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Bridging business analysis and business architecture - The Open Group webinar

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To design business models of the future requires a comprehensive set of skills. The skills are diverse in nature and range from the typical business analysis delivery focused requirements management …

To design business models of the future requires a comprehensive set of skills. The skills are diverse in nature and range from the typical business analysis delivery focused requirements management tools and techniques to the more business architect MBA style and business model innovation techniques.
But how can we leverage the two skillsets to create more cohesion in the industry?
Where is the overlap and is there a career path between the two?
What about the frameworks that support these two disciplines?
This presentation will deal with:
Shifts occurring in the market;
Where the business architect and the business analyst provide value individually;
Where the business architecture and the business analyst provide value together;
How are the disciplines merging; and what the future could look like.

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  • 1. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 31 The Open Group Webinar. Bridging Business Analysis and Business Architecture Final–v1.0.0- March6th 2013 CraigMartin COOandChiefArchitect ofEnterpriseArchitects
  • 2. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 32 Agenda 1. Contextualise the business landscape 2. Business Architecture and Business Analysis Paths, skills and roles 3. Opportunities to Improve the Maturity in Business 4. Tools to support the business disciplines 5. Business Views and Models 6. A Method of Execution 7. Team Look and Feel
  • 3. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 33 EA is a leading international provider of strategy and architecture services and capabilities Championing Practice Awareness in the Community • Chief Architect / CTO Round Tables • Virtual Teaming & Practitioner Collaboration • Open Group Participation • Industry Engagement Lifetime Relationship with Practising Architects • Practitioner career lifecycle management • Architecture training and certification • Professional development • Community involvement • PAYG payroll services • Learning forums Skills Uplift for Organisations & Individuals • TOGAF® 9.1 Certification • ArchiMate® 2.0 • Advanced / Applied EA • Business Architecture • Information Governance • Solution Architecture • BPMN Strategic Relationship With Corporate Clients • Strategy & Architecture Capability Improvement • The delivery of strategic architecture outcomes • Architecture delivery Accelerator Frameworks • Resourcing & Talent • Managed Services Learning Services Architect Services Thought Leadership Enterprise Services
  • 4. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 35 Utility (Foundation) Innovate Build Advantages Assemble Prolong Advantages Mix Reduce Disadvantages What's Business About? The Building Block Analogy Differentiation
  • 5. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 36 Finding the Right Business Mixes The Challenge is reducing the time it takes to move from the unresolved business challenges space to the repeatable formulas space Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable formulas & processes Ultimately all innovative algorithms will become utility. * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business
  • 6. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 37 The Right Business Mix Results in Cohesion Which Increases Performance Companies with a High Level of Cohesion affect EBIT Directly 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% 24% 28% 32% 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 EBITmargin,2003-2007 Capabilities coherence score Coca-Cola Wrigley PepsiCo Kimberly-Clark Sara Lee ConAgra Merck Unilever H.J. Heinz Kraft General Mills Clorox Campbell Soup Company P&G *Adapted from “The Coherence Premium” – Harvard Business Review, June 2010 A coherent organization is one that is thought of and executed as a whole
  • 7. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 38 The Goal of A Good Business Model is to Create Coherence • A Coherent Business Model is one that is synchronised around: » its market position, » its product and service portfolio; and » its most distinctive strategic capabilities • All of the above working together as a system • To bring coherence to these components requires a variety of business skills and disciplines Building Cohesion Requires an Understanding of the components, and how to mix them in a manner that is innovative and differentiating The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology
  • 8. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 39 ANALYTICAL THINKING INTUITIVE THINKING * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business GOAL: Reliably produce consistent, predictable outcomes GOAL: Produce outcomes that meet desired objectives Coherency requires a balance of goals and thinking types The Challenge is identifying the right skills in the organization that are able to traverse the domains of innovative intuitive thinking, and reliable analytical thinking . Investment Typically goes here NPV EVA Operation Management Quality Management Corporate Governance Enterprise Patterns Portfolio Analysis IT Governance Value Engineering PRINCE2 Six Sigma & Loan Business Intelligence Strategic Traceability Financial Modelling Innovation Management Business Analysis Data visualisation Talent Management System Thinking Mission Business Model Design Stakeholder Value TOGAF Cost Engineering Solution Architecture Knowledge Ecosystem Six Thinking Hats Collective Intelligence Gamification Crowdsourcing Change Management Perception Management Wicked Problems Environmental Scanning Brand Management Integrative ThinkingGoals Capability Five Forces Root Cause Analysis Product Management Search for “The EA Headspace”
  • 9. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 310 ANALYTICAL THINKING INTUITIVE THINKING * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business GOAL: Produce consistent, predictable outcomes GOAL: Produce outcomes that meet desired objectives Certain Business Disciplines Are Required to Reduce the time to codify Key disciplines are required to reduce the time taken to move unresolved business challenges into reliable and repeatable processes Who is best qualified to operate here? Should investment go here and who is qualified to operate here? Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable processes
  • 10. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 311 But Who is Responsible?
