Antibiotics
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Antibiotics

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Antibiotics Antibiotics Presentation Transcript

  • ANTIBIOTICS Sulfonamides(sulfa drugs): are bacteriostatic(stops microbe reproduction) MOA: microbes need PABA to make adenine/guanine (DNA). Sulfa drugs look like PABA and get used instead. Indications: UTI, respiratory infection Reactions: allergies, easy sunburn, kidney damage Considerations: Avoid sunlight, drink more water Examples: Bactrim silvadene
  • ANTIBIOTICS-penicillins The ‘miracle drug’ of WW2. Penicillium mold killed staphylococci plate. MOA: drug will bind to cell wall and blocks cell wall formation yields lysis. Indications: abcess, meningitis, pneumonia, respiratory infection Reactions: anaphylaxis, rash, diarrhea Considerations: take with water, avoid cokes/food, can interfere with birth control pills Examples: Amoxil Ampicillin bactocill
  • ANTIBIOTICS-cephalosporins  cephalosporium fungus killed staph. aureus  MOA: drug will bind to cell wall and blocks cell wall formation yields lysis.  Indications: URI, sinus infection, surgeries,meningitis  Reactions: anaphylaxis, rash, diarrhea, easy bleeding  Considerations: avoid if allergic to penicillin, diarrheas, can interfere with birth control pills  Examples:  keflex  omnicef  suprax
  • monobactams/carbapenems  B-lactam ring(cyclic amine) MOA: drug will bind to cell wall and blocks cell wall formation yields lysis. Kills gram negative bacteria. adverse reaction---like penicillin…possible increased seizures example--azactram/aztreonam carbapenems MOA: drug will bind to cell wall and blocks cell wall formation yields lysis. Kills gram pos and negative bacteria. example---impenem/primaxin
  • tetracyclines  MOA--inhibit protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes,prevents adding new amino acids  indications---acne,bronchitis,walking pneumonia, Lyme disease  adverse reactions---GI issues,sunlight issues  considerations---avoid with dairy, dental birth defects, expired may cause death, avoid under 9yoa  4 hydrocarbon rings  examples----tetracycline/achromycin  doxycycline/monodox
  • macrolides  MOA--inhibit protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes,prevents adding new amino acids  kills gram positive  indications---clamydia, pulmonary infection  adverse reactions---GI issues, liver  considerations--take with food  examples----erythromycins  azithromycin/zithromax  clarithromycin/biaxin
  • ketolides  MOA--inhibit protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes at 2 sites,prevents adding new amino acids  derived from eryhtromycin structure change  indications---lung/sinus infection  adverse reactions---blurred vision and GI issues, liver  only telithromycin/ketek available in US
  • quinolones  block baterial DNA synthesis  kills gram neg and positive  indications---bone/joint infection, URI, UTI  adverse reactions---GI issues, dizziness, joint swelling  considerations--avoid antacid, tendon damage, avoid if pregnant  examples----  ciprofloxacin/cipro  levofloxacin/lavaquin
  • streptogramins  inhibits protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes  kills gram neg and positive  indications---MRSA  adverse reactions---GI issues, dizziness, joint swelling,site reaction  considerations---must not contact saline, refrigerate  examples----  quinupristin-dalfopristin combo /synercid
  • aminoglycosides  inhibits protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes  indications---sepsis, life threatening infection  adverse reactions---nephrotoxic, ototoxic, tinnitus,deafness  considerations---adjust doses examples----  neomycin/mycifradin  streptomycin/streptomycin  tobracycin/nebcin