VisionicsCraig Allen KeefnerExecutive DirectorKiosks.Org Association
Scope • Overview • Technology, Standards, Limitations • Facial Recognition • Applications and Advantages • Is Visionics & Biometrics the Future?
Overview • Visionics is subset of Biometrics • Biometrics is defined as the use of anatomical, physiological or behavioural characteristics to recognise or verify the claimed identity of an individual.
Overview • Originally developed for high security applications. • Confirms the presence of the individual rather than a token
Technology • Retinal Scan and Iris Scan • Fingerprint and Hand Geometry • Signature and Voice Dynamics • Facial Recognition • Vascular Patterns
Technology• Other biometrics systems proposed but never brought to market - yet. Include the use of the earlobe, a person’s smell, and a person’s gait to identify an individual.• Much work in biometrics research, driven primarily by the military. DARPA for example, sponsors much of the research in the US, with “Human ID at a distance” being one of their ongoing projects .
Technology - Industry • ~ 150 Biometric Companies • Veridicom dismantled in August • 2001: 60%+ growth (post 9/11/01)
Technology - Industry • Harris Interactive (consulting) +9/11 – “82% of Americans are willing to have their fingerprints scanned for increased airport security” – “86% favor facial-recognition technology to scan for suspected terrorists” – (CNBC 9/19/01: Alan Dershowitz: “facial recognition is better than racial profiling”)
Technology - Industry Wall Street Journal 11/13/01 “The Airport of The Future” “A special scanner scrapped in Charlotte, N.C., identified people by their iris but couldn’t detect guns.”
Technology - Standards • The BioAPI standard is intended to provide a mechanism where by a single application can utilise different biometric approaches. It provides a standard interface between the application layer and any biometrics system that provides BioAPI compatible drivers or subsystems.
Technology - Standards • Two other standards of note in the area are the ANSI X9.84 standard, which is about common templates for common biometrics devices and the CBEFF (Common Biometric Exchange File Format) is trying to establish a universal file format recognisable to various applications.
Technology - Standards CBEFF Defined Biometric Type CBEFF Type ID Static/Dynamic Identification SuitabilityMultiple Biometrics Used 0x01 - -Facial Features 0x02 Static NoVoice 0x04 Dynamic NoFingerprint 0x08 Static YesIris 0x10 Static YesRetina 0x20 Static YesHand Geometry 0x40 Static NoSignature Dynamics 0x80 Dynamic NoKeystroke Dynamics 0x100 Dynamic NoLip Movement 0x200 Dynamic NoThermal Face Image 0x400 Static NoThermal Hand Image 0x800 Static NoGait 0x1000 Dynamic NoBody Odor 0x2000 Static NoDNA 0x4000 Static YesEar Shape 0x8000 Static NoFinger Geometry 0x010000 Static NoPalm Geometry 0x020000 Static NoVein patter 0x040000 Static No
Technology - Limitations Biometric Crossover Accuracy Iris scan 1:10.000,000+ Retinal Scan 1:131,000 Fingerprints 1:500 Hand Geometry 1:500 Signature 1:50 Voice 1:50 Facial no data Vascular no data
Technology - Limitations Biometric Record Data Size (Bytes) Retinal Scan 96 Iris Scan 512 Fingerprints 512-1000 Hand Geometry 9 Signature 3900 Voice 60/word Facial Recognition 100-3500
Technology - Limitations Verification versus Identification •User base of millions •Real-time verification precluded •Token with template possible •Verify identity against template
Technology - LimitationsTransaction/User Base Examples • In May 2000 there were over 400,000 transactions at Exxon and Mobil C-stores. • For 2002 projects to over 35 million transactions. • 185,000 ATMs in the US • Close to 15B transactions in US in 2002 (declining)
Technology - Limitations Templates - Storage & Processing •Local to Local - within a smart card •Local and Terminal - template on smartcard copied to terminal to be verified. •Remote and Terminal - template stored remotely and compared to local template •Remote and Remote - locally acquired template is compared on remote system to remote template.