  • 11. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 312 What We Have Found In Large Accounts Lines of responsibility around cohesion and business architecture, are often unclear Functional Capabilities Cross- Functional Capabilities EnterpriseCoherency Capabilities Strategic Architecture Mandate – Business Ownership IT Architecture Mandate – IT Ownership Business Architecture Mandate Undefined Cohesion Mandate Undefined - Enterprise Planning Ownership
  • 12. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 313 Getting Closer to Business Business Stakeholders are seeking more value, but are often receiving more complexity TOGAFBusiness Stakeholder Relationship Management Who is best qualified to own this space?
  • 13. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 314 Business Architecture and Business Analysis Which of these disciplines are the most qualified to handle the relationship with the stakeholder? Context of Work UnderlyingCompetency Detail Focus Big Picture FoundationalAdvanced Entry level BA Junior BA Inter- mediate BA Senior BA Advanced Generalist BA Analyst BizArch Senior BizArch Principal BizArch Master BizArch Distinguished BizArch Business Analysis Business Architecture Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Business Architect
  • 14. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 315 Value Mandate E A B C D Responsibility Depends Upon The Mandate from Business The EA Mandate - Value Increases when Mandate Increases. Business Architecture is seen as a positive progression away from IT *Adapted from Ruth Malan, Dana Bredemeyer • Maximize Product Profitability • Maximise Market Share • Maximise Customer Lifetime Value Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide program and portfolio performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance (Shareholder Value) Improve Product/Service Performance
  • 15. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 316 Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide program and portfolio performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance (Shareholder Value) Value Mandate Improve Product/Service Performance E A B C D How Does the Mandate Affect Business Roles? There are three areas that we can align to general BABOK language Lets Call this space the Enterprise Planning and Performance space Lets Call this space the Business Improvement space Lets Call this space the Business Transition space
  • 16. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 317 Value Mandate E A B C D What are the Possible Problem Scenarios? The Problem space varies significantly depending upon the mandate. Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide program and portfolio performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance (Shareholder Value) Improve Product/Service Performance Business Transition space We are looking to acquire a variety of companies. How can we apportion our assets across the company to best take advantage of an M&A The Business is losing market share due to inefficiencies across the value chain. Find out what the bottlenecks are and fix it The business is going through a major transformation program. Deliver the solution on time and under budget. Design the solution for an HR system
  • 17. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 318 Value Mandate E A B C D What are the Dominant Skills Across the Mandate? The required Skills will therefore vary across the mandate Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide program and portfolio performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance (Shareholder Value) Improve Product/Service Performance Gap in SFIA Addressed by SFIA Addressed by SFIA Shareholder Value Analysis Value Maps and Driver trees Strategic Planning Organisation Design Economics and Accounting Systems Thinking Corporate Governance Elicitation Business Analysis Performance Recommendation of Improvements Lean thinking Six Sigma TQM TOC Requirements analysis mngmnt and comms Enterprise analysis Determine business processes Planning and monitoring Solution assessment and validation Program and Portfolio mngmnt and Governance Risk mngmnt Change Mngmnt Benefit Realisation Business Transition space Quantitative Analysis Product Strategy Design Thinking Enterprise Planning
  • 18. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 319 Value Mandate E A B C D What might the roles look like across the Mandate? The true value of each role is reached when they operate within their “sweet spot” Entry Level BA Junior BA Intermediate BA Senior BA Principal Business Architect BA Project Lead BA Program Lead BA Practice Leader Business Relationship Manager Strategic BA Distinguished BizArch Master BizArch Business Architect Analyst BizArch Improve project performance Improve enterprise wide program and portfolio performance Improve Business Performance Improve Market Performance (Shareholder Value) Improve Product/Service Performance Enterprise Planning and Performance space Business Improvement space Business Transition space BABOK does not recognise a hybrid overlap between the Business Analyst and the Business architect Senior BizArch
