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User Experience is Everything (and Vice Versa): Lessons for Libraries and Information Organizations
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User Experience is Everything (and Vice Versa): Lessons for Libraries and Information Organizations

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User Experience is more than just a buzzword; it is a design philosophy that puts “users” at the center and recognizes that providing them with opportunities for enjoyment is just as important (if not …

User Experience is more than just a buzzword; it is a design philosophy that puts “users” at the center and recognizes that providing them with opportunities for enjoyment is just as important (if not more) than eliminating pain and frustration in their interactions with interfaces (both digital and analog). By de-constructing the cognitive and emotional dimensions of UX and tracing how UX has evolved from its historical roots in the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) discipline to its present-day application across multiple domains and industries (including Library and Information Science), this talk will inspire information professionals and their organizations to take a more UX-centric approach to the design and/or evaluation of their technologies, services, and spaces.

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  • 1. Everything is User Experience (and Vice Versa) Craig  M.  MacDonald,  Ph.D.   School  of  Information  &  Library  Science   Pratt  Institute  
  • 2. TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014  2   Q: Is your library doing “User Experience” right now?
  • 3. Let’s think for a second TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   3   What  does  my   library’s  UX  look   like?   "Thinking  about  small"  by  Freddie  Alequin  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐SA  2.0  
  • 4. UX of your library website (desktop) TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   4  
  • 5. UX of your library website (mobile) TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   5  
  • 6. UX of your library services TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   6   "Getting  help  at  the  Reference  Desk"  by  Escondido  Public  Library  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐SA  2.0  
  • 7. UX of your library spaces TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   7   "Bild  438"  by  library_mistress  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐SA  2.0  
  • 8. Conclusion: Everything* is UX UX  exists  wherever  and  whenever  a  user   interacts  with  your  organization.   – Through  the  digital  tools  and  devices  they   use   – Through  their  interactions  with  staff  and   with  your  policies/procedures   – Through  the  physical  spaces  they   navigate   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   8   *This  is  an  oversimplification,  but  “Lots  of  Things  are  UX  but  Some  Things  Aren’t”   isn’t  nearly  as  catchy.    
  • 9. TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014  9   Q: Is your library doing “User Experience” right now? A: Yes. All libraries do UX. A better question is: are you doing great UX?
  • 10. A (not so brief) history lesson TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   10   "How  Did  We  Get  Here?  Billboard,  Banksville  Road"  by  michaelgoodin  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0  
  • 11. Pre-recorded history Pre-­‐historic  tools  weren’t   really  designed–  they  were   created  and  used.   –  If  it  worked,  it  worked.  If  it   didn’t,  it  was  thrown  out  or   tweaked  until  it  did.   Formal  evaluation  wasn’t   necessary  because  the  user,   designer  and  evaluator   were  the  same  person.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   11  
  • 12. Medieval and Industrial Age Technology  became  more   complex  and  powerful,  but   design  and  evaluation  stayed   (roughly)  the  same.   –  If  it  worked,  it  worked.  If  it   didn’t,  it  was  thrown  out  or   tweaked  until  it  did.   For  most  of  human  history,   evaluation  wasn’t  necessary   because  people  could  shape   and  tweak  technology  to  fit   their  needs.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   12  
  • 13. 1940s to 1950s Early  computers  were  incredibly   complex  to  operate;  users   were  highly  trained   engineers.   –  They  were  primarily  used  to   perform  large,  complex   calculations  (e.g.,  census).   Since  computers  offered  an   alternative  to  hand   calculations,  they  had  to  be   evaluated  to  make  sure  they   were  functional.   –  Evaluation  was  about  system   reliability;  how  long  it  would   function  without  failure.     TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   13  
