MUSCLE= latin ‘musculus’=little mouse

Are you strong enough?




Skeletal muscle makes up about 40% of the
mass of the average human body. Muscles
are the engine that propels the bo...





Main function is to:
Produce heat
Produce movement
Maintain posture


Muscles are made of elastic fibers. These
fibers are like a rubber band that lengthens
and shortens. The thick and thin...




Thick filaments are made of protein called
myosin.
Thin filaments are made of another protein
called actin.





Muscles cannot push- they can only pull.
Even when you push against a wall, each
muscle in your body is working by...


There are over 600 muscles that make up the
muscular fibers that are held together by
connective tissue
Properties or characteristics of muscles Excitability- ability to respond to a nerve
impulse
 Contractibility- muscle fi...
Main types of muscles:
 1. cardiac
 2. visceral-smooth muscles
 3. skeletal- striated
Can be described as voluntary and...





CardiacThese muscles form the walls of the heart
Contract to circulate blood
Involuntary- function without us thi...


Cardiac muscle is involuntary striated
muscle. huge number of mitochondria per
cell to make energy.
visceral or smooth Found in the internal organs of the body such
as the digestive system, respiratory system,
blood vesse...






Smooth muscle is found in your airway,
digestive system, blood vessels and in
females the uterus.
Smooth muscle c...
Skeletal or striated Attach to bones
 Cause body movement
 Voluntary- person has control over their
actions
How muscles attach to bone:
1.Tendons- strong tough connective tissue
cord
2. fascia- tough sheet-like membrane that
hold ...
Actions of the muscles:
 Adduction- moving a body part toward the
midline
 Abduction- moving a body part away from
the m...
Actions or movement continued:
 Rotation- turning a body part around it’s
own axis- like turning the head side to side
 ...
Actions continued:
Supination- a rotation of the arm or foot in
which the hand can face up and foot tipped
to the outer ed...




Major muscles of the body:
Refer to page 127 in the book:
Fill in worksheet on the major muscles of the
body








Terms related to muscle:
Edema- swelling
Hypertrophy of the muscle- increased muscle
mass
Atrophy- decreased...


ROM- range of motion- ability to move the
muscle and joint through a full rotation/
extension/flexion smoothly, and wit...









Active isotonic- patient is able to move area
by themselves without assistance
Active-assistive- patient can...


fibromyalgia is a chronic condition
characterized by widespread pain in your
muscles, ligaments and tendons, as well as...




Muscular dystrophy- this is an inherited
disease that leads to chronic muscle atrophy.
It appears in early childhood...






Signs and symptoms of MD vary according
to the type of muscular dystrophy. In
general, muscular dystrophy sympto...




Myasthenia gravis- a chronic condition where
nerve impulses are not properly transmitted
through the muscle. This le...









Myasthenia gravis cont.Symptoms are:
Difficulty talking, swallowing, choking
Drooping head and eyes
Drool...




Rhabdomyosarcoma- tumor of the muscle
tissue. This is rare, but prognosis is usually
poor. It metastasizes early and...






Strain- is an overstretching or injury to a
muscle and or tendon. Prolonged or sudden
muscle exertion is usually ...
think on this


where is your smallest muscle?

what is the longest muscle?
http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/movies/actin_myosin_g...






Are small and not striated
They are made up of thick and thin filaments
They have intermediate filaments that cr...
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muscles HST