  • 19. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 320 Lack of Opportunity The Current Business Analysis Career Path Dilutes the true Value The progression or the business analyst often moves from business understanding to management and delivery type functions Time KnowledgeOfBusiness Entry Level BA Junior BA Intermediate BA Senior BA BA Project Lead BA Program Lead BA Practice Leader Business Relationship Manager Principal Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Delivering Path Thought leadership in terms of the utility layer, standards, replicating, reliability etc. Managing Path Thought leadership in terms of management, delivery, change and politics Planning Path Thought leadership in terms of innovation, business models and mixes
  • 20. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 321 Why is there Lack of Opportunity? • Risk driven » Activities that produce consistent, predicable outcomes are more likely to attract investment due to lack of risk • Utility Driven » Business Analysis as well as business architecture are often seen as utility disciplines that provide the building blocks for the “actual” business • Delivery Driven » The business is in a delivery phase and the focus is therefore on delivery of outcomes through projects and programs • Organization Driven » Due to organization structures, there is less room at the top and hence less opportunity for those types of individuals. • Performance Driven » It is easier to measure the reliability dimension • Politically Driven » “In Corporate settings, high level heuristics are generally in the hands of highly paid executives who, out of sheer self interest, are reluctant to share that space and skill” » There is strong ownership of the business outcomes and hence business is reluctant to relinquish control to what it sees as “outside” the business • Mandate Driven » Ultimately all of the above are driven by the mandate » If the mandate from the business is for improved business performance or market share then the opportunity will exist
  • 21. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 322 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Closer alignment to the planning cycle
  • 22. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 323 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Provide Structural insight into strategic scenarios • Strategic option analysis - for a more informed understanding of the potential impact of each scenario on the business. • This helps the business to compare investment choices and effort before executing
  • 23. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 324 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Creation of a Unified Team of cross enterprise disciplines Change Manager Finance PMO Business Improvement Strategy Technology • Combination of People, Process & technology to drive out an outcome through projects
  • 24. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 325 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • High maturity organizations have a clear linkage between Business architecture, strategic goals, and performance management • These organizations also have a feedback loop which helps measure the progress towards objectives • This feedback loop will also inform the next iteration of business strategy and architecture. Piggy back off enterprise performance management as an onramp for business architecture
  • 25. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 326 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Provide executives with a cohesive, non-project based view of the investment spend • Address Capex and Opex conflicts • Address duplication of effort across the portfolio landscape • Maintain alignment of the ensuing programs • Allows business stakeholders to have a consistent business focussed view of the project investment and its status Support the investment planning cycle and cohesion of programs Removed
  • 26. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 327 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Choose your architecture sponsor carefully since it has a direct effect on the success of the architecture function. = significant improvement External consultants, or other individuals with recognized credibility, strengthen your business case. Highly placed business executives provide access to funding and help assert governance over business architecture. Executives with cross-functional responsibility will make the best allies for your architecture efforts Executive sponsors involved in change are more open to new initiatives and have access to discretionary funding. (Source: Info-Tech Research Group; N=43) 48% 50% 40% 60% 64% 94% 77% 76% 70% 69% 0% 50% 100% External consultant responsible for business architecture Most highly-placed executive Person responsible for change area Business architect employed by the company Person integrating multiple departments Involvement of business sponsors affects success of the Architecture function Not involved Involved in sponsorship If you have a choice of Architecture sponsors, look for external consultants, high-placed executives, or those in charge of change areas.
