Bloodborne pathogens

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  • OSHA requires annual training for employees who are at occupational risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens Texas public schools are not required to follow OSHA standards however we are dedicated to provide the best for our employees and our students. Purpose of the regulation is to protect employees against exposure to bloodborne diseases which could lead to disease or death
  • Remember that other body fluids can also carry diseases
  • Airborne: coughs, sneezes germs into the air. Can become infected when germs come in contact with eyes, nose, mouth, respiratory passages. Colds, flu, measles, TB Direct/Indirect: Skin to skin or skin to mucous membrane contact. If you kiss someone with mono, your mouth comes into direct contact with the person’s saliva. Drinking out of a glass after the person infected with mono, indirectly coming into contact with their saliva. Boils, athletes foot, wound infections Waterborne: germs are carried in water. Cholera Foodborne: Carried in contaminated food. Salmonella Fecal/Oral: germs are shed in the infected person’s stool. Poor hygiene and improper handwashing. Hepatitis A, E. Coli Bloodborne: spread through specific and close contact with another person’s infected body fluids. Not spread through food or water. Hep B & C, HIV, syphilis, malaria
  • Unprotected sexual contact most common mode of transmission Sharing dirty needles drug use body piercing tattooing Perinatal from pregnant mother to infant Blood transfusion most rare mode of transmission
  • In a school setting, what are the specific ways that a person could be infected with bloodborne diseases? In order to become infected three things must occur 1. A person must be infected with a bloodborne disease 2. There must be a portal of exit from the infected person 3. There must be a portal of entry into a susceptible individual
  • However, there are other bloodborne diseases that could also pose a risk to you
  • Hepatitis viruses are not all spread the same way Symptoms may be the same but only blood tests can identify the type of virus Hepatitis A much more prevalent than hepatitis B
  • Location of gloves and spill kits Fanny packs for playground duty Glove demonstration
  • Handling Sharps Never bend or break needles Discard in leak-proof, puncture-proof container, labeled with biohazard symbol Never throw sharps container in regular trash; must be handled by biomedicaL waste hauler Only designated employees who have received bloodborne pathogens training should handle or dispose of contaminated articles Sharps from biology or art classes are not considered biohazard unless they are contaminated with body fluids They should be disposed in puncture proof container to protect custodians
  • Definition: This is defined as any accidental contact with any body fluids that occur at work to any employee


  • 1. Why am I Here Today? To learn about against exposure to bloodborne diseases in my rotations.
  • 2. Bloodborne Pathogen Definition Bloodborne: carried in blood Pathogens: microbes that cause disease Bloodborne Pathogens: germs carried in the blood
  • 3. Occupational Risk Factors First aid, nurse, ect Cleaning body fluid spills Monitoring altercations
  • 4. Communicable Disease Transmission Airborne- through the air Direct/Indirect- direct contact, or you touched a surface Waterborne Food borne- from food Fecal / Oral Bloodborne- blood or body secretions
  • 5. Personal Risk Factors Unprotected sexual contact Sharing used needles drug use razors body piercing toothbrushes tattooing Perinatal- can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy
  • 6. Unlikely Sources of Contamination Feces Urine Vomit Nasal Secretions Sputum Sweat Tears Saliva
  • 7. You Cannot become Infected with these bloodborne viruses through Casual Contact Coughing Sneezing A kiss on the cheek Hugging or shaking hands Drinking fountains Food
  • 8. Three Things Necessary 1. Person must be infected 2. Port of exit 1. Port of entry
  • 9. Occupational Risk Factors Contact with infectious body fluids to broken skin Contact with infectious body fluids to mucous membranes Puncture wounds with used needles
  • 10. Primary Bloodborne Diseases Hepatitis B(HBV) Hepatitis C(HCV) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • 11. H - human I - immunodeficiency V - virus A - acquired I - immuno D - deficiency S - syndrome
  • 12. HIV/ AIDS transmission facts Attacks the immune system 1cc of blood 300-10,000 viral particles Dies when fluid dries tale antiretroviral meds within 3 days after exposure No vaccine No cure Recovery Rare HIV is the virus that leads to AIDS HIV depletes the T cells which allows easy infection. HIV does not survive well outside the body No threat on contracting HIV through casual contact
  • 13. Those nasty viruses DNA or RNA in protein protective coating very small. 100 times smaller than bacteria cant reproduce on its own, needs a host. uses your cells machinery to make copies of itself until cell dies then off to another cell
  • 14. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the Liver Types of Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis A--feels like flu with jaundice, found in stool that can get into food/water. vaccination available. mostly happens overseas, 3rd world. Hepatitis B--incubates several months then itchy, aches, jaundice, maybe liver cirrosis. blood or body fluid transfer. vaccinate. usual recovery unless very young age. Hepatitis C--no vaccine. initially asymptomatic then chronic, may need transplant. humans and chimps only. very small virus. blood to blood transfer.