  1. 1. MUSCLE= latin ‘musculus’=little mouse Are you strong enough?
  2. 2.   Skeletal muscle makes up about 40% of the mass of the average human body. Muscles are the engine that propels the body. They turn energy into motion and efficient at turning fuel into motion. They are long lasting, self healing and grow stronger with practice.
  3. 3.     Main function is to: Produce heat Produce movement Maintain posture
  4. 4.  Muscles are made of elastic fibers. These fibers are like a rubber band that lengthens and shortens. The thick and thin filaments do the actual work of a muscle. A muscle contraction occurs when these fibers generate tension through the action of actin and myosin cross-bridging. This process describes the sliding of myosin and actin filaments over each other.
  5. 5.   Thick filaments are made of protein called myosin. Thin filaments are made of another protein called actin.
  6. 6.    Muscles cannot push- they can only pull. Even when you push against a wall, each muscle in your body is working by pulling. When the muscles relax they stop pulling and your arm and another muscle straightens it.
  7. 7.  There are over 600 muscles that make up the muscular fibers that are held together by connective tissue
  8. 8. Properties or characteristics of muscles Excitability- ability to respond to a nerve impulse  Contractibility- muscle fibers that are stimulated by nerves- they contract or become short and thick  Extensibility- ability to be stretched  Elasticity- allows the muscle to return to its original shape after it has contracted or stretched
  9. 9. Main types of muscles:  1. cardiac  2. visceral-smooth muscles  3. skeletal- striated Can be described as voluntary and involuntary
  10. 10.     CardiacThese muscles form the walls of the heart Contract to circulate blood Involuntary- function without us thinking about it
  11. 11.  Cardiac muscle is involuntary striated muscle. huge number of mitochondria per cell to make energy.
  12. 12. visceral or smooth Found in the internal organs of the body such as the digestive system, respiratory system, blood vessels and the eyes  These contract to cause movement in these systems  Involuntary function without conscious control
  13. 13.    Smooth muscle is found in your airway, digestive system, blood vessels and in females the uterus. Smooth muscle can stretch and maintain tension for long periods of time. It contracts involuntarily without you thinking about it.
  14. 14. Skeletal or striated Attach to bones  Cause body movement  Voluntary- person has control over their actions
  15. 15. How muscles attach to bone: 1.Tendons- strong tough connective tissue cord 2. fascia- tough sheet-like membrane that hold muscles together,covers and protects tissue 3. Origin and insertion- when muscle attaches to bone one section becomes the origin (which does not move) and one end is the insertion (the end that moves when the muscle contracts) 
  16. 16. Actions of the muscles:  Adduction- moving a body part toward the midline  Abduction- moving a body part away from the midline  Flexion- decreasing the angle between 2 bones or bending a body part  Extension- increasing the angle between 2 bones or straightening a body part
  17. 17. Actions or movement continued:  Rotation- turning a body part around it’s own axis- like turning the head side to side  Circumduction- moving in a circle at a joint moving one end of a body part in a circle while the other end stays stationary- like swinging the arm in a circle Seed question- which joints circumduct and which joints rotate?
  18. 18. Actions continued: Supination- a rotation of the arm or foot in which the hand can face up and foot tipped to the outer edge Pronation- when hand faces down and the foot flattens out so that the arch strikes the ground.
  19. 19.    Major muscles of the body: Refer to page 127 in the book: Fill in worksheet on the major muscles of the body
  20. 20.       Terms related to muscle: Edema- swelling Hypertrophy of the muscle- increased muscle mass Atrophy- decreased muscle mass Contracture- muscle shortening Fasciculation- involuntary muscle movement
  21. 21.  ROM- range of motion- ability to move the muscle and joint through a full rotation/ extension/flexion smoothly, and without pain or difficulty.
  22. 22.      Active isotonic- patient is able to move area by themselves without assistance Active-assistive- patient can do some, but will need some help, or can assist self Passive- patient can not do activity independently Static- isometric- patient can tense muscle without moving joint Resistive- strength building
  23. 23.  fibromyalgia is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain in your muscles, ligaments and tendons, as well as fatigue and multiple tender points — places on your body where slight pressure causes pain.
  24. 24.   Muscular dystrophy- this is an inherited disease that leads to chronic muscle atrophy. It appears in early childhood and most types result in severe disability and early death due to fat tissue replacing the muscle fibers effecting cardiac muscle. There is no cure, but physical therapy can slow the progression
  25. 25.     Signs and symptoms of MD vary according to the type of muscular dystrophy. In general, muscular dystrophy symptoms may include: Muscle weakness Apparent lack of coordination Progressive crippling, resulting in fixations (contractures) of the muscles around your joints and loss of mobility
  26. 26.   Myasthenia gravis- a chronic condition where nerve impulses are not properly transmitted through the muscle. This leads to weakness and paralysis. Any effort gives extreme fatigue. If the condition affects the respiratory muscles it can lead to respiratory failure and death.
  27. 27.         Myasthenia gravis cont.Symptoms are: Difficulty talking, swallowing, choking Drooping head and eyes Drooling Difficult breathing Muscle function better after rest Difficulty lifting objects
  28. 28.   Rhabdomyosarcoma- tumor of the muscle tissue. This is rare, but prognosis is usually poor. It metastasizes early and leads to advanced malignancy quickly. Muscle spasm- can occur in the legs and feet due to overexertion, low electrolyte levels or poor circulation
  29. 29.    Strain- is an overstretching or injury to a muscle and or tendon. Prolonged or sudden muscle exertion is usually the cause. Usually symptoms are edema, limited movement and pain. Treatment is rest, muscle relaxant, pain medication, elevate the extremity and alternate hot and cold applications.
  30. 30. think on this  where is your smallest muscle? what is the longest muscle? http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/movies/actin_myosin_gif.html
  31. 31.     Are small and not striated They are made up of thick and thin filaments They have intermediate filaments that cross like fish-net stockings Intermediate filaments slide across thin filaments and draw the muscle up in all directions

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