Technology - Limitations • Failure To Enroll - critical to get good measurement at this stage. Some will choose not to use the system and must still be processed. • Failure To Acquire - systems that require high level of user cooperation. • False Positive (FAR) - users must trust and accept • False Negative (FRR) - how many rejected falsely? • EER (Equal Error Rate Crossover)
Technology - Limitations • False Acceptance Rate (FAR): The chance that an imposter will be recognized (obtain a higher score) at a certain threshold. • False Rejection Rate (FRR): The chance that the correct person will not obtain a score above a certain threshold. • Both the FAR and FRR are functions of threshold. The threshold where the two probabilities are the same is the Equal Error Rate (EER). For example, if the EER is 1%, that means 1% is the right people are rejected and 1% of the wrong people are accepted above a certain threshold.
Technology - Limitations • Crossover point between FAR and FRR known as the Equal Error rate (EER) and this is often quoted. Argued that the lower this figure is, the better the system performance is. Unfortunately, how the figure was established can seriously affect it. A system that performs well in the laboratory with trained, co-operative users will generate a completely different set of values with inexperienced or less co-operative users.
Technology - Limitations Probability Distribution EER Genuine Imposter Score (e.g. hamming distance) false accept false reject
Technology - Limitations Centre for Mathematics and Scientific Computing National Physical Laboratory Middlesex, UK “Biometric Product Testing Final Report” Issue 1.0 March 19, 2001
Technology - Limitations The Most Intriguing - The Iris Forms during 3rd month of gestation, 8th month Pattern complete, coloration through crypts Iris radial furrows after birth Only internal organ of the body that is normally visible externally pigment frill Pupil (highly protected by cornea and eyelid) pupilary area Impossibility of surgically ciliary area modifying it without Sclera unacceptable risk to vision collarette
Technology - LimitationsThe Most Intriguing - The Iris• Iris verification has been, and still is, used in ATMs (Bank United in Texas for example). The size and the cost (>$1000 for an ATM compatible system) seem to be the main reasons for this system not growing further in this area. The risk of fraud by the use of force is possible. The thought of attempting fraud by mutilation of a user is distasteful but could exist.
Technology - Limitations Other Considerations • Enrolling Users • Sheer number of Users • How invasive? • How stored and available how? • Still PIN systems, will users forget?
Facial Recognition • Humans Are Easily Fooled By Pictures • Vendors: Visionics, Bio4, Viisage (Lau), eTrue, Imagis… • Pros; Least Invasive, Fast • Issues: lighting, aging… general error rates • Existing Database – Usability?
Facial Recognition Methods for Matching • Automatic face processing. • Neural Network processing • Eigenfaces • Local Feature Analysis.
Facial Recognition • Facial Recognition Vendor Test 2000 (FRVT 2000) - Sponsors: Counterdrug Tech Prog Office, NIST, DARPA - Performance Update - State of technology & Specific Vendors - Update of FERET 1993-1998 (FacEREcognitionTechnology) - 13,872 Images of 1462 subjects In nxn Test (192 Million Comparisons over 72 hrs) - Results Summarized in 57 Figures
Facial Recognition FRVT 2000 Test Overview Banque- Test Visionics Lau C-VIS Miros Tec Bio4 Expression 1 2 3 - - - Illumination 1 2 3 - - - Pose 1 2 3 - - - Media 1 2 3 - - - Distance 2 1 3 - - - Temporal 1 2 3 - - - Resolution 1 2 3 - - - 1-Best, 3-Worst General Observations Facial May Not Be Suitable For Exact “Identification” (needs human) Best Case Verification EER ~.02 Distribution Not Symmetrical, Use ROC Not EER
Facial Accuracy Processing False Accepts• Premise: Load Terrorist Picture Database Into System• Issues: Quality of enrollment pictures• Impact Assessment – e.g. Hartfield Airport • 150M People Year -> ~411,000 / Day • 2400 Flights / Day – @ An Optimistic EER of 2% • 8219 False Accepts • @ 20 minutes / False Accept -> 2739 manhours / day • P(8 false accepts | 375 passengers) = 8.6%
Facial Vendors • Visionics • Miros • Bio4 • Viisage • There are many others...
