Respiratorysystem14
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  • 1. Take a deep breath and relax!
  • 2.    This is your lungs and air passage. gives O2 to blood and removes CO2 from blood Respiratory=pulmunary=pneumatic=air!!!
  • 3.         The parts that make up respiratory system: Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi bronchioles Alveoli
  • 4.     This is the process of breathing- inspire, expire Inspired air follows the pathway to the lungs and O2 exchange with CO2---happens through the alveoli Expire-air is forced from the lungs Respiration is controlled by the medulla oblongata- so if there is too much CO2- the patient will increase respirations to blow it off.
  • 5. Boyles law  Boyles law states that the volume of gas is inversely proportion to the pressure applied to it.
  • 6. Boyles law  So when the thoracic cavity expands, the pressure of the air within the lungs drops below atmospheric pressure; air will flow down the gradient from the outside into the lungs in a process referred to as inhalation. Exhalation results from the reduction of thoracic cavity and lung volume, the increase in intrapulmonary pressure, and the movement of air down its gradient from inside the lungs to the outside
  • 7. Boyles law    I know after the last slide you are thinking blarty blarty blar…. Here is an example: When you put a needle in a vein to draw a blood sample, you pull back on the plunger. This decreases the pressure in the syringe and increases to volume. So, blood flows into the syringe to compensate for the change.
  • 8.    Well…. The air passes in through the nasal cavity where it is warmed and humidified by vascular tissue. Guard hairs in the nasal cavity filter out large particles, and goblet cells make the mucous to trap smaller particles- known as boogers!
  • 9.  In the uppermost portion of the nasal cavity you will find the olfactory nerve. This is your sniffer! It contains olfactory neurons that can respond to odors (like your gym shoes and flowers and puppy breath)
  • 10.     Pharynx- it is made up of 3 parts: A. Nasopharynx from the nasal cavity B. oropharynx from the oral cavity C. laryngopharynx leads to the esophagus and trachea branches in front. Larynx goes to the respiratory system and is covered by the epiglottis –a fleshy cap that covers the larynx so you don’t choke when drinking.
  • 11.     Okay, the larynx also has- La LA LA- vocal cords. From the larynx the air enters the trachea. The esophagus is behind the trachea Both have ciliated epithelium- little hairs that push the mucous toward the larygopharynx = loogey! Spit it out or swallow.
  • 12.      The trachea branches into the right and left primary bronchi This leads to the lungs. So it branches from primary bronchi to secondary bronchi to tertiary bronchi This branches to bronchioles These terminate into tiny alveoli- the little grape clusters
  • 13.      This is where O2 and CO2 exchange All alveolar sacs are surrounded by loads of tiny capillary beds. They have one cell layer to allow gas to get through. That is where external respiration takes place Alveolar cells secrete surfactant to keep lungs moist and juicy. Gases dissolve into the surfactant
  • 14.       Hypercapnic acidosis(increased co2)- in diseases like: Asthma CHF- congestive heart failure Emphysema COPD- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Hypercapnic acidosis increases the CO2 levels in the blood and a decreased ph balance of the body
  • 15.     Acid range for the human body lies between 7.35 and 7.45. water is about pH 7. Acid= battery,lemon base=baking soda,bleach Below 7.35 becomes too acid Below 7.45 becomes too alkaline or basic
  • 16.    Body’s pH is too acidic – below 7.35, and CO2 will be too high on labs. Patient will breath rapidly to try to blow off CO2. If the respiratory system is unable to compensate, the patient may stop breathing. Too much CO2 decrease the need to breath, can paralyze respiratory muscles.
  • 17.   When the alveoli of the lungs are damaged by disease like emphysema from smoking, they become stiff, and unable to dump off CO2. this would lead to an acidotic state. Air in the room has 21% O2, nitrogen 78%, 1%other
  • 18.  Respiratory alkalosis- this happens when the body rises above 7.45. usually an event happens that causes the person to breath rapidly or hyperventilate. As a result they blow off too much CO2, and will usually pass out at which time the body resumes normal breathing.