  • 14. 1950s to 1960s (1) Computers  began  to  shrink  and   became  slightly  less   complicated.   –  New  input  methods:  magnetic   tape,  punch  cards,  light  guns,   and,  eventually,  keyboards.   The  development  of   programming  languages   meant  that  computers  were   no  longer  just  machines:  you   could  tell  them  what  you   wanted  to  do.   –  User  shifted  from  engineers  to   programmers  and  computer   scientists.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   14  
  • 15. 1950s to 1960s (2) Motivated  by  the  economic   impacts  of  using  computers,   evaluation  was  used  to   determine  whether   computers  were  actually   providing  a  benefit.   Now,  the  focus  of  evaluation  was   system  performance.   –  How  quickly  the  system  could   process  large  amounts  of  data.   •  Other  variables:  Processing  speed,   throughput,  turnaround,   availability.     TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   15  
  • 16. 1960s to 1970s (1) Large-­‐scale  batch-­‐processing   machines  were  slowly   replaced  by  time-­‐sharing   systems.   –  TSS  were  more  expensive  but   also  more  efficient.   For  the  first  time,  people  were   using  computers  for  non-­‐ programming  tasks  (e.g.,  text   editing).   –  Thus,  users  were  no  longer   trained  experts;  they  were  non-­‐ specialists.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   16  
  • 17. 1960s to 1970s (2) With  these  users,  evaluation  became   necessary  to  determine  whether   using  a  computer  would  actually   save  time.   Thus,  evaluators  began  to  focus  on   user  performance:  task   completion  time,  error  rate,  ease  of   learning,  etc.   Q:  if  we  need  to  study  users,  how  do   we  do  it?   –  A:  laboratory-­‐based  user  studies   One  of  the  first  lab-­‐based  user  studies   was  a  comparison  of  user   performance  with  several  different   input  devices.   –  Guess  which  one  was  the  best?   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   17  
  • 18. 1980s to 2000s (1) The  GUI  interface,  pioneered  by   Xerox  and  perfected  and   marketed  by  Apple,   revolutionized  the  computer   industry.   –  It  led  to  an  increase  in  the   number  of  novice  users  who   were  using  computers  to   complete  everyday  work  tasks.   These  users  weren’t  willing  to   read  user  manuals  or  sit   through  training  sessions.   –  Computer  systems  had  to  be   used  by  anyone  with  minimal   training  and  support.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   18  
  • 19. 1980s to 2000s (2) Evaluation  efforts  began  to   focus  on  usability.   –  Included  learnability  and  ease   of  use  in  addition  to  speed   and  efficiency.   The  process  of  user-­‐centered   design  was  developed  as  a   way  of  engineering   usability  into  computer   systems.   –  Usability  evaluation  was  a  core   feature  of  this  process.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   19  
  • 20. 1980s to 2000s (3) Formal  methods  of  usability   evaluation  were  created  in   the  early  1980s.   –  E.g.,  usability  testing  with   “think  aloud”   In  the  1990s,  the  rise  of  the   Web  increased  the  visibility   of  usability  testing  but  also   added  more  challenges.   –  New  “discount”  methods:   walkthroughs  and  expert   reviews.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   20  
  • 21. 2000s to present (1) Personal  computing,  social   computing,  mobile   computing,  and  cloud   computing  have  changed   how,  where,  and  why  we   use  computers.   We’re  not  just  interested  in   task-­‐based  performance   issues  anymore;  the   emotional  side  of  using   computers  is  paramount.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   21  
  • 22. 2000s to present (2) Evaluation  is  slowly  shifting   from  usability  to  user   experience.   –  But,  nobody  really  knows  how   to  do  UX  evaluation  well.   Many  challenges  of  evaluating   UX,  but  any  evaluation  is   incomplete  if  it  doesn’t   explore  emotion  in  some   way.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   22  
  • 23. Reliability   System   Performance   User     Performance   Usability   User   Experience   The Path to User Experience 1950   1960   1970   1980   1990   2000   2010   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014  23  
  • 24. What this history tells us: 1.  UX  is  not  just  the  new  buzzword   for  usability;  it  represents  a  new   design  paradigm.   2.  As  technology  gets  more   complex,  designing  and   evaluating  also  get  more   complex.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   24  
  • 25. What is User Experience? UX  as  a  product   UX  as  a  process   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   25  
  • 26. UX as a product TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   26   "Me  &  My  Mac"  by  Martin  Gommel  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0   “People  think  it’s  this   veneer  –  that  the   designers  are  handed   this  box  and  told,  ‘Make   it  look  good!’  That’s  not   what  we  think  design  is.   It’s  not  just  what  it  looks   like  and  feels  like.   Design  is  how  it  works.”   -­‐  Steve  Jobs  
