hypothyroidism---deficiency of thyroid hormones and manifested by
slowing of all body functions.
t3 & t4 for energy metabolism, critical for nervous, skeletal, reproductive
hormone calcitonin for calcium metabolism.
the hormone molecules have much iodine in structure
infants/children symptoms---dwarfism and metal retardation, thick tongue
weight gain, puffy face, low pitch voice.
can happen with or without goiter.
adult symptoms----apathy,bradycardia, depression
thyroid hormone likely MOA----hormone binds to cell surface, allows
increased uptake of glucose and amino acids.
Hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis (Graves disease)
tissues are exposed to excessive secretion of thyroid hormones.
pathogenesis---Likely genetic defect in suppressor T lymphocytes
yields antibody that stimulate thyroid cell.
maybe caused by excessive iodine intake, tumor, thyroid nodules.
symptoms---decreased menses, diarrhea, exopthalmos, heat
intolerance, nervousness, perspiration, tachycardia, weight loss.
reactions---fever, sore throat, unusual bleeding/bruising, headache,
hyperthyroid agents interfere with thyroid hormone production
HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
estrogen replacement therapy---
estrogens include estradiol, estrone, estriol.
deficiency yields vaginal mucosa atrophy, insomnia, irritability,
estrogen responsible for puberty changes, menses, blood and
skin structure, decrease rate of bone resorption, intestinal
absorption, blood coagulation, libido.
reactions----postmenopausal bleeding, nausea, breast
progesterone is precursor to estrogens,
androgens, adrenocortical steroids.
made from cholesterol in ovary, testis, adrenal.
responsible for endometrium maturation.also
glycogen storage, increase body temperature,
increased response to CO2 ventilation,
depressant/hypnotic brain effects.
MOA---inhibit lutenizing hormone by negative
feedback on anterior pituitary.
reactions----weight gain, depression, fatigue, acne.
normally a combination of progestin and estrogen.
MOA---supresses FSH and LH. inhibit of pituitary function, this
inhibits ovulation and changes cervical mucus, endometrium.
yields less chance for fertilization or implantation.
FSH for follicle growth. LH for ovulation and keeps
corpus luteum making estrogen and progesterone.
reactions--increased heart attack, strokes, thromboembolic
problems, depression, nausea, weight gain, breast tenderness.
consider---antibiotics may reduce contractive effectiveness.