  • 27. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 328 33% 61% 0% 50% 100% Did not use Did use Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Always tie models into existing strategic planning artifacts • Mould architecture to current artifacts. • Document to resonate, explain and communicate. • Get to the bottom line. The absence of metrics outlining the efficiency, effectiveness, and agility gains of the business analysis and architecture discipline will drive the business away. • Don’t think it’s your job to introduce business leaders to the practice of modeling - Business models may not look like EA models, but you have to find the link between the two paradigms to achieve business engagement in target state design Tie target state models into existing strategic planning materials. Usage of pre-existing business process diagrams drives business engagement %businessengaged (Source: Info-Tech Research Group; N=44)
  • 28. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 329 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Find the heuristic super powers and use the business architecture techniques to develop the algorithms. • Understanding the heuristics puts you in a position of strength, since rewards and status tends to go to those individuals with the best and most reliable heuristic. • Motivation Models, cohesion planning, cross functional capabilities, journey maps, learning maps and value maps are all techniques to help understand the heuristic recipe Improve the speed through the knowledge funnel using business architecture techniques * From Roger Martin (2009) The Design of Business Unresolved Business Challenges Rules of thumb Robust, repeatable and replicable formulas & processes
  • 29. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 330 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities Moving unresolved business problems into the utility space is a journey across the complexity space that is supported by both the business architects and business analysts Software Automation Projects Funds investment Widget assembly Credit card approval Inventory Management Outsourcing Projects Major re- design projects Six-sigma based process improvement analysts New Product design Deals with other companies International Delivery On-line purchasing ERP based process improvement Complex Processes, not part of company’s core competency: Outsource Complex, dynamic processes of high value: undertake business process improvement efforts that focus on people Straightforward, static commodity processes: use automated ERP-Type applications and / or outsource Straightforward, static, and valuable: automate to gain efficiency High High Low Low Must be done but adds little value to product or services Very important to success, high value added to products and services Strategic Importance ProcessComplexityandDynamics Complex negotiation, design, or decision process Many business rules; expertise involved Some business rules Procedure or simple algorithm Organization Heuristics Principal Business Architects Business Analysts Strategic Business Architect Senior Business Analysts *Adapted from “Business Process Change” by Paul Harmon
  • 30. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 331 Strategies for Moving up the Curve to Open the Opportunities • Value and differentiation still require the use of the utility • Its this utility that must be optimised through the creation of algorithms • You need the utility and the algorithms to help build reliability and repeatability • Capital investment is predominantly directed towards this reliability and utility area since it is predictable and manageable Developing a strong utility layer allows you to leverage reliability to support more innovative initiatives Utility (Foundation) Innovate Build Advantages Assemble Prolong Advantages Mix Reduce Disadvantages
  • 31. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 332 Frameworks, Methods, tools and techniques help you build this utility layer. They are tools to capture the heuristics and convert them into algorithms
  • 32. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 333 TOGAF, BABOK and BIZBOK The Tools for the Business Disciplines are Complementary and tend to support the gaps that exist between them 0 1 2 3 4 5 Supporting Techniques for completing the outputs, workproducts and artefacts Defined list of outputs, workproducts and artefacts (Business Domain) Standardised technique for defining outputs A method to execute for the Business Domain A method to execute for the Enterprise An classification scheme Competency model for the Business Domain Practice development for the Business Domain BABOK v2 BIZBOK 3.0 TOGAF 9.1
  • 33. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 334 TOGAF – A Brief Introduction TOGAF is a FRAMEWORK and focusses a lot on structural aspects. It can be seen as the “Glue” that interlinks all aspects of an enterprise A Method of Execution A Classification System Structure of Views and Models
  • 34. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 335 TOGAF – Some Misunderstandings • “As a business architect I was looking forward to TOGAF 9.0 expecting some more in depth approach to business issues however I was dis-appointed. It remains still an EITA framework not a true EA framework; more work to be done I expect on making it business and customer focussed” • "The importance of TOGAF seems to be waning. I suspect that there are a number of reasons, including: » The cost/benefit is unfavourable. » The cloud is becoming more important, and TOGAF seems less relevant in that environment. » Organizations are focusing more on buy vs.. build, and TOGAF seems less relevant in that world." • "We don't need to waste time doing business architecture - we have eTom." Chief Architect of Major Telco If they don’t understand it, then they wont be able to sell it and the utility space will remain fragmented