  • 15. HBV Symptoms- Hep B May or may not exhibit symptoms May be unaware they are contagious Flu-like symptoms – fatigue, weight loss, fever, diarrhea May require hospitalization Blood and other body fluids are infected
  • 16. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Unprotected sex & sharing needles Strong virus can live up to one week outside of the body likely recover when acute--only meds if goes chronic 1cc of blood contains 100,000,000 viral particles Treatment (No Cure)
  • 17. Those who should be tested for HBV, HIV, HCV People with multiple sex partners People with an infected steady partner Anyone post needle stick
  • 18. Hepatitis B Vaccination Three injections over 6 months Booster doses are not recommended. 80 - 95% effective after series is completed
  • 19. Hepatitis B Vaccination Most Common Side Effect Slight soreness at the injection site (17%) More serious reactions may occur in 1% of vaccinations given
  • 20. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Most common bloodborne infection in US More concentrated than HIV Most people have no symptoms but may get HAV HBV symptoms. need blood test to verify. No Vaccine No effective post-exposure prophylaxis Treatment effective in 15 - 30 % with interferon 85% develop chronic infection Leading indication for liver transplants
  • 21. short discussion: tell your neighbor the difference of HIV, hep B Hep C
  • 22. Standard Precautions An approach to infection control where all human body fluids of all persons are treated as if known to be infectious for communicable diseases
  • 23. Personal Protective Equipment Gloves- demonstration disposable utility Goggles Gowns
  • 24. Use of Disposable Gloves Think about what you touch while your wearing them! Properly dispose of contaminated gloves in the trash. Wash hands after using them. Waterless hand cleaner as temporary measure only.
  • 25. Handwashing THE SINGLE MOST EFFECTIVE BARRIER TO PREVENT THE TRANSFER OF GERMS is to use soap and running water. Scrub for at least 30 seconds, rinse well, dry with paper towel (use to turn off faucet)
  • 26. Types of Waste Found in School Setting Sharps containers Regulated waste Contaminated but not regulated
  • 27. Exposure Incident a specific eye, mouth , other mucous membrane, non- intact skin, or parenteral (contaminated needles and sharp instruments), contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that results from the performance of an employee’s duties.
  • 28. Exposure Incident How they occur in the hospital environment Personal protective equipment failure Equipment may not be readily available Employee may not know how to use equipment Employee may choose not to use equipment Failure of protective equipment
  • 29. What Should I Do If I Have An Accidental Contact With Body Fluids? Wash area thoroughly with soap and warm water Contact Mrs. Hoffman or Dr. Pate immediately!!!! Report to supervisor
  • 30. table buddy talk your buddy cant figure out how to explain a virus. but you can… so explain it
  • 31. Quiz ---- true or false Blood is the single most important source of HIV, HBV and HCV in the work place. People infected with HBV do recover There are vaccines to prevent HBV
  • 32. HBV, HCV, and HIV spread most easily through contact with contaminated blood. You can be exposed to BBP at work if blood or other infectious material contacts your broken skin or mucous membranes. Feces, urine & vomit can put you at risk of exposure to BBP whether or not they contain visible blood.
  • 33. You need to wash your hands after removing gloves only when you touched the contaminated side of the a glove. Hand washing is your main protection against the spread of infection HBV can survive in dried blood on surfaces for at least one week Universal Precautions were developed to prevent the transmission of BBP when providing first aid and health care.
  • 34. Always use a pocket mask or other respiratory device when you have to resuscitate someone in an emergency. It is not advisable to encourage victims to administer their own first aid. An athlete who is injured and bleeding should stop play immediately and have the wound cleaned and bandaged before returning to game Most exposures to blood result in infection
  • 35. exit ticket write on the index card….. something that is scary or interesting you learned about these viruses.