  • 19.      ABG= arterial blood gas Ph- normal is 7.35 to 7.45 CO2- normal is 35-45mmHg HCO3- 22-26 this is basic bicarbonate These can all be run on an ABG lab- arterial blood gas- needs to be drawn by a respiratory therapist, from an arteryOOOOuch!
  • 20.     In an asthma “attack” the bronchioles spasm The inner lining of the lungs swells or has edema This causes mucous production. This causes dyspnea- difficult breathing
  • 21.      Signs and symptoms: High pitched wheeze Dry or wet cough Chest pain If severe enough cyanosis
  • 22.      What can I do? If patient has a rescue inhaler, administer 2 puffs. Puffs can be given up to 2 puffs three times 15 minutes apart If this does not help, go to the hospital If the patient is too hot, loosen clothing, hydrate, put cold towel on the back of the neck If the attack is due to an allergy, like to cats, remove them from the area. If they can have a Benadryl administer 1 tab.
  • 23.       COPD- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease=this is a catch-all for any chronic lung disease that results in obstruction of the airway. This includes: Asthma Emphysema Chronic bronchitis tuberculosis
  • 24.  Smoking is usually the main cause, but constant irritants, allergies, infection, and recurring chronic respiratory infections can be the root of COPD
  • 25.    This is considered COPD, but is not infectious. The alveoli lose there elasticity CO2 stays trapped in the alveoli so O2 does not have room to groove. These people will be hypercapnic- too acid.
  • 26.          Signs and symptomsDyspnea Feels like suffocating Chest pain Barrel chest Chronic cough Rapid breathing- to get the CO2 out Cyanosis Can lead to respiratory collapse- acute respiratory failure ARF
  • 27.   So what can I do? There is no cure, but bronchodilators, treatment of infections, O2 therapy, and try to not smoke
  • 28.     Three types: Small cell Squamous cell adenocarcinoma
  • 29.    Small cell ‘oat cell’ carcinoma of the lung is very malignant. starts in bronchi. Treatment must begin quickly life span is limited. Smoking is a main cause for this type of cancer
  • 30.   Squamous cell carcinoma-usually will start in the epithelial cells of the bronchi branches. This may result after years of cell damage from smoking- happens more in men and women. Once it becomes cancerous, it usually in-situ. It can become metastatic throughout the years if not treated, but not as much as small cell.
  • 31.   Adenocarcinoma- this is the most common type of lung cancer among people under age 45. this cancer starts in the outer part of the lungs. One type in increasing among women- it is thought that the addition of filters to cigarettes has allowed people to inhale smoke more deeply, and adenocarcinoma starts in the outer part of the lungs.
  • 32.    Treatment- if the cancer is in situ—’precancer’, surgery may be required to remove the portion of the lung that is affected. Bronchoscope- a small tube run in through the nose or mouth through the airway. If the obstruction is small enough, in can be removed. If the cancer is metastatic, chemotherapy of radiation treatments may be required.
  • 33.   This is an inherited disease of the lungs and digestive system A defective gene and it’s protein product produces unusually thick sticky mucous that: a. Clogs the lungs and leads to lifethreatening infections b. Clogs the pancreas and keeps the body’s natural enzymes that break down food.
  • 34.    Children who had CF in the 1950’s did not usually live to elementary school age. Now people live to 30-40 sometimes beyond. It depends on where they are most effected, lungs or digestive system.
  • 35.       very salty-tasting skin; persistent coughing, at times with phlegm; frequent lung infections; wheezing or shortness of breath; poor growth/weight loss in spite of a good appetite; and frequent greasy, bulky stools or difficulty in bowel movements
  • 36.       There is no cure Therapy consists of initiating a strong cough to clear the mucous from the lungs and airway. Vibration vest Nutritional support and enzymes taken for the digestive system Insulin for pancreatic function Bronchodilators to open airway