THYROID HORMONES
hypothyroidism---deficiency of thyroid hormones and manifested by
slowing of all body functions.
t3--trii...
HYPOTHYROID AGENTS
levothyroxine--Synthyroid
liothyronine---Cytomel
liotrix--Thyrolar
thyroid--Armour thyroid
indications-...
Hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis (Graves disease)
tissues are exposed to excessive secretion of thyroid hormones.
pathogenes...
HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
estrogen replacement therapy---
estrogens include estradiol, estrone, estriol.
deficiency yiel...
PROGESTINS
progesterone is precursor to estrogens,
androgens, adrenocortical steroids.
made from cholesterol in ovary, tes...
oral contraceptives
normally a combination of progestin and estrogen.
MOA---supresses FSH and LH. inhibit of pituitary fun...
oral contraceptives
examples--
ethinyl estradiol-drospirenone/Yasmin
ethinyl estradiol-etonogestrel/NuvaRing
ethinyl estra...
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Thyroid

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Thyroid

  1. 1. THYROID HORMONES hypothyroidism---deficiency of thyroid hormones and manifested by slowing of all body functions. t3--triiodothyronine t4--tetraiodothyronine’thyroxine’ t3 & t4 for energy metabolism, critical for nervous, skeletal, reproductive tissues. hormone calcitonin for calcium metabolism. the hormone molecules have much iodine in structure infants/children symptoms---dwarfism and metal retardation, thick tongue weight gain, puffy face, low pitch voice. can happen with or without goiter. adult symptoms----apathy,bradycardia, depression thyroid hormone likely MOA----hormone binds to cell surface, allows increased uptake of glucose and amino acids.
  2. 2. HYPOTHYROID AGENTS levothyroxine--Synthyroid liothyronine---Cytomel liotrix--Thyrolar thyroid--Armour thyroid indications----thyroid replacement therapy reactions----cardiotoxicity and hyperthyroidism consider----do TSH tests. levothyroxine injection quickly after reconstitution.
  3. 3. Hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis (Graves disease) tissues are exposed to excessive secretion of thyroid hormones. pathogenesis---Likely genetic defect in suppressor T lymphocytes yields antibody that stimulate thyroid cell. maybe caused by excessive iodine intake, tumor, thyroid nodules. symptoms---decreased menses, diarrhea, exopthalmos, heat intolerance, nervousness, perspiration, tachycardia, weight loss. reactions---fever, sore throat, unusual bleeding/bruising, headache, malaise hyperthyroid agents interfere with thyroid hormone production methimazole/Tapazole propylthiouracil/(propylthiouracil)=PTU radioactive iodine or thyroidectomy
  4. 4. HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY estrogen replacement therapy--- estrogens include estradiol, estrone, estriol. deficiency yields vaginal mucosa atrophy, insomnia, irritability, mood changes. estrogen responsible for puberty changes, menses, blood and skin structure, decrease rate of bone resorption, intestinal absorption, blood coagulation, libido. reactions----postmenopausal bleeding, nausea, breast tenderness, weight gain,headache examples: conjugated estrogen/Premarin estradiol-levonorgestal/Climara estradiol-norethindrone/Activella ethinyl estradiol/Estinyl estradiol-norgestimate/ortho-Prefest
  5. 5. PROGESTINS progesterone is precursor to estrogens, androgens, adrenocortical steroids. made from cholesterol in ovary, testis, adrenal. responsible for endometrium maturation.also glycogen storage, increase body temperature, increased response to CO2 ventilation, depressant/hypnotic brain effects. indications----menstrual dysfunction,contraception MOA---inhibit lutenizing hormone by negative feedback on anterior pituitary. reactions----weight gain, depression, fatigue, acne. examples: levonorgestrel/Norplant medroxyprogesterone/Provera norethindrone/Micronor
  6. 6. oral contraceptives normally a combination of progestin and estrogen. MOA---supresses FSH and LH. inhibit of pituitary function, this inhibits ovulation and changes cervical mucus, endometrium. yields less chance for fertilization or implantation. FSH for follicle growth. LH for ovulation and keeps corpus luteum making estrogen and progesterone. reactions--increased heart attack, strokes, thromboembolic problems, depression, nausea, weight gain, breast tenderness. consider---antibiotics may reduce contractive effectiveness.
  7. 7. oral contraceptives examples-- ethinyl estradiol-drospirenone/Yasmin ethinyl estradiol-etonogestrel/NuvaRing ethinyl estradiol-norelgestromin/Ortho Evra ethinyl estradiol-norgestimate/Ortho tricyclen ethinyl estradiol-ethynodiol/Demulen levonogestrel/Plan B medroxyprogesterone/DepoProvera levonorgestrel/Norplant(not in US)

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