Facial Vendors Visionics • Fundamental to any face recognition system is the way in which faces are coded. Visionics FaceIt® uses Local Feature Analysis (LFA) to represent facial images in terms of local statistically derived building blocks. • LFA is a mathematical technique developed by co- founders of Visionics Corporation, and is based on the realization that all facial images (for that matter all complex patterns) can be synthesized from an irreducible set of building elements.
Facial Vendors Visionics • They span multiple pixels (but are still local) and represent universal facial shapes, but are not exactly the commonly known facial features. In fact, there are many more facial building elements than there are facial parts. However, it turns out that synthesizing a given facial image, to a high degree of precision, requires only a small subset (12-40 characteristic elements) of the total available set. Identity is determined not only by which elements are characteristic, but also by the manner in which they are geometrically combined (i.e. their relative positions).
Applications & Advantages Authentication • Computer/Network Security • Banking • Smart Cards • Access Control • Border Control
Applications & Advantages Criminal Justice Systems • Mug-shot/Booking Systems • Post-Event Analysis
Applications & Advantages Human ID at a Distance • Surveillance • CCTV • Human Traffic Control • Friend or Foe
Applications & Advantages ID Solutions • Voter Registration • National Ids • Passports • Drivers Licenses • Employee IDs
Applications & Advantages ID Examples • Eliminating Aliases & Duplicates • Mexican Election System • West Virginia • Colorado State DMV (under installation) • Dominican Republic • U.S. State Department Visa Issuance Program
Applications & Advantages • UK Prime Minister Tony Blair visits the FaceIt® Surveillance installation in Newham, where crime has been reduced by 34% overall.
Applications & Advantages • ATMs • Integrating facial biometrics systems into an ATM is a real possibility as in many cases the sensing system (camera) is already there and could easily be used. • Persons trying fraud via decapitation of the legitimate user is gruesome but imaginable. The use of masks is another avenue for potential fraud
Applications & Advantages • Facial recognition technology is the only commercially-available biometric capable of identifying humans at a distance. It has already been deployed in some high- profile locations -- in casinos, European soccer matches and in town centers -- and has shown significant results.
Applications & Advantages January 14: British Virgin Islands Select AiTs Automated Border Management System: $1.1 million contract for enTReX• At each inspection point, AiTs imPAX Reader will be used to capture images of travellers ID documents, and digital cameras will capture live facial images. All of the images and data captured will be sent to enTReX, a software- based border management system, for processing. The system provides better tools to deal with undocumented travellers, identify those without a legitimate right to be on the islands, and detect mismatches between those exiting the border and those who entered.
Applications & Advantages January 4, 2002 CNET Visionics signed a deal late last year with conglomerate Tyco International to distribute its technology at some 100 of the nations 450 commercial airports. Even the U.S. Army recently licensed face-recognition technology from rival Viisage Technology to create custom high-security applications.
Is Visionics the Future? An industry in search of a compelling mass application No clearly appreciated value proposition (convenience can only go so far) Several adoption barriers Privacy concerns Political will to change Lack of infrastructure & funding
Is Visionics the Future? Positives ID technologies: a corner stone of defense against terrorism & crime Safety & Security: clear and present value propositions Accelerated funding & federal security mandates Favorable Public Opinion
Is Visionics the Future? Positives• Security is no longer viewed as a drag on bottom line: at least for now.• WTC disaster will cost NYC an $100 billion. Investing in security is like buying insurance• Significant funding for security programs — federal, state, local & commercial: – AIP : Aviation Trust Fund is up – PFC : increased by up to $5 per one way trip
Is Visionics the Future? New Drivers Licenses Study Underway• WASHINGTON (AP) - January 8, 2002 -- The government is working with the states to develop a new generation of drivers licenses that could be checked anywhere and would contain electronically stored information such as fingerprints for the countrys 184 million licensed drivers.