  • 27. UX as a product? TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   27   "Computer  Time"  by  Thomas  Hawk  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC  2.0   “To  use  something  is  to   engage  with  it  through   our  senses,  our  minds,   our  hearts,  and  our   bodies…to  create  a   holistic,  cohesive,   experience.”   -­‐Jesse  James  Garret  
  • 28. UX as a(n) product outcome UX  is  not  technically  a  product  –  it   is  an  outcome.     You  can’t  design  a  user  experience.     You  design  for  a  user  experience.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   28  
  • 29. This is a product TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   29  
  • 30. This is an outcome TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   30   "GORE-­‐TEX®  Experience  Tour:  All-­‐out  trail  running  in  the  Dolomites!"  by  GORE-­‐TEX®  Products  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0  
  • 31. This is a product TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   31  
  • 32. This is an outcome TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   32   EP  goes  mobile  -­‐  check  it  out!"  by  European  Parliament  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0  
  • 33. So what is an experience? TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   33   “An  experience  emerges  from   the  integration  of  perception,   action,  motivation,  and   cognition  into  an  inseparable,   meaningful  whole.”   -­‐  Marc  Hassenzahl   "The  21st  Century  Concert  Experience"  by  Al  Case  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0  
  • 34. User Experience TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   34   “User  Experience  is  just  a   sub-­‐category  of   experience,  focusing  on  a   particular  mediator  -­‐   namely  interactive   products...[Experience   Design]  is  the  question  of   how  to  deliberately  create   and  shape  experiences.”   -­‐  Marc  Hassenzahl   "79-­‐365  I  am  a  computer  geek!"  by  Bram  Cymet  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC  2.0  
  • 35. Experience is experiential TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   35   "Fondue  enchaînée"  by  Alexandre  Duret-­‐Lutz  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐SA  2.0   “You  can't  experience   the  experience  until  you   experience  it.”   -­‐  Bill  Moggridge  
  • 36. UX is not just usability TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   36   "Tricycle"  by  Aslak  Raanes  is  licensed  under  CC  BY  2.0   “If  ease  of  user  was  the   only  valid  criterion,   people  would  stick  to   tricycles  and  never  try   bicycles.”   -­‐  Douglas  Engelbart  
  • 37. UX vs. Usability Usability   Effectiveness   Efficiency   Learnability   Error  prevention   Memorability   User  Experience   Satisfaction   Enjoyment   Pleasure   Fun   Value   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   37   www.bluehaired.com   Where  usability  is  narrow  and  focused,     UX  is  broad  and  holistic.  
  • 38. UX vs. and Usability TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   38   Levels  of  Processing  and  the  Stages  of  the  Action  Cycle.  From  Don  Norman.   “Emotion  and   cognition  are  tightly   intertwined...All  three   levels  work  together   to  determine  a   person's  cognitive  and   emotional  state.”   -­‐  Don  Norman  
  • 39. UX is cognitive and emotional TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   39   “Usability  allows  people   to  easily  accomplish   their  goals.  UX  design   covers  more  than  that,   it’s  about  giving  people  a   delightful  and   meaningful  experience.”   -­‐  UXMyths.com   The  UX  Honeycomb  from  Peter  Morville.  
  • 40. UX is contextual TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   40   Model  of  UX  from  the  user’s  perspective.  From  Hassenzahl,  M.  “The  Thing  and  I:  Understanding  the  relationship  between  user  and  product.”    
  • 41. If UX is contextual… TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   41   Context   Context   Context   Context   Context   Context   Context  Context  Context   Context   Context   Context   Context  
  • 42. …then what are we designing? TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   42   User   Task   Tool   Environment   Diagram  adapted  from  Shackel,  1991.   “We  can  design  the  product  or  service...[but]  we  can   shape  neither  our  users’  expectations  nor  the  situation   in  which  they  use  what  we  have  designed.”   -­‐  Helge  Fredheim  
  • 43. TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   43   So, UX is a holistic, multi-faceted outcome resulting from a user’s interaction with a product, service, or space. We can’t design the experience. we can design the product, service, or space.
