Learning Styles


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Learning Styles

  1. 1. The Principles of Learning Styles
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To discuss how individuals preferred style of learning influences learning delivery </li></ul><ul><li>To complete and discuss the Honey & Mumford ‘Learning Styles Questionnaire’ </li></ul><ul><li>To consider what external factors can impact upon individual development </li></ul><ul><li>To agree how learning styles can be applied to the training environment </li></ul><ul><li>To examine various theories on the way in which people learn </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is A Learning Style <ul><li>An individuals learning style is the habitual way in which he or she learns </li></ul><ul><li>Includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How They Approach Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How They Experience Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How They Process Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How They Use The Information Learned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But is not related to intelligence, ability or experience </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Is Learning – Definition <ul><li>Learning is a relatively permanent change in the human </li></ul><ul><li>disposition that is not ascribable to the process of growth </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in attitude, interest or values, demonstrated over a period of time </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>We spend the first twelve months of our children's lives teaching them to walk and talk, and the next twelve years telling them to sit down and shut up! </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. How Do People Learn? <ul><li>Group Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Consider a successful training session you have recently run or participated in. </li></ul><ul><li>Why was it successful? </li></ul><ul><li>How did you influence the outcome? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Kolb’s Learning Cycle Experience Reflection Form Concepts Experiment
  8. 8. How Do We Process Information <ul><li>Visually – By Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Auditorally – By Sound </li></ul><ul><li>Kinaesthetically – By Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Tactilly – By Touch </li></ul>
  9. 9. Clues To A Learning Style <ul><li>The language the people use can give an indication of how they learn; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Learners – ‘I see what you mean’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory Learner – ‘I hear what you’re saying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinaesthetic Learner – ‘I feel we’re moving in the right direction ……………’ </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Seven Perceptual Styles <ul><li>Print – Seeing & understanding printed words </li></ul><ul><li>Aural – listening </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive – Verbalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Visual – Visualising images and pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Haptic – Using sense of touch </li></ul><ul><li>Kinaesthetic – Using whole body </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory – Uses sense of smell </li></ul>
  11. 11. Learning Theory – B.F. Skinner <ul><li>Reward Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A subject is rewarded for a correct response, e.g. winning a prize in a quiz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoidance Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Subject is penalised for an incorrect response, e.g. failing a course by not passing an exam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The subject is penalised for giving a particular response </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Learning Theory – Bandura <ul><li>Observationally Learned Behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject acts in a certain way after watching others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inhibited Behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject stops a certain behaviour when they see others being punished </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disinherited Behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees another ‘getting away with it’, more likely to attempt same behaviour </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Honey & Mumford Learning Styles <ul><li>Activist </li></ul><ul><li>Reflector </li></ul><ul><li>Theorist </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatist </li></ul>
  14. 14. Honey, Mumford & Kolb Experience Reflection Form Concepts Experiment Activist Pragmatist Theorist Reflector
  15. 15. Memory & Learning <ul><li>Training/Teaching tends to focus on the process by which we acquire information </li></ul><ul><li>Memory relates to how this information is retained for future use </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stages In Memory <ul><li>Encoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting information, verbally, visually, sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retaining information, firstly in short-term, then long term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulling back information from the sub-conscious to the conscious </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Separate Store Memory Model <ul><li>Sensory Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How we collect information using our senses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where we rehearse the information we have collected </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where information is stored long term, and brought back into short-term for use </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Integrating Learning Styles Into Training <ul><li>How Well Is Information Retained? </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture – 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Reading 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Audio-Visual – 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration – 30% </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion Groups – 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Practice By Doing – 75% </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Others – 90% </li></ul>
  19. 19. Popular Teaching Methods Like % Dislike % Neutral % Group Discussion 80 4 17 Games & Simulations 80 4 17 Experiments 61 11 28 Computers 59 22 20 Practical Ideas 52 9 37 Library Research 50 24 26 Creating Products 41 11 43 Observation 30 13 57 Essays 13 28 54 Lectures 11 70 19
  20. 20. When A Group Is Not Working <ul><li>Low levels of participation & comment </li></ul><ul><li>The feeling that you are pushing the information onto them </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks completed out of courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion of their part & yours </li></ul>
  21. 21. When A Group Is Working <ul><li>People taking tasks further than planned </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing that the group is eager, asking many questions, and seeking suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>The group suggests practical ways to get over problems and actions to be taken </li></ul>
  22. 22. What Motivates People To Learn <ul><li>In small groups, brainstorm out a list of the things that you believe motivate people to learn </li></ul>
  23. 23. Typical Motivating Forces <ul><li>Learning more to earn more </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for career progression </li></ul><ul><li>Learning new skills for new role </li></ul><ul><li>Personal interests & hobbies </li></ul><ul><li>Social activity </li></ul><ul><li>Peer / parental pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Employer pressure </li></ul>
  24. 24. Key Issues In Adult Motivation <ul><li>Adult learners need to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly see the relevance of what is being taught </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel that their time spent learning, is time well spent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand and agree the steps that must be taken to improve </li></ul></ul>