know things about your data: what is its make-up, how is it used, how fast does it grow, and how often does it change? These patterns will differ for every table space in your system. Next we need to decide when to REBIND? The best answer for this is when statistics have changed significantly enough to change access paths. But knowing when this is so is the hard part.
  • OK, so how do we use the statistics to REBIND. If we know that data has significantly changed it makes sense to REBIND (after RUNSTATS, of course). But the trick is knowing exactly when we have a significant change in our data. Without an automated method of comparing and contrasting statistics (or even better yet, access paths) coming up with an answer in a manual way can be time-consuming and error-prone – especially when we get into the thousands of programs. And we always have to be alert for a rogue access path – that is, when the optimizer formulates a new access path that performs worse than the previous access path. This can happen for a variety of reasons. Of course, number one is that the optimizer, though good, is not perfect. So mistakes can happen. Other factors can cause worse access, too. The access paths for volatile tables depend on when you run the RUNSTATS. Volatile tables are those that start out empty, get rows added to them during processing, and are emptied out at the end of the day. And, of course, if the catalog or statistics are not accurate we can get problems, too.
  • So the 3 R’s probably need to become the 5 R’s. We have to start off with a RUNSTATS (or use RTS) to determine when to REORG, after which we should RUNSTATS, followed by a REBIND. But we also really need that fifth R – which is to recheck what the REBIND actually did. As we mentioned, the optimizer can make mistakes. And, of course, so can you. Users don't call you when performance is better (or the same) – at least not usually. But if performance gets worse, you can bet on getting a call from irate users. So we need to put in place best practices whereby we test BINDs to compare the before and after impact of the optimizer’s choices. This is easier said than done.
  • The Five R's: There Can be no DB2 Performance Improvement Without Them!

    1. 1. The Five R’s There Can Be No DB2 Performance Improvements Without Them! By Craig S. Mullins
    2. 2. 2 Application Performance BIND and REBIND are critical for application performance Wise organizations plan their REBIND strategy There are several common approaches:  Daily maintenance: REBIND after RUNSTATS — Perhaps not every day, but REBIND are done after RUNSTATS  Global REBIND after migration to new DB2 version  Global REBIND after installing new PTFs — For the above two, access paths change only when DB2 changes  REBIND after x days / weeks / months …  Let it Ride! (“If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”)
    3. 3. 3 Let It Ride — Programs once bound, are (almost) never rebound. — Reason:  Fear of access path degradation — Result:  No improvement to access paths  No CPU savings from new DB2 efficiencies  Sub-optimal performance  Every DB2 program potentially suffers for fear that one or two SQL statements will become inefficient
    4. 4. 4 Regular REBIND — Better Approach: Regular REBINDing  The Three R’s (next slide) — Reason:  Access paths are more up-to-date based on the current state of the data. — Result:  Generally, improved access paths  CPU savings from new DB2 efficiencies  Optimal performance — Of course, you can still get those “problem” access paths.
    5. 5. 5 The Three R’s  REORG  RUNSTATS  REBIND As far back as February 1993
    6. 6. 6 But the Three R’s are Not Enough!  With only Three R’s, a lot of questions remain… — When should you REORGanize?  To properly determine requires RUNSTATS (or RTS).  So should it be RUNSTATS, REORG, RUNSTATS, REBIND? — When should you run RUNSTATS?  To properly determine you need to know the make-up, usage, and volatility of your data. — When should you REBIND?  When statistics have changed significantly enough to change access paths.
    7. 7. 7 OK, so When Should we REBIND? When do we REBIND?  The best answer to this questions is: “Whenever data has changed significantly enough that it may impact the performance of the existing access paths.” — The problem is knowing exactly when this happens.  DB2 application performance can be negatively affected by uncontrolled REBINDs.  Causes — Optimizer inefficiency — Volatile tables — Catalog pollution — Inefficient use of RUNSTATS
    8. 8. 8 Reviewing the Steps: The 3 5 R’s 1. RTS (or RUNSTATS) 2. REORG 3. RUNSTATS 4. REBIND 5. Recheck  In other words, what did the REBIND do? — Access path changes – better or worse?
    9. 9. 9 Bind ImpactExpert The big problem implementing the 5 R’s is how to recheck after rebinding SEGUS Bind ImpactExpert automates change control for DB2 access paths so…  …only improved access paths are accepted Then you only need to recheck the bad ones! For more information on Bind ImpactExpert: http://segus.com/language=en/887
    10. 10. 9 Bind ImpactExpert The big problem implementing the 5 R’s is how to recheck after rebinding SEGUS Bind ImpactExpert automates change control for DB2 access paths so…  …only improved access paths are accepted Then you only need to recheck the bad ones! For more information on Bind ImpactExpert: http://segus.com/language=en/887
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