  • 44. Conclusion: UX is Everything* UX  is  defined  by:   – The  user(s):  their  needs,  behaviors,   backgrounds,  expectations,  etc.   – The  task(s):  what  users  are  trying  to   do   – The  environment:  where,  why,  and   how  users  are  trying  to  complete   their  task   – The  tool:  what  users  need  to  use  to   complete  the  task(s).     TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   44   *This  is  also  an  oversimplification,  but  “UX  is  Lots  of  Things  but  Not  Quite   Everything”  isn’t  nearly  as  catchy.     Can’t  be   designed   Can  be   designed  
  • 45. Great* (outcome) UX is: *This  will  vary,   but  these  are  a   solid   foundation   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   45   Usable Useful Desirable easy  to  learn  and  use   meets  users  needs   appealing  and  memorable  
  • 46. UX as a process TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   46  
  • 47. UX as a process = pleasure? TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   47   "macbook  maya1"  by  taminator  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0   “[User  Experience  is]  designing   for  pleasure  rather  than  absence   of  pain.”   -­‐  Marc  Hassenzahl  &  Noam  Tractinsky  
  • 48. UX as a process = design   Design  is  devising  courses  of   action  aimed  at  changing   existing  situations  into  preferred   ones.     Herb  Simon   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   48  
  • 49. UX is Human-Centered TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   49   "Belgiump"  by  Éole  Wind  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐SA  2.0   “An  approach  that  puts  human  needs,   capabilities,  and  behavior  first,  then   designs  to  accommodate  those  needs,   capabilities,  and  ways  of  behaving.”   -­‐  Don  Norman  
  • 50. Human-Centered Design (HCD) TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   50   "One  Click  Or  Two?"  by  Alan  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐SA  2.0   “[HCD]  is  the  process  of  ensuring  that  people's  needs  are   met,  that  the  resulting  product  is  understandable  and  usable,   that  it  accomplishes  the  desired  tasks,  and  that  the   experience  of  use  is  positive  and  enjoyable.”   -­‐  Don  Norman  
  • 51. Why is this so complicated? TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   51   "If  You're  Not  Confused"  by  Brian  Talbot  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC  2.0   Because  understanding  people  is  hard…   …and  designing  for  people  is  even  harder  
  • 52. Designing for you TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   52   YOU   SOURCE:     Danielle  Gobert  Cooley.  Introduction  to  User  Experience  Methods.  http:// www.slideshare.net/dgcooley/introduction-­‐to-­‐ux-­‐methods  
  • 53. Designing for your users TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   53   YOU   NOT   YOU   SOURCE:     Danielle  Gobert  Cooley.  Introduction  to  User  Experience  Methods.  http:// www.slideshare.net/dgcooley/introduction-­‐to-­‐ux-­‐methods  
  • 54. Principles of HCD 1.  Early  focus  on  users   – Start  with  thorough  understanding  of  your  users   and  their  needs,  behaviors,  contexts     2.  Evaluation   – Regularly  assess  your  design  to  see  whether  it  is   meeting  your  users’  needs     3.  Iteration   – Continuously  update/revise  the  design  based  on   evaluation  results   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   54   Source:  Gould  &  Lewis,  1985  
  • 55. Norman’s HCD Process TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   55   The  iterative  cycle  of  Human-­‐Centered  Design.  From  Don  Norman.   “Make  observations  on   the  intended  target   population,  generate   ideas,  produce   prototypes  and  test   them.  Repeat  until   satisfied.”   -­‐  Don  Norman  
  • 56. Another HCD Process (in progress) TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   56   Sketching Wireframing Prototyping Creation Sketch/Make Critiques Inspection Methods Field Methods User Testing Assessment Evaluate/Measure Communicate Prepare CommunicateDiscovery Understand/Learn Content Audits Site Maps Competitive Reviews User Research Personas Card Sorting Communicate (if necessary)
  • 57. Talk to your users inside TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   57   "Library"  by  Saint  Louis  University  Madrid  Campus  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐ND  2.0  