Is Visionics the Future? Camera May Be Able to Spot Liars• Minnesota - January 3, 2002 -- A heat- sensing camera trained on peoples faces was able to detect liars in a study. In six of eight people who lied, the high-resolution thermal imaging camera detected a faint blushing around their eyes that Mayo Clinic researchers said is evidence of deception. Such facial imaging, they said, could provide a simple and rapid way of scanning people being questioned at airports or border crossings.
Is Visionics the Future? Net Nanny Signs International Distributors For BioPassword• December 4, 2002 -- Net Nanny Software International Inc. (OTCBB:NNSWF - news; CDNX:NNS.V) announced today that it has signed Wildspace, Ltd., Junek Ltd. and Joint Future Systems, S.C., which are headquartered in the UK, Czech Republic and Mexico respectively, to distribute its strong user authentication technology, BioPassword®.
Is Visionics the Future? Net Nanny Signs International Distributors For BioPassword• All three companies will distribute BioPassword, the authentication solution for enterprise networks, and the BioPassword software developers kit, which enables third parties to incorporate the patented keystroke dynamics technology into their own applications.
Is Visionics the Future? Gartner Group Technology Hype Cycle
Is Visionics the Future? Issues To Deal With • Privacy -- for verification rather than identification the issue is smaller. Orwellian perception.
Is Visionics the Future? ACLU in January 2002 noted: • "Face recognition is all hype and no action," Barry Steinhardt, associate director of the ACLU, said in a statement. "Potentially powerful surveillance systems like face recognition need to be examined closely before they are deployed, and the first question to ask is whether the system will actually improve our safety. The experience of the Tampa Police Department confirms that this technology doesnt deliver."
Is Visionics the Future? Conclusions • Commodity level implementation still 2 to 3 years away. • Government is the big driver. • Smartcards, ID Cards, Mobile, Credit Card are some of the new Driver Enablers
Visionics Personal Thanks and Appreciation for the Encouragement provided by these leading companies: • Symbol Technologies • NCR Corporation • Visionics • Wincor Nixdorf
Visionics Thank You For More Information• Visit Kiosks.org Association at www.kiosks.org/smi• The UK Biometrics Working Group, Biometric Product Testing, Final Report. At http://www.cesg.gov.uk/technology/biometrics/media/Biometric%20Test%20Report%20pt1.pdf• Biometric Market Report 2000-2005, http://www.biometricgroup.com/e/biometric_market_report.htm• Visionics Corporation http://www.visionics.com/faceit/apps/auth.html• Neusciences - Biometrics http://www.neusciences.com/Biometrics/applications.htm• Miros http://www.miros.com/• Advanced Biometrics Inc. http://www.livegrip.com/• Iridian http://www.iridiantech.com/• The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Human ID at a Distance http://www.darpa.mil/ito/research/hid/
Visionics - Addendum Craig Keefner is the Executive Director of Kiosks.org Association. The Association is worldwide and includes both vendors and users/deployers. It’s mission is to identify and promote the interests of companies engaged in the electronic, self-service kiosk industry. Working committees include: Marketing and Public Relations, Best Practices, Technology and Standards, Government Relations, Research and Statistics, Advertising and Developing Markets. The President of the Association is Mr.. Richard Rommel of Eastman Kodak and the Chairman is Mr.. Richard Good of NetWorld Alliance. Members include: NCR Corporation, Symbol Technologies, Wincor-Nixdorf, IBM, Compaq, Intel, Eastman Kodak, MEI, Netshift, Eurocoin, ePOINT and many many others. For more information or to join: go online at www.kiosks.org/join or call 1-866- 240-1318. You can email us at email@example.comThis presentation delivered February 6, 2002 at The Hatton for Kiosks 2002