  • 35. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 336 TOGAF – A Different Perspective TOGAF is not an EA body of knowledge, similar to BABOK or PMBOK. Instead it is just an attempt at providing a reusable process for building an EA along with some handy guidelines and techniques. If an Enterprise Architect's tool kit was a bag of golf clubs, TOGAF would be a 3 wood, a 5 iron and a glove – it will get you on the fairway, but if you're planning to finish the hole you'll need to get some additional help Greg Fullard Toolbox.com
  • 36. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 337 TOGAF and the Other Tools TOGAF is complemented by the other frameworks. In other words the other tools fill in the detail content where TOGAF is light BIZBOK Body of Knowledge Resources Framework “Glue” Complementary Methods and Frameworks
  • 37. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 338 Views and Models Roles Across the Artefacts. Limiting the business domain to traditional frameworks is too abstract for the various business roles and results in role confusion B-IT Strategy Principles Capability Req’s Value Streams Process Maps Function Models Use Cases Process Models Workflows Operating procedures Health Assessment Application Principles Application Framework Current State Target State Services Definitions Function Models Wiring Diagrams Activity Views Patterns Deployment Model Integration View Application Standards Resource Estimates? Class/Module View Configuration Models Info Mgt Principles Info Use Policies Meta-Data Definition Subject Classification Information Classification Reference Data Stds Data Dictionary Enterprise Info Model Data quality processes Data Directory Field Level Views Technology Watch Health Assessment Asset Lifecycle Technology Principles Tech Reference Model Current State Target State Service Catalogue Service Definition Mud Maps (N/W, etc.) Technology Standards CMDB Management Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Implementation Business Applications Information / Data Technology Head of Architecture Enterprise Architect Solution Architect Application Architect Information Architect Infrastructure Architect Application Designer Data Architect System Administrator Business Architect Business Analyst
  • 38. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 339 Views and Models Adding Additional Business Domains provides a greater Insight into the different role types Environ. Models, Competitor Analysis, Strategic Diagnosis Segmentation Positioning, Strategy Map, Decision Trees Perceptual mapping, distribution channels and models Customer Experience, Journey Maps, Learning Maps Campaign Models, Advertising Messages, Key Messages Competitor Strategy, Expansion Strategy, Innovation Strategy Marketing Mix, Product Lifecycle Model, Pricing and Cash Flow analysis Regression Analysis and forecasting, Platform and Expansion Plans Design models, Value Maps, Product and Offering Maps, Design Models Product Line plans Motivation Model, Driver Trees, Systems Theory Org. Model and Structures, Org. Culture, Partner and supplier models Change Models, Organization Unit model, Org. learning models Resource Management and Scheduling procedures Contracts, Time and Expense Procedures Performance, Business Structures, Value Maps Risk Models, Growth Models, Capital Structure Models Performance Alignment model, Root Cause Model Balanced Scorecard, Financial reporting Financial Reporting Procedures, EPM Value Chain, Value Streams, Decisions & Events Capability Models Process Maps Function Models Use Cases Process Models Workflows & Activities Operating procedures Info Mgt Principles Info Use Policies Meta-Data Definition Subject Classification Information Classification Enterprise Info Model, Info Lifecycle Model, Human Interface Model Custodian Model, Integration View, Presentation Models Security Rules, BI Reports, User Interface, Warehouse and datamarts Health Assessment Application Principles Application Framework Current State Target State Services Definitions Function Models Wiring Diagrams Activity Views Patterns Deployment Model Application Standards Resource Estimates? Class/Module View Configuration Models Data Principles Reference Data Stds Data Dictionary, Data quality processes Data Directory Field Level Views Technology Watch Health Assessment Asset Lifecycle Technology Principles Tech Reference Model Current State Target State Service Catalogue Service Definition Mud Maps (N/W, etc.) Technology Standards CMDB Management Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Implementation Market Application Data Technology Enterprise Architect Solution Architect Products & Services Organizational Performance Process & Function Info Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Senior Business Analyst / Senior Business Architect Analyst Business Architect Business Analyst
