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Multimedia & Contiguity Principles
 

Multimedia & Contiguity Principles

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This presentation details how to follow the Multimedia and Contiguity Principles when creating multimedia.

This presentation details how to follow the Multimedia and Contiguity Principles when creating multimedia.

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Multimedia & Contiguity Principles Multimedia & Contiguity Principles Presentation Transcript

  • Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Multimedia & Contiguity Principles Craig Miller EdTech 513 2/9/09 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Instructional Objectives 2 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Instructional Objectives • After viewing this slideshow, one should be able to explain the: • Chronological “Multimedia Principle” • Spatial “Contiguity Principle”. • Additionally, the learner should be able to identify flaws in poorly designed deliveries of Words and Pictures. 2 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Multimedia Presentation Defined 3 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Multimedia Presentation Defined • Any presentation containing Words (such as narration or onscreen text) and Pictures (such as illustrations, photos, animation, or video). • Clark, R., & Mayer, R. (2008). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction. San Francisco: Pfeiffer. 3 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Multimedia Principle 4 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Multimedia Principle • Learners develop a deeper understanding of content when Words and Pictures are presented simultaneously. • The words need not solely be delivered by text, but may also be delivered by voice. 4 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Word Only 5 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Word Only • This and all previous slides have been Word Only. • Word Only information requires an audience proficient at reading and following directions. • Additionally, Word Only information requires the learner to individually conceptualize the presented information. • Due to the subjectivity of individual internalization, the presenter can never be sure that all audience members understood the Word message as designed. 5 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Picture Only 6 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Picture Only • The following slide is Picture Only. • Picture Only information requires an audience that has prior knowledge of the subject. • When Pictures are presented without Words, the presenter may never be confident that each audience member understands the purpose of the image. 6 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • 7 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • 7 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Words & Pictures 8 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Words & Pictures • The following slide displays Words & Pictures at the same time. • By presenting multimedia simultaneously, the learner may avoid the need to go back and forth between the information presented on sequential slides, pages, windows, etc. 8 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Natural Carbon Cycle • The diagram to the right displays how nature contributes to the carbon cycle. • The arrow aiming down from the atmosphere represents the ONLY way CO2 is removed from the air. • EVERY OTHER arrow contributes CO2 to either the atmosphere or soil. 9 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Contiguity Principle 10 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Contiguity Principle • Learners develop a deeper understanding of content from words and pictures presented in close physical proximity to one other. • The following example separates the slide’s two main points with empty space & includes label lines for additional connective clarity. 10 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Natural Carbon Cycle The diagram below displays how nature contributes to the carbon cycle. • The arrow aiming down from the atmosphere represents the ONLY way CO2 is removed from the air. • EVERY OTHER arrow contributes CO2 either to the atmosphere or soil. 11 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • For Better Proximity Include the Words within the Picture itself! 12 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Rationale Summary 13 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Rationale Summary • If Words and Pictures are presented simultaneously and/or near each other, the learner may focus upon a deeper understanding of the content rather than taxing their working memory. • In other words, the learner may focus upon meaning rather than trying to remember the information previously presented. 13 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Did You Master The Principles? 1. CORRECTLY IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM: a) Does not possess Multimedia. b) Does not possess Contiguity 2. HOW COULD THIS PROBLEM BE REMEDIED? Source: http://about.ning.com/product.php 14 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Did You Master The Principles? ANSWER: b) Does not possess CONTIGUITY. The descriptions require scrolling far below the image. SOLUTION: Instead of “news”, use the sidebar to describe each of the features identified by the green numbered boxes. 15 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Did You Master The Principles? 1. CORRECTLY IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM: a) Does not possess Multimedia. b) Does not possess Contiguity 2. HOW COULD THIS PROBLEM BE REMEDIED? Source: http://support.apple.com/kb/TS1457 16 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Did You Master The Principles? ANSWER: a) Does not possess MULTIMEDIA. All instructions are clearly organized and hyperlinked to support pages; however, image support is not supplied. SOLUTION: A screenshot image showing the “X” icon in the menu bar would support the title. An additional screenshot should distinguish between a red vs. black “X”. 17 Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Tuesday, February 17, 2009
  • Now Go Forth and Mix Your Media! Tuesday, February 17, 2009