  • 58. Talk to your users outside TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   58   "Things  to  Come"  by  Ahd  Photography  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0  
  • 59. Sketch, sketch, sketch TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   59   "Sketching"  by  Nathanael  Boehm  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0  
  • 60. Make/test prototypes TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   60   "Paper-­‐based  prototyping"  by  Samuel  Mann  is  licensed  under  CC  BY  2.0  
  • 61. Test, test, and test some more TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   61   "it's  only  money,  right?"  by  ~lauren  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0   “If  you  don’t  have   user-­‐testing  as  an   integral  part  of  your   design  process  you   are  going  to  throw   buckets  of  money   down  the  drain.”   -­‐  Bruce  Tognazzini  
  • 62. Can you do UX alone? Kind of. What  you  can  do  alone:   – Talk  to  users,  gather  data,  sketch   ideas,  make  prototypes,  test   prototypes   What  you  can’t  do  alone:   – Change  anything   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   62  
  • 63. More cooks in the kitchen TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   63   "macbook  maya1"  by  taminator  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐ND  2.0   “Great  design  requires  great  designers,  but  that  isn’t   enough…the  hardest  part  of  producing  a  product  is   coordinating  all  the  many,  separate  disciplines,  each  with   different  goals  and  priorities.”   -­‐  Don  Norman  
  • 64. Multi-disciplinary by default TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   64  
  • 65. Collaboration is key TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   65   "soccer  practice"  by  woodleywonderworks  is  licensed  under  CC  BY  2.0   “You  have  to  sell  your  design  because  you  need  to   communicate  all  of  the  factors  that  went  into  the  design   process...A  sure-­‐fire  method  for  getting  everybody  to   understand  a  project  in  the  same  way  is  to  have   everybody  working  together  throughout  the  project.”   -­‐  Adrian  Howard  
  • 66. Great (process) UX is: TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   66   Iterative Collaborative Creative build,  test,  refine,  repeat   be  open  and  communicative   go  outside  your  comfort  zone  
  • 67. Bringing it all together In  the  end,  your  UX  outcome   matters  much  more  than  your  UX   process.   – A  good  UX  process  does  not   guarantee  a  good  UX  outcome,  but  it   does  increase  your  chances.     But  still:  it’s  the  outcome  that   matters  most.   TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   67  
  • 68. Users are demanding TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   68   "/ponder"  by  hobvias  sudoneighm  is  licensed  under  CC  BY  2.0   “I  bet  a  lot  of  people  worked  really  hard  on  this  website,  so   I’ll  cut  them  some  slack  if  something  doesn’t  work  exactly   the  way  I  want  it  to  work.”   -­‐  Nobody,  ever  
  • 69. Users are fickle TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   69   "Pensativa  //  Thoughtful"  by  David  Cornejo  is  licensed  under  CC  BY-­‐NC-­‐SA  2.0   “My  library  doesn’t  provide  a  great  user  experience,  but   that’s  OK  –  I’ll  still  keep  coming  back  to  it  because  there’s   no  where  else  I  can  go  to  get  what  I  need.”   -­‐  Nobody,  ever  
  • 70. So, what can you do? Think  critically  about  your  library’s  website,  services,   and  spaces.   –  Are  they  all  usable,  useful  and  desirable?  If  you’re  not   sure,  test  them.   Talk  to  your  colleagues  and  supervisors  about  the   importance  of  UX.   –  If  you  have  poor  UX,  your  users  will  leave  (and  probably   won’t  come  back).   Plan  collaborative  brainstorming  sessions   –  Get  people  together  and  test  out  new  ideas  through   sketching  and  paper  prototyping.   Network  with  other  library  and  UX  professionals.   –  Tweet  #libux,  check  out  the  Weave  journal  of  library  UX     TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014   70  
  • 71. TCLC  2014  Spring  Meeting  |  April  25,  2014  71   Q: How do you do great UX? A: Go do it.
  • 72. Thank you. Craig  M.  MacDonald,  Ph.D.   cmacdona@pratt.edu   @CraigMMacDonald   www.craigmacdonald.com