  • 39. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 340 Views and Models This is where the crowding is. The Bridge Between Business and Technology. Individuals need to differentiate themselves from this space Environ. Models, Competitor Analysis, Strategic Diagnosis Segmentation Positioning, Strategy Map, Decision Trees Perceptual mapping, distribution channels and models Customer Experience, Journey Maps, Learning Maps Campaign Models, Advertising Messages, Key Messages Competitor Strategy, Expansion Strategy, Innovation Strategy Marketing Mix, Product Lifecycle Model, Pricing and Cash Flow analysis Regression Analysis and forecasting, Platform and Expansion Plans Design models, Value Maps, Product and Offering Maps, Design Models Product Line plans Motivation Model, Driver Trees, Systems Theory Org. Model and Structures, Org. Culture, Partner and supplier models Change Models, Organization Unit model, Org. learning models Resource Management and Scheduling procedures Contracts, Time and Expense Procedures Performance, Business Structures, Value Maps Risk Models, Growth Models, Capital Structure Models Performance Alignment model, Root Cause Model Balanced Scorecard, Financial reporting Financial Reporting Procedures, EPM Value Chain, Value Streams, Decisions & Events Capability Models Process Maps Function Models Use Cases Process Models Workflows & Activities Operating procedures Info Mgt Principles Info Use Policies Meta-Data Definition Subject Classification Information Classification Enterprise Info Model, Info Lifecycle Model, Human Interface Model Custodian Model, Integration View, Presentation Models Security Rules, BI Reports, User Interface, Warehouse and datamarts Health Assessment Application Principles Application Framework Current State Target State Services Definitions Function Models Wiring Diagrams Activity Views Patterns Deployment Model Application Standards Resource Estimates? Class/Module View Configuration Models Data Principles Reference Data Stds Data Dictionary, Data quality processes Data Directory Field Level Views Technology Watch Health Assessment Asset Lifecycle Technology Principles Tech Reference Model Current State Target State Service Catalogue Service Definition Mud Maps (N/W, etc.) Technology Standards CMDB Management Contextual Conceptual Logical Physical Implementation Market Application Data Technology Enterprise Architect Solution Architect Products & Services Organizational Performance Process & Function Info Business Architect Strategic Business Architect Principal Business Architect Senior Business Analyst / Senior Business Architect Analyst Business Architect Business Analyst
  • 40. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 341 Views and Models • “I wont bring tons of models to an executive level meeting. Its not the type of information they want. They want insights. The models are for you and the architects” – Enterprise Architect, Financial Services • “The lessons the more mature Business Analysts have learned, is to keep the artefacts simple”
  • 41. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 342 Views and Models • Value Chain Analysis • Cross Functional Models • Capability/Business Anchor Models • Process Models • Application Models • Data and information Models • Technology Models • Value Maps • Product and Offering Maps • Design Models • Customer Experience • Journey Maps • Learning Maps • Motivation Models Business Model Innovation The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology
  • 42. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 343 Views and Models Anchor Models Have a Short Business Value Lifespan The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology • The Business Anchor Model tends to be Driven by IT • It is often used as a tool to “talk” to the business to maintain architectural integrity • The capability models resonate more with the IT & architecture disciplines, not necessarily with the business disciplines • The Capability model becomes more the execution focussed piece – it is in fact the downward facing artefact • Cross functional capabilities start to move upwards and resonate more with business stakeholders
  • 43. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 344 Views and Models Capabilities and Capability Models require a different modelling technique The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology • Talk to business stakeholders in terms of People, Process and Tools that drive out an outcome • To come up with the detail around the these resources, you use the business analysis community • Cluster these capability components into capability models later, since these are the models that the architecture discipline tends to use • This approach also helps business stakeholders begin to understand the resources within a capability • This approach also begins to expose the resources for discussion and helps facilitate a the assemble and mix discussions
  • 44. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 345 Views and Models Customer Experience is becoming key The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology • Understanding and developing the customer experience goes a long way to bridge the divide • These models take a customer driven approach and create a more “form before function” approach to assembling the architecture building blocks
  • 45. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 346 Views and Models The Motivation Model resonates well with business sponsors The Environment The Business Model Market Model Products and Service Model Operating Model  Markets  Industries  Customers  Market Segment  Channels  Customer Relationships  Value Proposition  Offering: Products / Services  Capabilities  Processes / Value Chains  Business Services  Functions  Data  Applications  Technology • Business Stakeholders often find traditional business architecture models difficult to consume • We found that the motivation model resonates well with business stakeholders • Helps move away from pain point architecture to focus on outcomes • The challenge is that when you show this to the architect its scoffed at – yet when you show it to the business stakeholder their response is – this is Gold – this is what I have been looking for.
  • 46. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 347 A Method of Execution TOGAF provides a more sophisticated method of the integration of the disciplines but does not provide the detailed content and methods for the domains Preliminary A. Architecture Vision B. Business Architecture C. Information Systems Architectures F. Migration Planning D. Technology Architecture E. Opportunities & Solutions G. Implementation Governance H. Architecture Change Management Requirements Management • The business “hat” is worn in these phases since it involves the innovate, mix and assemble activities • The strength of the business architect in this space is understanding the context and applying the right tools for that context • At this point it is advantageous to introduce the motivation model, with specific reference focus as to how the customer experience drives out the outcomes in the motivation model. • The capability model often does not resonate here - so the introduction of the underlying resource mix is more effective e.g.. People, Process and tools • A First iteration of these phases drives out the key enterprise differentiation resources required to reach the outcomes • A Second iteration drives out the products and services model (4P’s - Product, Place, Price & Promotion) and what cross functional resources we need to deliver these • Journey management is a crucial aspect of the business architect during this phase • Some limited BABOK and BIZBOK techniques support this area
  • 47. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 348 A Method of Execution The Business Architect wears two hats when executing through this method Preliminary A. Architecture Vision B. Business Architecture C. Information Systems Architectures F. Migration Planning D. Technology Architecture E. Opportunities & Solutions G. Implementation Governance H. Architecture Change Management Requirements Management • The business architect wears the architecture “hat” in these phases since they involve the reliability and utility activities • The business architect has to understand architecture in order to apply it and help the teams downstream • This space requires more of the traditional architecture models - the people, process and tools resources can now be assembled and clustered into capabilities • The architecture community is strong in this space but tends to be weak at requirements management across the whole process • Techniques and resources within the BizBok will support the business architect efforts within these phases • There are a number of techniques within the BABOK that the business analyst will use in supporting the business architect across these phases
  • 48. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 349 A Method of Execution The Business Analyst already has a mature capability around requirements management Preliminary A. Architecture Vision B. Business Architecture C. Information Systems Architectures F. Migration Planning D. Technology Architecture E. Opportunities & Solutions G. Implementation Governance H. Architecture Change Management Requirements Management • The business analyst primary focus is to seek to understand the business • The focus of this understanding is more often delivery and project based • The business analyst skill supports requirements elicitation across the whole lifecycle • This complements the weakness of the architecture community • There are a number of mature methods and techniques within the BABOK that support these activities
  • 49. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 350 The Classification System Actor Assumption Business Service CapabilityConstraint Contract Control Data Entity Driver Event Function Gap Goal Location Measure Objective Organizational Unit Platform Service Principle Process Product Requirement Role Service Quality Work Package Physical Data Component Logical Data Component ACTOR Actor BUSINESS SERVICE Business Service CAPABILITY Capability ASSUMPTION Assumption CONTRACT Contract CONTROL Control CONSTRAINT Constraint DRIVER Driver EVENT Event DATA ENTITY Data Entity GOAL Goal INFORMATION SYSTEM SERVICE Information System Service LOCATION Location PHYSICAL APPLICATION COMP. Physical Application Component ORGANIZATION UNIT Organization Unit GAP Gap MEASURE Measure OBJECTIVE Objective PRINCIPLE Principle PLATFORM SERVICE Platform Service ROLE Role LOGICAL TECHNOLOGY COMP. Logical Technology Component PHYSICAL DATA COMPONENT Physical Data Component PHYSICAL TECHNOLOGY COMP. Physical Technology Component REQUIREMENT Requirement PROCESS Process PRODUCT Product SERVICE QUALITY Service Quality LOGICAL DATA COMPONENT Logical Data Component WORK PACKAGE Work Package delivers FUNCTION Function LOGICAL APPLICATION COMP. Logical Application Component consumes generates interacts with performs resolves supplies participates in performs task in consumes governs and measures meets is processed by creates motivates is realized by is bounded by contains contains contains contains contains implements encapsulates supplies provides platform for sets performance criteria for sets performance criteria for realizes contains owns produces owns and governs is realized by extends extends encapsulates extends generates orchestrates orchestrates produces accesses consumes provides resolves meets is guided by is resolved by TOGAF provides a system to classify the building blocks of the organization
  • 50. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 351 The Enterprise Business Motivation Model* The TOGAF classification system is complementary to more detailed models required for business architecture such as the Business Motivation Model *Nicklas Malik Required Competency Value Configuration Customer Demands and Relationships Product and Services Distribution Channels Geographies and Locales Finance and Revenue Models Business Alliance / Partnership Enterprise Business Model Element Business Model drives targets input to empowers/ prevents affect affect drives delivered through affect and demand composes makes money for Business Unit Business Model Element defined in provides consumes includes Business Unit Capability Maturity Assessments packages specific for defines requirements for evaluates Business Process Process Metric Success Metric/ Measure Business System Interaction Business Requirement Key Performance Indicator performs governs is a measures tracks drives tracks success of implemented through demands IT Managed Servicecomposes includes Directive Business Rules and Facts Policy Type Business Policy is a is a categories supports basis for Stakeholder Business Strategy / Objective VisionMission Business GoalPrinciple Driver Capability Roadmap prioritizes drive changes to describes changes to set performance criteria enables includes accountable for realized in is a is a is a is a is a is a is a charts path to a motivates change towards influences enables provides impetus for responds to makes operative the Business Model Assesment Business Judgement composes Potential Impact Issue Strength or Weakness Recommendation of Change Risk Potential Reward Influencer describes impact of Competitive Pressure Business Trend Competitive Opportunity Regulation Influencing Organization source of
  • 51. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 352 In Closing: Team Roles
  • 52. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 353 Team Structure • Pragmatist and visionary » The pragmatist follows the money and works with what he sees » The visionary follows the vision and works with what he visualizes • The challenge for the business architect is to deal with both the analytical stakeholder as well as the intuitive stakeholder and try create synergy between these two • Team works well when there is a common vision and a common purpose • Mix the team on Myers Briggs scores
  • 53. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 354 Team Profiles Creating the right mix is crucial for a successful business team Role Type Temperament & Personality Strengths Business Architect ENTP Rational Inventor Innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, always on the lookout for a better way, always eyeing new projects, new enterprises, new processes. Keenly pragmatic, and often become expert at devising the most effective means to accomplish their ends. Journey Manager ENTP Rational Inventor Innovative, entrepreneurial spirit, always on the lookout for a better way, always eyeing new projects, new enterprises, new processes. Keenly pragmatic, and often become expert at devising the most effective means to accomplish their ends. Project Manager ENTJ Rational Field Marshall Give structure and direction, visualize where the organization is going, communicate that vision to others. Organizational and coordinating skills Business Analyst INFJ Idealist Counsellor Understand and use human systems creatively, and are good at consulting and cooperating with others. vivid imaginations and poetic imagery and storytelling Customer Experience ESTP Artisan Promoter Men and women of action, excellent negotiators. Charming, confident, and popular, Promoters delight their friends and investors with their endless supply of stories and jokes IT Architect ISTP Artisan Crafter Masterful operation of tools, equipment, machines, and instruments of all kinds. Action oriented
  • 54. | BRIDGING BUSINESS ANALYSIS AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE | ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTS © 201 356 Questions?

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